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tion of phosphoric acid, and large proportions of the alkalies,

379



34 CHEMICAL REPORT.

potash, and soda, which aid in giving to them a very durable
fertility. The proportions of alumina and iron oxide, of humus,
&c., are such as characterize our richest soils.

PHOSPHATIC LAYERS IN THE LOWER SILURIAN LIMESTONE OF FAYETTE COUNTY.

In volume IV, new series, of Reports of the Geological
Survey of Kentucky, on pages 65 and 66, mention is made
and the analysis given, of a specimen of phosphatic limestone
extraordinarily rich in phosphoric acid. As the quarry from
which it came was not then in use, and the face of it had been
covered by fallen earth, the correctness of the statement of
the quarryman, to the effect that a layer of similar material
was sometimes as much as a foot in thickness in this quarry,
could not at that time be easily tested.

Other specimens of rock of similar external qualities, from
the neighborhood of this quarry, were examined ; and when
the quarry was again opened and worked for turnpike mate-
rial, in the autumn of 1877, a more complete examination was
.made by the writer, the results of which are given below.

No. 200 r " PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE, a layer in the Lower Silu-
rian ' Blue Limestone ' formation ; taken from a sJialloiv well
at the Wine House at Winton, farm of Robert Peter, about
six and a half miles north from Lexington, on the Newtoivn
Turnpike. Collected by R. Peter."

In thin fissile layers, of a dark olive-slate color, between the
harder, greyish-blue, more crystalline limestone layers. It
contains many minute fossils, especially spiral shells.

No. 2002 "PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE, from a quarry en the farm
of John Keiser, on the north side of the Newtown Turnpike,
about six miles from Lexington. Collected by R. Peter."
Sample taken from the roadside, where it had been placed

for turnpike purposes. It is of a dull, bluish-slate color, and

is quite fissile. It does not contain so many small fossils as

the next preceding.

380



CHEMICAL REPORT. 35

COMPOSITION OF THESE PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 200 1.


No. 2OO2.




78 040




Magnesia carbonate .. ..


2 112


7 121




A. on


8.7l6


Phosphoric acid


2 623


I 462


Silicious residue .....


98oi


'I 784.




3OO7


3271








Total


IOO OOO


ICO OOO









No. 2003 "PHOSPHATIC LIMESTONE, from the same quarry, on
the nortliwest side of tJie Neivtown Turnpike, about three miles
north of Lexington, from which the very rich specimen was
taken described on pages 65 and 66 of the $th volume, new
series, of Kentucky Geological Reports. Collected by Robert
Pet err

Taken from irregular layers, about one foot in thickness,
near the base of the quarry, say from four to six feet below
the surface of the rock, which is covered with about four feet
of earth, on the ridge or hill in which the quarry is located.
These layers are of a dark-grey color, of various thickness,
mixed more or less with lighter-grey crystalline layers. The
dark-grey portion adheres strongly to the tongue, absorbs
water freely; it is quite tough in the mass, but somewhat
friable in the small fragments, and contains small organic re-
mains, principally fragments of brachiopod shells, some small
gasteropods, and occasionally fragments of trilobite crusts.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.
Lime carbonate 49.160



Magnesia carbonate .

Phosphates, with alumina, iron oxide, &c. .

Silicious residue. . .

Organic matters and loss



.090

46.540 Containing 21.018 phosphoric acid.
2.820
1.390



Total ................ 100. ooo



As it was evident, from the analyses already made, that the
phosphoric acid was quite irregularly diffused throughout these
irregular layers, eleven several samples were selected from
portions of this phosphatic layer which had been quarried and



56 CHEMICAL REPORT.

hauled out to be broken up for the turnpike, described as fol-
lows, viz :

No. 2004 SPECIMEN la. A somewhat crystalline layer,
about one and three quarters inch thick, of a dull bluish-grey
color; attached to layer id, which was darker colored (lead
colored), more dull, and less crystalline than la.

SPECIMEN 2 is probably a continuation of r.

SPECIMEN 3, probably a continuation of the same combined
layer, contained a portion of a trilobite shield, which was not
included in the portion analyzed.

SPECIMEN 4. A thin layer, weathered of a light buff color.

SPECIMEN 5. A dark bluish-grey or lead-colored layer; like
id, coarse granular, and dull.

SPECIMEN 6a. The dark grey unweathered portion of a
layer which was weathered on one surface to a grey-buff
color, showing the minute whorled univalve fossil shells very
distinctly.

SPECIMEN 6b. The buff, weathered portion of this layer.

SPECIMEN 7. A thin layer weathered on the two surfaces;
moderately dark grey in the interior ; more dense than speci-
men i ; contains the minute univalve fossils.

8. A thin crystalline layer, of a light grey color, with not
much appearance of fossil remains.

9. A coarser-grained layer, containing fossil remains ; some-
what crystalline, and partly weathered.

These eleven samples were severally treated for the deter-
mination of phosphoric acid alone. One gramme of each,
dried at 212 F., was digested in nitric acid with a little chlor-
hydric, and then, after evaporation to dryness, the residue was
digested for some hours in nitric acid, diluted and filtered.
The phosphoric acid was then determined by a careful use of
the molybdic acid process, and the results obtained were as
follows, viz :
382



CHEMICAL REPORT. 37

PERCENTAGE OF PHOSPHORIC ACID IN THESE ELEVEN SAMPLES.

In sample la contained 7.931 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample \b contained 19.183 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 2 contained 17.973 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 3 contained 11.501 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 4 contained 21.940 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 5 contained 18.421 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 6 contained 20.021 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 66 contained 11.705 per cent, of phosphoric acid

In sample 7 contained 16.502 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 8 contained 5.053 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

In sample 9 contained 13.6.24 per cent, of phosphoric acid.

It will be seen that the maximum proportion, that in No. 4,
is 21.940 per cent. ; the minimum, in No. 8, is 5.053 per cent.,
and the general average proportion 15.896 per cent.

The greatly varying proportions of this ingredient, within
small limits, point to a very irregular local origin.

Frequently the phosphoric acicl of the ancient limestone
layers is traceable to the brachiopod and other shells and
fossils which they contain. In order to ascertain how much
of it in the specimens examined is attributable to this source,
the specimens described below were collected and analyzed,
viz:
No. 2005 " FOSSIL SHELLS, mostly Orthis testudinaria, from

Lower Silurian limestone layers. Farm of R. Peter, about

seven 'miles north of Lexington, near Elk horn creek."

No. 2006 " FOSSIL BRANCHING CHCETETES, from the same

locality. Collected by R. Peter."

Specimen 2005 yielded only 1.317 per cent, of phosphoric
acid, and contained 11.04 P er cent, of silicious matter.

Specimen 2006 gave only 0.294 per cent, of phosphoric acid,
and 6.16 per cent, of silicious matters.

Evidently there must have been some other source of the
abundant phosphates of these layers than the shells of the
mollusca, or the corals. Possibly they may have been accu-
mulated by some process of segregation ; possibly they may
be due to the fortuitous presence of some of the large ani-
mals of the ancient seas, which, subsisting on the more sim-
ple forms of organic life, may have left their excretions and

exuviae in these localities.

t

383



38 CHEMICAL REPORT.

However this may be, while the examination of these layers
of our limestone develops an unexpected richness in phos-
phates, their too irregular distribution amongst the poorer
layers may make their special application to the manufacture
of fertilizers too practically expensive or precarious.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.

No. 2007 " POTTER'S CLAY, from a bed several feet in thickness ;
in the bottom land, in what is supposed to be an old preJiistoric
channel of the Kentucky river, half a mile north of Frank-
fort. Collected by Jno. R. Procter."

The specimen is part of an unburnt vessel made of the clay
at the pottery. The clay is of a grey-drab or neutral tint ; it
contains some very small specks of mica and of ferruginous
matter. It calcines of a very light brick color. Fuses before
the blow-pipe.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.



Silica


69 T.CO




21 780


Lime carbonate


,i?8


Magnesia


771


Phosphoric acid


060


Potash


2 7C I




ec




C 4-JC






Total


I OO COO







Ten grammes of the clay, dried at the common tempera-
ture, washed quickly with water, gave 2.45 grammes vi fine
sand, containing some larger, rounded quartz grains.

This clay, while fitted for the manufacture of ordinary pot-
tery ware, is not sufficiently refractory to be used as a fire-
clay.

GRANT COUNTY.

In an investigation made by Mr. C. J. Norwood of the char-
acter of the subsoils, under-clays, and other earthy material,
excavated in making some of the deep cuts on the line of the
Cincinnati Southern Railroad in this county, the samples de-
scribed below were collected by him, and sent to the Chemical
Laboratory for analysis.
384



CHEMICAL REPORT. 39

No. 2008 " MATERIAL, from just below the top soil, extending
in tliickness from eighteen inches to two feet, down to the sur-
face of the material claimed to be "Hard Pan" next below
described, at section 29, in tJie cut at station 295 on the C, S.
R. R."

Quite a tough clayey material, generally of a fight grey-buff
color when dry, mottled with light grey, and penetrated in all
directions with what appear to have been vegetable rootlets,
now mainly decomposed, and of a deep manganese oxide color.

No. 2009 " MATERIAL, claimed to be ' Hard Pan' beginning at
two feet below the surface and extending to the bed-rock."
Rather more tough than the preceding, which it resembles
in color, except that it has more of the light grey mottling
and less of the manganese-like infiltrations. The bolting-
cloth separated, from the silicious residue of these two under-
clays, only a very few quartz grains.

No. 20 1 o -"Top SOIL, from an old Jield owned by the heirs of
Richard Dickerson. Section 30, cut at station 337 on the C.
S. R. R."
Dried soil of a light grey-brown color; friable.

No. 20 1 1 " SOIL, from just below the top soil, from the same

locality as the next preceding" &c., &c.

This dried subsoil, of a firmer, more clayey consistence than
the preceding, is of a nearly uniform grey-buff color, mottled
somewhat with light bluish-grey, and with some manganese
oxide-like infiltrations.

No. 201 2 " SUBSOIL, from the same locality as the two preceding,
from just below the next preceding, to the depth of two feet.
A clayey subsoil, grey-buff, mottled with light bluish-grey,
with some dark colored manganese oxide infiltrations. Very
much like 2008 and 2009, but not so tough as these.

385



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 2013 " SUBSOIL OR UNDER-CLAY, seven inches thick, from
the same locality, and immediately below the next preceding, ' '
&c.

Resembles the next preceding, but shows more manganese
infiltrations, with some small spheroidal concretions of the
same, forming blackish spots.

No. 2014 " SUBSOIL OR UNDER-CLAY, from the same locality,
one foot thick, lying immediately below the next preceding. ' '
This is a very tough clay-like material, darker in color than
the next preceding ; of an ochreous greyish-brown tint, with
some little mottlings of bluish-grey, and some manganese-like
infiltrations.

No. 2015 " SUBSOIL OR UNDER-CLAY, from the same locality,
one foot thick, lying just below the next preceding, and imme-
diately above the bed-rock."

This is also quite a tough material, showing more mottling
with bluish-grey clay than the preceding, and some manganese
infiltrations, and containing some small calcareous nodules.

The bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residues of
all these six subsoils or under-clays a considerable proportion
of dull, angular fragments of what appeared to be hard sili-
cates, which had not been decomposed by the acids in which
they had been digested in the process of analysis.

COMPOSITION OF THESE EIGHT GRANT COUNTY SOILS, SUBSOILS, &c.,

DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 2008


No. 2009


No. 2010.


No 201 1


No. 2OI2.


No. 2013.


No. 2014


No. 2015.


Alumina and iron and manganese


i 3 . 849


12.675


6.847


9- T 99


11.672


12 . 564


15.237


24 . 465




1.420


1.465


.200


.190


.165


.225


2.290


9.425




.513


.600


.420


.420


39 8


.609


383


.286




.636


435


.188


.086


.188


.236


.823


.589


Potash


.Q.12


.780


.568


156


579


.250


1.124


.669




.082


.617


.317


.368


. 104


.246


.019


.245


Water and organic matters lost on












5.600


4.950




Sand and insoluble silicates . . .


77.640


?8 965


86.165


85.460


82 . 490


80.115


75.240


59.940


Total








99.979




99.854


100.066


100.044




















Hygroscopic moisture


5-710


5-95


2.750


3.400


3-825


5 95


6-575


5-25


Potash in the insoluble silicates .
Soda in the insoluble silicates . .


2.524
499


2.511
1.214


1.687
.388


1.958
.260


1-533
.638


2.004

397


2.410
.407


2.703
.265


Character of the sample




Under-


Soil.




Under-


Under-


Under-


Under-






day.






day.


day.


day.





386



CHEMICAL REPORT. 4!

Subsoils 2008 and 2009, from the same locality, resemble
each other, nearly, in chemical composition ; their great tough-
ness, mainly due, no doubt, to their large proportions of
alumina, may be partly owing to their peculiar mode of
aggregation. Their composition, with the exception of the
absence of any notable quantity of humus, is that of our rich-
est soils ; but their physical condition is no doubt unfavorable
to fertility. These, as well as the six other samples, were
doubtless derived mainly from the so-called "mudstone" strata
of the Lower Silurian formation. In these latter samples a
regular increase, in the proportion of the aluminous materials,
may be observed, as the depth from the surface increases,
indicating probably the influence of the infiltration of surface
waters. In nearly all of these clays there are large propor-
tions of phosphoric acid and potash.

Other similar samples, collected by Mr. Charles J. Nor-
wood, from the deep cuts of this railroad in Grant county, are
described below, as follows :

No. 2016 " SUBSOIL, tzventy-one inches thick, just below tJie top
soil, which is one foot thick. In front of Mrs. Mary Rens-
laer s house. Section 33. Second cut from the north end of
the C. S. R. R., Grant county."

Dried subsoil in yellowish-brown, somewhat friable clods.
Some little mixture of light ash-grey material observable in it.
The bolting-cloth removed, from its silicious residue, a con-
siderable proportion of soft granules of partly decomposed
silicates, but no silicious particles.

No. 2017 " UNDER-CLAY, from the same locality, eighteen inches
thick, lying immediately under the preceding subsoil, and ex-
tending down to the underlying limestone," &c.
This resembles the preceding generally, in color, but is
much more tough, and has some dark ferruginous or man-
ganese discolorations, and a little more of the light colored
material.

The silicious residue also contains a large proportion of
soft, partly decomposed silicate granules.

387



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 2018 "SURFACE SOIL, to tJie depth of fifteen inches. Sec-
tion 34. Second cut from the south end, C. S. R. 7?.," &c.
A friable earth of a light grey-umber color, containing a few

dark concretions. The silicious residue all passed through the

bolting-cloth, except a few soft granules of partly decomposed

silicates.

No. 2019 " SUBSOIL, from the same locality as the last, nineteen

inches thick, next below the surface soil," &c.

A somewhat friable subsoil, having a more ferruginous tint
than the preceding, and showing some dark colored infiltra-
tions. Silicious residue like the preceding.
No. 2020 " UNDER-CLAY, one foot thick, same locality as the

preceding,''' &c.

A somewhat tough clay. Mottled, with light grey- ferrugi-
nous of various tints, and nearly black infiltrated manganese
oxide. Silicious residue like the preceding.
No. 202 1 "UNDER-CLAY, eighteen inches thick, just below the

preceding," &c., &c.

A tough clay ; mottled like the preceding.
No. 202 2 "UNDER-CLAY, two feet thick, on the bed rock, same

locality as the preceding" &c., &c.

Mottled like the preceding. Some parts of it compact and
laminated. Contains occasional fragments of limestone and
sandstone. Silicious residue like the preceding.

COMPOSITION OF THESE SOILS, SUBSOILS, &c., DRIED AT 212 F.





No 2016.


No. 2017.


No. 2018


No. 2019


No. 2020.


No. 2021.


No. 2022.


Alumina and iron and manganese


17.502
1.115
I 5 I
473
.809


2 7-353
4-555
.266
457
1-585


9-54^
575
.312

345

587


IO.222

.290
.266

3'3
.150


18.593

275
.402

393
.611
.165

6.290
73-575


*5.437
1.225

.679

473
.809
.066

6.085
75.890


11.792
8.240
.824

793
1.778

359

4.290
71.924


Lime carbonate


Magnesia


Phosphoric acid


Potash


Soda . . . ."


Water and organic matters lost on
ignition


S-3 6 5
75.090


4-675
60.967


S.67S
83-79


3.780
84.890


Sand and insoluble silicates
Total


100.557


99.983


100.824


99.911


100. 304


100.664


100.000




Hygroscopic moisture . ..'....


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est


not est.


Potash in the insoluble silicates. . .
Soda in the insoluble silicates. . . .


1-542
.297


1.487

.212


1.679
S'o


1.881
552


1.489
.486


2.428
376


2.423
.324


Character of the sample


Subsoil.


Under-

c'-.iy.


Surface
soil.


Subsoil.


Under-
clay.


Unrler-
clay.


Under-
clay.



388



CHEMICAL REPORT. 43

These seven soils, subsoils, and fender-clays present a gen-
eral resemblance, in composition as well as in physical char-
acter, to the eight described above. The same remark will
apply to the six remaining samples described below, from
section No. 35, on the same railroad.

No. 2023 " TOP SOIL to about one foot in depth, from the cut at
the north end in section 35, on the Cincinnati Southern Rail-
road, Grant county. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
The dried soil is in friable clods of a dirty drab color, mot-
tled with yellowish and ferruginous. The silicious residue,
left after digestion of the soil in acids, all passed through the
bolting-cloth, except many soft, whitish, rounded grains of
partly decomposed silicates.

No. 2024 " SUBSOIL, twenty-one inches thick, immediately below

the top soil, from the same locality, ' ' &c.

Dried subsoil in friable lumps ; mottled with light grey and
ferruginous of different tints. Silicious residue like that of

o

the preceding.

No. 2025 "UNDER-CLAY, two feet thick y lying just under the

preceding. Same locality," &c., &c.

A tough clay, mostly of an ochreous yellow color, mottled
with grey-ferruginous, with some nearly black infiltrations of
manganese oxide.

No. 2026 " UNDER-CLAY, eight inches thick, just under the next

preceding. Same locality,'' 1 fc., &c.

Dried clay not quite so tough as the next preceding; of
rather a lighter yellowish color; mottled like that, but with
less of the dark colored material. Silicious residue like that
of the preceding.

No. 2027 "UNDER-CLAY, six inches thick, just below the next

preceding. Same locality" &c., &c.

Dried clay in rather friable lumps, generally of a light yel-
lowish brown color, mottled with light ochreous yellow. Sili-
cious residue resembling that of the preceding.

389



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 2028 " UNDER-CLAY, twenty-six inches tJiick, just under the
next preceding, lying on the limestone bed rock, and in some
places seeming to replace the bed rock. Same locality as the
preceding," &c., &c.

Dried clay in rather tough clods, of a brownish yellow color,
much mottled with dark brownish ferruginous. Silicious resi-
due like that of the preceding.

COMPOSITION OF THESE SIX GRANT COUNTY SOILS, SUBSOILS, AND
UNDER-CLAYS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 2023.


No. 2024.


No. 2025.


No. 2026.


No. 2027.


No. 2028.


Alumina and iron and manganese oxides. . . .


7.225


9.852
39


16.827
1.640


14.492

2.315


21. 124


23.100




. y>i


447


.645


.609


.420


.223




.185


.358


358


358


.361


.505


Potash .


.738


.282


213


.760


.2IO


534


Soda ....






337




.308




Water and organic matters lost on ignition . . .


4.650
87 065


3-940
84.760


5.400


4-45

7 7 44


5-025

68. 515


5.850
66.390
















Total


100.636


100.029


100.460


100.424


100.268


100.242


















not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.
















Potash in the insoluble silicates


i. 812


1.673


1. 103


2.851


2.700


2.865






.677






.378


449
















Character of the sample


Top soil.


Subsoil.


Under-


Under-


Under-


Under-








day.


clay.


day.





The general remarks on the first and second groups of these
samples will apply equally well to these.

GRAYSON COUNTY.

No. 2029 "VIRGIN SOIL, to the depth of about eight inches;

from Grayson Springs, about four hundred yards west of the

railroad. On the Leitchfield marl. Chester Group. Native

forest growth, mostly white oak. Yield: of corn, 25 to 40

bushels; of wheat, 12 to 15 bushels; of tobacco, 800 to 1,000

pounds per acre. Good for clover and grasses. Collected by

John H. Talbutt."

Dried soil, somewhat cloddy, of a light buff-grey color.

The silicious residue all passed through the bolting-cloth.

390



CHEMICAL REPORT.



45



No. 2030 " SUBSOIL of the preceding, taken to the depth of three

feet. Collected by Jo /in H. Talbutt"

The dried subsoil is of a dirty orange-grey color. The
silicious residue, after digestion in acids, all passed through
the bolting-cloth.

COMPOSITION OF THESE SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 2029.


No. 2030.




1 . 27Q


2. S34.




"?.oo6


4.781




.020


,O4.<


Magnesia . . . .


.007


.o6l




. 144.


. i<;q




not est.


not est.


Potash


. 160


. IOO




.268


. IO2


Water, expelled at 380 F .


.506


.48-?




01.861;


QI .4QO








Total


QQ. ^Q^


QQ. 77 c








Hygroscopic moisture


I 2OO


I . ^7^










O.Q27


1.198




. 262


2S4










Virgin soil.


Subsoil.









These soils, of average natural fertility, would require the
application of lime or marl, with phosphatic and alkaline fer-
tilizers, to enable them to maintain, indefinitely, a high degree
of productiveness. Judicious rotation of crops, including the
sufficient use of ameliorating clover or grass crops, to be
grazed or plowed in, together with barn-yard manure, might
keep them in good condition for quite a long period, without
the application of any outside fertilizers, especially if the pro-
ducts were consumed upon the farm ; but when these are ex-
ported a gradual deterioration must result in all soils, unless
the essential mineral ingredients carried off in the products
are in some manner restored.



4 6



CHEMICAL REPORT.



GREENUP COUNTY.

C^ALS.

No. 2031 " COAL, from Cane Creek Mines, New opening in
the No. 3 Coal, near Hunnewell Furnace. Average sample
No. I ; sent by Mr. H. W. Bates, Vice President of the Eastern
Kentucky Railway Company."
A fine-looking coal, pitch black, breaking into thin laminae,

with no apparent pyrites, and some fibrous coal.

No. 2032 "CoAL. Average sample No. 2; taken from about
one hundred yards from the place of the preceding sample.
Same locality'' &c., &c.
Coal not quite so bright as the preceding sample. Some

granular pyrites apparent between the laminae.

No. 2033 " COAL. Average sample No. 3 ; from the same local-
ity as the two preceding ; taken about one hundred yards distant



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