from tJie others."
Resembles the last sample, but has no apparent granular
pyrites. Some fibrous coal between the laminae.
COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY COALS, AIR-DRIED.
I . 74. <<
I . 74.4.
Volatile combustible matters
Total volatile matters
Carbon in the coke ................
S7 . 70
s.s 1 ;
Character of the coke
Percentage of sulphur
CHEMICAL REPORT. 47
Considerable local differences may be observed, in the rel-
ative proportions of ash and sulphur, in these samples from
the same coal bed. They are all good coals of the variety
"splint," or " semi cannel," to which the celebrated "block
coal" of Indiana belongs.
No. 2034 " VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of Gov. Jno. /,. Helm,
one mile north of Elizabethtown, Hardin county. Forest
groivth : beech, hickory, and oaks. Geological formation: St.
Louis limestone. Collected by the Rev. H. Hertzer."
The dried soil is of a light yellowish-grey umber or dark
drab color. The clods are friable. The coarse sieve removed
from it a small quantity of ferruginous gravel. The silicious
residue, after digestion in acids, all passed through the bolting-
cloth, except a small quantity of fine quartz sand and a few
particles of partly decomposed silicates.
No. 2035 "SURFACE SOIL, zvhich has been in cultivation for 1
sixty years. From the same locality as the preceding soil.
Average crops : 35 to 45 bushels of corn ; 12 bushels of wheat,
&c. This farm is considered a poor and worn out one. De-
cayed rock six to eight feet. Collected by Rev. H. Hertzer"
The dried soil is of a dirty-buff color ; the clods quite firm.
The coarse sieve separated from it a small quantity of ferru-
ginous gravel. The silicious residue left on the bolting-cloth
some fine quartz sand of various colors, and some grains of
partly decomposed silicates.
No. 2036 " SUBSOIL of the two preceding soils" &c., &c.
This dried subsoil is of a handsome deep orange buff color,
-its clods are quite firm. The coarse sieve removed from it
about five per cent, of rounded ferruginous gravel. The sili-
cious residue resembled that of the two preceding samples.
VOL. I.-CHEM. 20. 393
48 CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION OF THESE THREE HARDIN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Organic and volatile matters
2 3 CO
. 21 C
. I IQ
Water, expelled at 380 F
80 . I 40
Se. . coo
Total . .
I . e IO
Potash in the insoluble silicates
Soda in the insoluble silicates
The greatest apparent deficiency in these soils is of the
phosphoric acid ; this is apparent even in the so-called virgin
soil. There can be little doubt that the use of top-dressings
of bone-dust, superphosphate, or guano would greatly in-
crease their fertility. Although the old field soil shows evi-
dence of the diminution of its essential mineral ingredients,
as well as of its organic and volatile matters, humus, it is by
no means to be considered "worn out." Judicious culture to
restore its humus, by means of clover or other green crops,
grazed and plowed in, with the use of phosphatic fertilizers,
&c., would soon restore its fertility, if the land is properly
No. 2037 " VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of J. IV. Fowler,
Colesburg, Hardin county. Forest growth: poplar, beech,
sugar- tree, white and black oaks, hickory, &c. Geological
formation : St. Louis Group. Blue calcareo-argillaceous
shales. Decomposed rock three to four feet. Collected by the
Rev. H. Hertzer"
This dried soil is of an umber-grey color. The coarse
CHEMICAL REPORT. 49
sieve separated from it 4.31 per cent, of rounded fragments
of silicic-ferruginous concretions or sandstone, with a little
chert. The bolting-cloth removed from the silicious residue,
after the usual digestion in acids, some small particles of
partly decomposed silicates, and a portion of a very small
No. 2038 "SURFACE SOIL, thirty-four years in cultivation.
From the same farm as the preceding soil, &c. , &c. Aver-
age crops: of corn, 35 bushels; wheat, 16 bushels; oats, 15
to 20 bushels ; of hay, one and a half tons per acre. Collected
by Rev. H. Hertzer."
Dried soil of a lighter and more yellowish-grey color than
the preceding. The coarse sieve removed from it nearly
seven per cent, of rounded ferruginous sandstone gravel or
concretions, with some cherty fragments. The silicious res-
idue resembled that of the preceding soil.
No. 2039 " SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c., &c.
The dried subsoil resembles the next preceding soil in color.
The coarse sieve separated from it nearly nine per cent, of
angular cherty fragments, with some silicified portions of en-
crinital stems and ferruginous gravel. The bolting-cloth
removed from the silicious residue a few particles of partly
decomposed silicates, one or two small clear quartz grains,
and two fragments of minute silicified encrinital stems.
No. 2040 " VIRGIN SOIL, from the farm of Van Buren Van-
decraft, on MuldraugJi s Hill, at Colesb^lrg, Hardin county.
Forest growth : poplar, beech, white oak, chestnut oak, sugar-
tree. Geological formation : St. Louis Group. Decayed rock
one to two feet. Collected by Rev. H. Hertzer."
Dried soil of a light buff-grey color. The coarse sieve
removed from it 10.55 P er cent, of angular cherty fragments,
with some silicified encrinital stems and iron gravel. The
bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue a consider-
able proportion of partly decomposed silicate grains, some
resembling reddish felspar, with some minute silicified en-
trochi, and a few quartz grains.
No. 2041 "SURFACE SOIL, fifty years in cultivation. From
the same farm as the preceding soil. Average crop of corn,
twenty bushels. Collected by Rev. H. Hertzer. ' '
This dried soil is of a brownish salmon color. The coarse
sieve separated from it only a small proportion of iron gravel,
and a small rounded quartz pebble. The silicious residue
resembled that of the preceding soil.
No. 2042 " SUBSOIL of the next preceding soil" &c., &c.
The dried subsoil is of a handsome light brick red color.
It all passed through the coarse sieve. The bolting-cloth re-
moved from the silicious residue a considerable quantity of
partly decomposed silicate grains, which were easily crushed
under the finger, together with some blackish silicified por-
tions of encrinital stems, &c.
COMPOSITION OF THESE SIX HARDIN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides. . . .
not est .
Water expelled at 380 F
Total . .
Potash in the insoluble silicates
Soda in the insoluble silicates
Character of the soil
It is interesting to notice in these soils the changes in com-
position brought about by long cultivation without the use of
fertilizers. In the case of soils Nos. 2037 and 2038 the or-
ganic and volatile matters have been reduced from 9.185 to
5.400 per cent, by the thirty-four years of cultivation; the
CHEMICAL REPORT. 5!
lime carbonate from 1.350 to 0.625; the phosphoric acid from
0.203 to 0.172, and the potash from 0.595 to 0.279 per cent.,
while the percentage of sand and insoluble silicates is in-
creased from 77.915 to (83.090 per cent. In the soils Nos.
2040 and 2041 we find that the sixty years' cropping of the
latter have reduced some ot its essential ingredients in still
greater proportion. The organic matters, &c., are reduced
from 4.610 per cent, to 3 ,085 ; the lime carbonate from 0.390
to 0.290; the phosphoric acid from 0.102 to 0.038 per cent.,
the potash from 0.316 to 0.035 per cent., and the sand and
insoluble silicates are increased from 86.355 to 88.940 per
The first set of soils was evidently naturally the richer ; and
the relative present productiveness of the soil of the two old
fields corresponds nearly with their comparative richness or
poverty, as shown by their chemical composition ; for while
the soil No. 2038 produces thirty-five bushels of corn per acre,
soil No. 2041 yields only twenty bushels. This latter soil is
greatly in want of phosphatic fertilizers, as well as those con-
taining potash salts. There is no apparent reason why, by
the proper use of such fertilizers, barn-yard manure, and a
judicious system of rotation, with the cultivation of amelio-
rating green crops for grazing purposes and for plowing under,
these soils may not be brought to and maintained in a condi-
tion of profitable productiveness.
No. 2043 Some LEAD ORE (galena), mixed with zinc blende;
in a gangue of barium sulpJiate, whicJi included some angular
fragments of embedded limestone; was brought to tJie labora-
tory by Mr. JoJin R. Procter for analysis.
This ore, reported to be argentiferous, is found in a vein of
heavy spar, on the farm of the late Mr. Shawhan, one mile on
the Lexington side of Cynthiana, on the Kentucky Central
52 CHEMICAL REPORT.
The lead sulphide was disseminated, in rather small propor-
tion in the samples brought, throughout the gangue, and when
reduced in the usual way, and analyzed, both by the wet way
and by cupellation, it was not found to yield more than a trace
of silver, in a lead button weighing more than eight grammes,
obtained from thirty grammes of the galena: so that it evi-
dently could not be profitably worked for this precious metal.
The rather small proportion of lead ore seems also to preclude
the profitable operation of this mine for the baser metal.
No. 2044 " VIRGIN SOIL; surface soil to the depth of thirteen
inches ; from woods on tJie farm of Mr. A fills, near Nortons-
ville. Collected by John H. Talbutt" Forest growth gener-
ally oaks. Slope of the surface west-south. Sample taken
near the base of the hill, near a coal- shaft.
The dried soil is of a dark umber-grey color. The coarse
sieve removed from it a few small ferruginous concretions.
The bolting-cloth separated from the silicious residue, remain-
ing after the digestion in acids, 16.5 per cent, of the soil of
fine white sand, composed of rounded quartz grains.
No. 2045 " SUBSOIL of the preceding'' &c., &c.
The dried subsoil is in friable clods, of a brownish buff color.
It all passed through the coarse sieve. The bolting-cloth re-
moved from the silicious residue 10.50 per cent, of the soil
of fine white sand, like that of the preceding.
CHEMICAL REPORT. 53
COMPOSITION OF THESE HOPKINS COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
. 1 06
Water expelled at 380 F
QQ . 8q8
These must be classed amongst the naturally weak soils, es-
pecially because of their small proportion of lime and phosphoric
acid. These necessary ingredients can, however, be easily sup-
plied in bone-dust, superphosphate, or guano, which, with a
further supply of potash in some appropriate fertilizer, might
make this soil quite productive, especially if proper means be
used to increase the proportion of kuimis, organic and volatile
matters, which are also in too small proportion in this soil.
No. 2046 "BLACK BAND IRON ORE. On top of the thirty-four
inch coal. Coyle s Bank. Big Hill, Jackson county. Col-
lected by John R. Procter.
A dull, rusty-black ore ; ferruginous on the weathered sur-
faces ; shaly in structure. Some small reedy impressions be-
tween some of the irregular laminae. Some granular pyrites
54 CHEMICAL REPORT.
COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.
Iron carbonate 70.168, containing 33.875 iron.
Alumina and trace of manganese oxide 430
Lime carbonate . 930
Magnesia carbonate 2.898
Phosphoric acid 345 = .151 phosphorus.
Bituminous matters .... 18.540
Silicious residue 6.230, containing 4.960 silica.
If this ore is found in sufficient abundance, it may be smelted
with advantage, for the production of iron of a low grade for
ordinary purposes. Deducting the 18.54 per cent, of bitu-
minous matters, which will act in the smelting furnace like so
much fuel, the percentage of iron to the remainder is more
than forty-one and a half.
No. 2047 "MINERAL WATER. Salt sulphur water, from a
well fifteen feet deep ; in the Lozver Silurian blue limestone ;
on the farm of James Llewellyn, on the Russell 's Tavern turn-
pike, about two miles west of Nicholasville. Sample brought
by Mr. 13. M. Aruott" (Analyzed by my son, Alfred Mer-
edith Peter, under my supervision.)
The water, brought to the laboratory in a stone-ware jug,
corked and well sealed with wax, smelt strongly of hydrogen
sulphide, but was somewhat turbid with a dark grey precipitate
of iron sulphide, &c.
SUMMARY OF THE ANALYSIS MADE.
Carbonic acid gas, present but not estimated, because a part
had escaped. Hydrogen sulphide gas, the quantity yet re-
maining was 0.015 gramme per litre, equal to 0.109 grain or
0.3 cubic inch per wine pint. Of course much more is present
in the water at the well. The following named carbonates
were found in the water, they being held in solution by the
carbonic acid present, viz: lime, magnesia, iron and strontia
carbonates, making a total weight of 0.276 gramme per litre;
equal to 1.592 grains per wine pint of the water. (The litre
equals 1000 grammes.) In the water, which had been boiled
and had deposited these carbonates, the following ingredients
were found :
In 1000 parts.
In a wine pint of the
Magnesium chloride .
Organic matters . .
Total saline matters. ... .
4.882 per litre
35 585 grains in the
This is a very good salt sulphur water, resembling in its
general composition the waters of the Blue Lick Springs and
of Col. J. \V. Hunt Reynolds' well, near Frankfort, as well as
that of the salt sulphur well at the Olympian Springs, in Bath
The free hydrogen sulphide (sulphuretted hydrogen) and
the sodium sulphide are nearly in the same proportions as in
the Lower Blue Lick water; but the total saline matters are
only about half as much. The difference may be mainly in
the sodium chloride or common salt. These total saline mat-
ters, about five parts to the 1000 of the water, or about 55.5
grains to the wine pint, are nearly in the same amount as in
the salt sulphur water of the Olympian Springs ; but this
water contains larger proportions of sodium sulphide and iron
carbonate than that. It also is evidently somewhat stronger
in hydrogen sulphide than the Olympian water.
There can be no doubt that this salt sulphur water may be
beneficially employed, under judicious medical advice, in the
treatment of many cases of disease for which sulphur waters
are appropriate, especially as it is somewhat chalybeate when
taken fresh from the well. Like all other sulphur waters, it
soon decomposes when exposed freely to the air.
56 CHEMICAL REPORT.
A more complete analysis would be necessary to determine
the exact proportions of all its ingredients, requiring a visit to
the well, for the testing of the recent water, and the use of a
larger quantity of it at the laboratory.
No. 2048 MINERAL WATER. "Salt sulphur water, from a
spring in the Black Devonian shale, at tlie Cincinnati Soiith-
erti Railroad bridge over Green river ; at about the level of
the river ; discovered by excavating for a ' borrow pit' Sent
for examination by R. M. Bislwp, Esq. (iiow Governor of
Although the water had been brought in a rather loosely
stoppered bottle, it yet smelt and tasted strongly of compounds
of sulphur. It was slightly turbid from the spontaneous pre-
cipitation of sulphur and iron sulphide, and was of a slightly
yellowish tint, doubtless from the presence of sulphuretted
sulphides, the result of partial decomposition of the hydrogen
sulphide. Of course only a qualitative analysis could be made
with the small amount of water supplied, under the circum-
The water was found to contain carbonic acid and hydrogen
sulphide gases in considerable proportion. Held in solution
by the carbonic acid were carbonates of lime, magnesia, and
iron, and probably of strontia. It contains a large proportion
of sodium chloride (common salt), with magnesium chloride
and a trace of lithium chloride, besides a notable quantity of
lime, magnesia, and potash sulphates, and sodium sulphide.
It resembles, therefore, the Blue Lick water, but is much
stronger in total saline matters and probably in sodium sul-
phide. The total saline matters of the Lower Blue Lick
water amount to somewhat more than ten parts in the thou-
sand, while those of this water equal about nineteen to the
thousand of the water.
CHEMICAL REPORT. 57
If this spring proves to be a constant one, the water de-
serves a complete quantitative analysis, and it could no doubt
be made available as a remedial agent in many cases of dis-
No. 2049 " VIRGIN SOIL, from the bottom land of IVm. Mor-
ton, one mile north of Russellville, Logan county. Collected
by Rev. H. Hertzer. Geological formation, St. Louis lime-
stone. Forest growth: a natural canebrake, sycamore, elm,
wild cherry, burr oak," ' <5fc.
The dried soil is mostly in friable clods, of a yellowish, light
umber color. It contains no gravel. The silicious residue,
left after digestion in acids, all passed through bolting-cloth,
except a few particles of partly decomposed silicates and a
small quantity of small rounded quartz grains, mostly color-
No. 2050 " SUBSOIL to the bottom land above described" &c.
The dried subsoil is in clods, less friable than those of the
above surface soil ; of a light yellowish-brick color. It con-
tains no gravel. The bolting-cloth separated from the silicious
residue a considerable quantity of small rounded grains of
milky and transparent quartz, also much of partly decomposed
silicates in small, rounded, soft particles.
No. 2051 "SURFACE SOIL, in cultivation thirty years ; bottom
land ; from same farm as the two preceding. Average crops :
of corn, 30 bushels; wheat, 10 bushels; oats, 10 to 15 bushels
per acre. Collected by Rev. H. Hertzer."
Dried soil in pretty firm clods ; of a dark umber-buff color,
or light buff-umber. Clods mottled with light brick color.
The coarse sieve removed from it a very few small ferrugin-
ous quartzy particles. The silicious residue contained rather
more small quartz grains, and soft partly decomposed silicate
particles, than the preceding.
58 CHEMICAL REPORT.
No. 2052 "BLACK SOIL" (so-called); "non-productive; all
vegetables raised on it look sickly. Surface soil, from the
Edgetown stock farm of H. B. Tully, Russellville. Collected
by Rev. H. Hertzer"
The dried soil is in pretty firm clods, of a dark snuff-brown
color. It contains no gravel. The silicious residue all passed
through bolting-cloth, except a few small quartz grains, and a
considerable proportion of soft rounded particles of partly de-
No. 2053 " SUBSOIL, taken from a deptJi of six feet. From the
same locality as tJie next preceding. Collected by Rev. H.
"It is the richest virgin soil from the decomposition of the
St. Louis limestone, which rests underneath, partly decayed
to six feet in depth. This subsoil, mixed with the lighter sur-
face soil, makes very good bricks, and always enriches the
surface soil when properly plowed up. It is preferred for the
production of fine tobacco, characterized by broad silky leaves
and small stems or midribs. Forest growth, cedar and black
This dried subsoil is of a bright brick-red color. It is
somewhat cloddy. The coarse sieve removed from it some
few angular particles of partly decomposed chert. The sili-
cious residue all passed through the bolting-cloth, except a
few small rounded grains of transparent quartz, and a consid-
erable quantity of soft particles of partly decomposed silicates.
No. 2054 "SURFACE SOIL, in cultivation for about thirty years.
From the same locality as the preceding. Crops, generally of
corn, the average yield of which is thirty 6us/ie/s. Original
growth: black walnut, elm, wild cherry, red and post oaks.
Collected by Rev. H. Hertzer."
The dried soil is in friable clods of a light buff-umber color.
Contains no gravel. Silicious residue like that of the next
No. 2055 " SUBSOIL of the next preceding," &c., &c.
Dried subsoil of a light brick color, in pretty firm clods.
The coarse sieve separated from it a few particles of decom-
posing chert. The silicious residue is like that of the preced-
COMPOSITION OF THESE LOGAN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Organic and volatile matters ....
Alumina and iron and manganese
3-9 2 5
. 1 60
Water, expelled at 380 F
o ' 9
99 . 805
Potash in the insoluble silicates . . .
Soda in the insoluble silicates ....
The group of soils Nos. 2049, 2050, and 2051 are naturally
of average fertility, if they are sufficiently underdrained, with
the exception that the virgin surface soil appears to be rather
deficient in phosphoric acid and organic matters or humus.
The use of phosphatic fertilizers, and the cultivation of green
crops of clover or grasses to be grazed or plowed under, or
of barn-yard manure, would no doubt greatly increase their
productiveness. The surface could also be improved by a
gradual mixture of the heavier subsoil with the surface soil
during this process of amelioration.
The unproductiveness of the black soil seems to be partly