due to a deficiency of potash. Possibly, however, the land is
not sufficiently underdrained. If there is no want of drain-
age, the application of wood ashes, or other fertilizers con-
taining potash, would undoubtedly restore productiveness,
especially, as in other respects, this soil is not deficient in the
essential elements. The red subsoil of the same locality, No.
6O CHEMICAL REPORT.
2052, would no doubt answer the same purpose, because of
its considerable proportion of potash, which may account
for its favorable influence on the tobacco plant. Subsoils,
however, should generally be gradually mixed with the sur-
face soil, and accompanied by barn-yard manure, or some other
organic fertilizer, to supply humus.
The influence of the thirty years' cultivation on the soil of
the old fields is manifest in the reduction of the proportions
of potash, phosphoric acid, lime, &c., and the increased pro-
portion of the silicious material; as compared with the original
soil. The continued cultivation of hoed or plowed crops, such
as corn, for a long series of years, has a very deteriorating
effect upon the soil, not only because the single crop gener-
ally draws inordinately on one kind of mineral matter, -as, for
example, the corn makes a great demand on the phosphoric
acid of the soil, but also because the constantly exposed sur-
face is greatly subject to the washing action of the atmos-
pheric waters, which continually carry off its lighter and richer
ingredients, while its humus is more than usually removed by
the oxydating action of the air. A judicious rotation, in
which green crops, covering the soil for a time, undisturbed
by the plow, may protect the land from this washing and de-
composing influence of the atmospheric agencies, while they,
when grazed or plowed under, in whole or in part, may renew
the humus, and bring the mineral ingredients of the soil into
a soluble and available condition for the nourishment of inter-
mediate grain crops, or even of tobacco crops, would conduce
greatly to profitable farming, more especially if manures or
fertilizers are applied to the green crops. The tobacco plant,
which makes so heavy a demand on the soil for potash and
lime, as well as phosphoric acid, undoubtedly requires a sys-
tem of this kind for its continued or profitable cultivation.
No. 2056 " LIMONITE. Labeled iron ore, from Hall 's patch
drift, Lyon county. Centre Furnace. Collected by P. N.
Mostly in dense, hard, brown, irregular laminse, but contain-
ing a considerable proportion of red and yellow porous and
soft ochreous material.
No. 2057 " LIMONITE. Ore from Skillian Bank. Centre
Furnace ', Lyon county. Collected by P. N. Moore"
Mostly in dense, hard, dark-brown and blackish irregular
layers, with but little of softer, reddish, brownish and yellow
Other Centre Furnace iron ores may be found under Trigg
COMPOSITION OF THESE LYON COUNTY IRON ORES, DRIED AT 212 F.
These are evidently very good iron ores, more especially
No. 2056, which contains much the less of the injurious ingre-
dient, phosphorus, and which, consequently, would yield quite
a tough iron by judicious smelting.
62 CHEMICAL REPORT.
No. 2058 " COAL, from Marshall Morari s Bank, Big Hill.
Tkickness of the bed about tJiirty-fo2ir indies. Average sam-
ple by John R. Procter."
A sub-conglomerate coal. A firm, pure-looking splint coal.
Has some fibrous coal between the thin laminae, but very little
appearance of pyrites.
Vo& r til S ecombSstibl[e e matters. .' '. '. '. 3 |.J*} Total volatile matters ...... 40.10
f ^ ^ the u ke ' \ ..... 55 ' 77
Light yellowish-grey ash ..... 4. 13
Light spongy coke ...... ... 59.90 f the ke ' ..... 55 ' 77
The percentage of sulphur is only 0.749.
In volume IV of new series of these Reports, pages 109,
110, may be found the analyses of other samples of the coal
from this layer, exhibiting considerable differences in the rela-
tive proportions of sulphur, &c., &c. No doubt the present
sample is a better average sample than No. 1878, which ex-
hibits so much larger quantity of sulphur.
No. 2059 MINERAL WATER. "Sulphur water; from a well
owned by Dr. J. Reed ; bored seven hundred and fifty feet
deep ; begun in the Black Devonian shale, and probably pass-
ing into the Trenton limestone, near Paint Lick. Collected by
John R. Procter."
This water, brought to the laboratory in a corked bottle, had
of course lost most of its hydrogen sulphide by decomposition.
It yet smelt of this compound, and was of a slightly yellowish
tint, from the presence of a little sodium sulphide. It could
not be quantitatively analyzed, but the evaporation of a por-
tion of it showed that it contained a quantity of solid saline
matters equal to 0.2892 to the 1000 parts, or about two grains
to the wine pint. These were found, by testing, to consist of
carbonates of lime, magnesia, iron, &c., held in solution by
carbonic acid, and sulphates of magnesia, lime, and probably
of potash, with small quantities of chloride and sulphide of
sodium, &c. No doubt it is a good sulphur water, which de-
serves a complete analysis.
CHEMICAL REl'ORT. 63
No. 2060 "RED BUD SOIL, from the Coving ton farm, thirty-
four miles east of Lexington, half a mile back of Elliston,
Madison county. Collected by Mr. L. H. DeFriese."
"On the hill slope, nineteen degrees west, below the outcrop
of the magnesian limestone and black Devonian shale. Depth
of the surface soil, twelve to fifteen inches. Forest growth :
red oak, burr oak, honey and black locusts, white and black
walnuts, hickories, sycamore, maple, black, blue, and white
ash, &c. Yield: thirty to fifty bushels of corn, eight to fifteen
of wheat, fifteen to twenty of oats. No hemp raised, and but
The dried soil is of a brown-umber color. The coarse sieve
separated from it 1.14 per cent, of ferruginous and cherty
particles. The bolting-cloth removed, from its silicious res-
idue, a considerable portion of fine rounded quartzose grains,
mostly transparent, with a few dark colored particles of unde-
COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.
Organic and volatile matters.
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides
Water, expelled at 380 F
2 AJ C
Potash in the insoluble silicates
On reference to volume IV, first series of Reports of the
Kentucky Geological Survey, page 215, it will be seen that
this rich soil has undergone some deterioration since the
analyses there reported were made, about eighteen years
ago. According to the description of soil No. 1128, given
VOL. I.-CHKM. 27. 409
64 CHEMICAL REPORT.
on page 214, it was collected from the same place, or nearly
so, as the soil above described. Local differences, however,
may exist, making the comparison imperfect.
No. 2061 "SURFACE SOIL, to the depth of eight inches. From
the farm of L. M. Flournoy, three miles from Paducah. Ter-
tiary formation, &c. Forest growth : mostly oaks of various
species, with some hickories, &c. 77te corn crop averages
twenty-five to forty biishels per acre. It is good tobacco soil,
and considered average soil of the county. Some sandstone in
the ravines, and indications of iron ore ivithin half a mile.
Collected by John H. Talbutt"
The dried soil is of alight greyish-buff color; friable. The
coarse sieve removed from it only a few small fragments of
decomposing chert. The bolting-cloth separated, from its sili-
cious residue, only a few small particles of partly decomposed
No. 2062 " SUBSOIL of the next preceding" &c.
The dried subsoil is of a darker buff color, and the clods
are more adhesive than those of the above; they are mottled
with greyish and darker buff. It all passed through the coarse
sieve. Silicious residue like that of the preceding.
No. 2063 " UNDER-CLAY of the two preceding soils, &c. (Sand
beneath this}," &c.
The dried under-clay resembles the subsoil, but the clods
are more firm. All passed through the coarse sieve. The
bolting-cloth removed from the silicious residue a large pro-
portion of particles of partly decomposed silicates.
CHEMICAL REPORT. 65
COMPOSITION OF THESE McCRACKEN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Organic and volatile matters
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides
Water expelled at 380 F. . . .
Hygroscopic moisture ...
Potash in the insoluble silicates ....
I . 7OO
Soda in the insoluble silicates
Character of the soil ....
These soils, of average natural fertility, could no doubt be
greatly improved in productiveness by the use of top-dress-
ings of phosphatic fertilizers, such as bone-dust, superphos-
phate, or guano. The subsoil is richer than the surface,
especially in potash, and might be gradually plowed up and
mixed with it in cultivation with advantage. The manurial
products of the barn-yard and stables, both solid and liquid,
should be carefully husbanded and regularly used upon the
soil. There is no reason why a very high degree of product-
iveness may not be maintained on this soil by a judicious sys-
tem of farming, in the proper use of fertilizers, and a due
rotation of crops, if it is well drained.
No. 2064 "VIRGIN SURFACE Soil,, from the land of Mr. Mc-
Carty, Muldraugh, Meade county. Sample taken twenty
yards from the railroad, half a mile from the station. Under-
lying rock, buff and blue sandstone of the Waverly Group.
Collected by John H. Talbutt."
"Forest growth, white oaks, some trees five feet in diam-
eter; poplar (liriodendron), some eight feet in diameter; large
chestnut, beech, red oak, shellbark hickory, some sugar-tree,
&c. Average corn crop, twenty to thirty bushels."
Dried soil of a brownish umber-grey color. Clods some-
what adhesive. It all passed through the coarse sieve, except
some small angular fragments of weathered chert, and a little
shot iron ore. The bolting-cloth removed, from the silicious
residue, some rounded grains of quartz and of dark colored
No. 2065 " SUBSOIL to the preceding" &c., &c.
The dried subsoil is cloddy. Its general color is reddish
ferruginous, mottled with lighter colored and grey. It con-
tains fragments of weathered chert. The clods are quite
firm. The silicious residue contains a small quantity of small
rounded quartz grains.
No. 2066 " UNDER-CLAY below the two preceding'' &c., &c.
Clods quite adhesive. Generally of a handsome buff color,
mottled and infiltrated with red ferruginous. It contains a
considerable proportion of fragments of weathered chert.
COMPOSITION OF THESE MEADE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Organic and volatile matters .
1 1 . 604
Water, expelled at 380 F.
75- 82 5
99 . 800
Potash in the insoluble silicates .
Soda in the insoluble silicates. . . .
Character of the soil.
CHEMICAL REPORT. 67
These soils would be greatly improved by top-dressings of
lime or calcareous marl in considerable quantity. The sub-
soil and under-clay are quite rich in potash, and might be
gradually mixed with the upper soil during cultivation. The
small average crop of corn is probably due, in part, to the
paucity of lime in these soils.
No. 2067 "LIMESTONE, containing green sand or glaiiconite.
Sent by Mr. H. L. Tabler, of Harrodsburg, who says there
is a bed of it two feet thick near that place.
A dull, grey, fine-granular limestone, containing a large pro-
portion of small, rounded, bluish-green grains of what seems
to be green sand or glauconite, together with a considerable
proportion of bright, minute, cubical iron pyrites.
Some of the limestone, coarsely powdered, was digested in
a warm solution of ammonium nitrate, afterwards in weak
chlorhyclric acid, to remove the calcium carbonate. The res-
idue was then ignited to remove sulphur from the iron bi- sul-
phide, after which the iron proto-sulphide was separated by
means of a magnet.
The remaining green particles were fused with mixed alka-
lies, and analyzed, with the following result, viz :
58. I 20
Total . .
I OO . COO
The proportion of the green particles in the limestone was
not ascertained, but the whole material fused readily before
the blow-pipe, with intumescence, into a dark colored slag.
Some of the original limestone was also examined as to its
alkaline ingredients, and was found to yield: of potash, 3.372
68" CHEMICAL REPORT.
per cent. ; of soda, .319 per cent. ; so that there is little doubt
that the green particles are glauconite.
As to the probable economic uses of this green limestone
layer, little can be said. Some of it was calcined, in a pow-
dered state, and tested as to its availability in the manufacture
of hydraulic cement, but it was found not to harden in water.
Possibly calcination with more lime might develop this prop-
erty. It is possible, also, that careful calcination alone, or
with more lime, might make it available as an alkaline fertil-
No. 2068 " MINERAL WATER. Re-examination of the salt sul-
phur water of the celebrated Lower Bine Lick Spring."
About twenty-seven years have passed since the present
writer submitted this water to a quantitative chemical analysis,
the results of which, published at the time, are reproduced in
volume III of the first series of Reports of the Geological
Survey of Kentucky (see pages 361 to 368). Desiring to
ascertain whether any material change had occurred during
this lapse of time, in the general composition of this water,
and also to search for and determine some of its minuter
ingredients, not at that time sought for, a new examination
was made of it; Messrs. Hamilton, Gray & Co., of Maysville,
having kindly placed at the disposal of the writer a barrel of
the recent water.
The comparative results of the two analyses, made twenty-
seven years apart, show a remarkable resemblance, proving
that this celebrated water has not been sensibly weakened or
altered in composition during this period, as follows :
COMPOSITION IN looo MEASURED PARTS OF THE WATER.
Alumina, phosphate of lime and iron carbonate
. I eiq
Total saline matters in 1000 parts
The minuter ingredients discovered in this water, in this
more complete analysis, are compounds of lithium, barium,
strontium, and boron, as well as small quantities of sodium
sulphide and soda carbonate.
The two latter compounds, with the soda bi-borate, give a
slightly alkaline reaction to the water, and the sodium sulphide
gives it greater durability as a sulphur water than the hydro-
gen sulphide alone does. The notable proportion of soda
bi-borate doubtless adds to its medicinal virtues. As for the
compounds of barium and strontium, they are in so small pro-
portions, and probably in the nearly inert form of sulphates,
that it is doubtful whether any influence can be attributed to
them. It has not been fully determined whether the com-
pounds of lithium, in such small quantities as they are usually
found in mineral waters, exert any curative influence whatever;
but doubtless these, as well as the other minute ingredients,
are not without effect in this complex solution. Practical ex-
perience alone in the use of such waters must determine these
No. 2069 "CLAY IRONSTONE, from Wm. Downs 1 'Iron Moun-
tain? Rough creek, above Hartford, near the base of the coal
measures. Second bed, three to six inches thick. Collected bv
C. J. Norwood"
A compact, fine granular, dark-grey ore. Not adhering to
the tongue. Exterior thinly incrusted with limonite.
No. 2070 " CLAY IRONSTONE. From the same locality. Third
ore bed. Composed of two layers, with a thin clay parting,
measuring from three to four and tzvo to four indies, severally.
Collected by C. J. Norwood.
Resembles the preceding.
No. 2071 " CLAY IRONSTONE. From the same locality. Fourth
ore bed. Six inches thick. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
Resembles the preceding, but has more exterior limonite.
COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAY IRONSTONES, DRIED AT 212 F.
60 . 1 1 7
Iron peroxide .
4.. 4, TO
Silica and insoluble silicates
1 1 480
Percentage of iron
Percentage of phosphorus
While these claystone ores could not be made to compete
with limonite ores of favorable composition in the production
of the best tough iron, they may yet be made available, in the
vicinity of abundant cheap fuel and limestone, for the produc-
tion of cheap iron for many uses. Of course the preliminary
of roasting these ores will be necessary.
No. 2072 "LIMESTONE, under Coal A, Bens Lick Hill. On
the hill above Brown s Coal Bank, three miles southwest from
Hartford, Ohio county. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
A compact or fine granular fossiliferous limestone, of a dirty
grey color, presenting a somewhat brecciated appearance in
parts, with ferruginous stains in the veins.
No. 2073 "LIMESTONE, ferritginous, below Coal D, on Rough
creek, mouth of Brush creek, three miles below Hartford. Col-
lected by C. f. Norwood.'" ( Will it serve for cement?}
A compact or very fine-grained limestone. Interior gen-
erally dark slate-grey ; exterior, and in the veins, ochreous.
Somewhat brecciated in parts.
Some of this rock, in the state of powder, was heated to
redness in an open crucible, for an hour and a half, then mixed
into a stiff paste with cold water a portion with sand, and a
part without sand ; the wet lumps were exposed to a moist
atmosphere for a day, and then immersed in water. The
lump containing no sand hardened completely ; that with the
sand did not become so hard.
COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY LIMESTONES DRIED AT 212 F.
Lime carbonate .
i . soi
Alumina and iron and manganese oxides
. i "^
not est .
4.. 1 60
Moisture and loss
I . H72
I . 147
Percentage of lime
2 "? . ~\A. I
While the first sample will yield very good lime for ordinary-
purposes, the second may make very good hydraulic cement
by careful calcination. It does not require as much sand as
other hydraulic limestones which contain a smaller proportion
of silicious matters.
CLAYS OF OHIO COUNTY.
No. 2074 " INDURATED CLAY, below Coal F, mouth of Brush
Run, on Rough creek. Collected by C. J. Norwood."
A dark-grey shaly-clay, with impressions and remains of
reed-like leaves, and some ferruginous stains.
No. 2075 "CLAY,yr<?w near Elm Lick, on R. B. Thompsons
land. Coal measures. A good deal used in Louisville. Col-
lected by C. J. Norwood.
An irregularly laminated clay, mottled with grey of various
tints, and ferruginous infiltrations. Has some imperfect veg-
etable impressions, and minute glimmering specks of mica.
No. 2076 " CLAY, from Bald Knob Church, Caney precinct, on
the Pinchico road, about two feet below a coal bed. Collected
by C. J. Norwood.
In friable lumps, showing imperfect and irregular stratifica-
tion. Of a light bluish-grey color, with infiltrations of ochre-
ous and ferruginous, occasionally nearly black, especially in
the cracks and along the course of rootlets which have pene-
trated it. Before the blow-pipe it appears to be quite refrac-
tory, not fusing, but softening and shrinking somewhat into a
hard, porcelain like, nearly white mass. When not so in-
tensely heated it burns of a light salmon color.
COMPOSITION OF THESE OHIO COUNTY CLAYS, DRIED AT 212 F.
Silica . .
3 . I 2O
a trace .
3 1 02
CHEMICAL REPORT. 73
No. 2076 contains 5.3 per cent, of fine transparent colorless
sand grains. This seems to be a very good fire-clay.
No. 2077 " VIRGIN SOIL, from the surface, and to the depth of
thirteen inches. From tJie farm of Dr. Coy Kaye, Pewee
Valley. Upper Silurian formation. Forest growth : beech,
oak, poplar, black gum, &c. Soil better than usual in tJiis
locality. Collected by John H. Talbutt."
Dried soil, of a brownish-grey color; friable; contains no
gravel. Its silicious residue all passed through the bolting-
No. 2078 " SUBSOIL of the preceding'' &c., &c.
D-ried subsoil of a bright brick color, somewhat cloddy.
Contains no gravel. The bolting-cloth separated, from the
silicious residue, a very few small rounded quartz grains.
No. 2079 "SURFACE SOIL, from white oak land, Pewee Valley.
Collected by A. W. Kaye." Uncultivated.
The dried soil is in friable clods, of a dark umber-grey
color. Contains no gravel. The silicious residue, left after
digestion in acids, all passed through the bolting-cloth, except
a few small milky quartz grains.
No. 2080 " SUBSOIL to the preceding" &c., &c.
The dried subsoil is generally of a dark, orange-buff color,
mottled with light grey and ferruginous. It contains some
nearly black concretions and infiltrations. The clods are
somewhat firm. It contains a few small fragments of weath-
ered chert. The bolting-cloth separated, from the silicious
residue, some hard particles reddish and white of unde-
composed silicates, resembling felspar.
74 CHEMICAL REPORT.