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preceding.

No. 1302 OLD FIELD SOIL. "Surface soil from a field forty-
Jive years in cultivation, on East Fork of Little Sandy. Farm
of V. Calvin, near Cannons burg"
Soil of a dirty dark-buff color. All passed through the

coarse sieve.

No. 1303 " SUB-SOIL of the next preceding, taken two and a

half feet from the surface, &c"

Of a dirty-buff color, lighter in tint than that of the surface
soil. All passed through the coarse sieve.

COMPOSITION OF THESE BOYD COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1298.


No. 1299.


No. 1300.


No. 1301.


No. 1302.


No. 1303.


Organic and volatile matters.
Alumina, and iron and man-


3.140

1 .OQI


3-085
6.642


7.985
7.42H


5.190
0.084


4-9I5
o.Oiq


4.905
0.671;


Lime, carbonate .....
Magnesia


.214
.O"?4


.116

.178


571

.TC2


39 2
.2CI


259
. 777


.276
.o<;7


Phosphoric acid


. I 74


.087


.208


. IQI


,U6


. 1 60


Sulphuric acid


trace.






trace.


.078


trace.


Potash


. 717


. 7O7


.4.7C


.20$


. 744


.282


Soda


.076


.099


.045


.050


.027


.176


Sand and insoluble silicates .
Water expelled at 380 F. .
Loss


90 . 490
.650


88.420

525
. S4^


81.410

.915
. ^4.


83.230
.500
.007


83.765
1-235


83-385
I.3I5
















Total


I OO I 46


too ooo


IOO OOO


IOO OOO


100.091


100. 227
















Hygroscopic moisture . . .


J-375


1-735


2.225


I .700


2-335


2.840


Potash in tne insol. silicates .


Not estima


ted.










Soda


Not estima


ted.
























Character of the soil ....


Virgin
soil. Val-
ley.


Sub-soil.


Virgin
soil. Slope
of hill.


Sub-soil.


Old field.


Sub-soil.



27



28 CHEMICAL REPORT.

These soils, if sufficiently drained and properly cultivated,
may be made quite productive, although the silicious material
is in rather large proportion in some. By comparing the com-
position of the virgin soil No. 1300, with that of the corres-
ponding old field soil No. 1302, it will be seen that cropping,
without the use of manures, has notably diminished the phos-
phoric acid, potash, and lime carbonate, while the relative pro-
portion of the sand and silicates is increased.

[For Bourbon County Limestone, see the Appendix.]
BRACKEN COUNTY.

No. 1304 SOIL. Labeled " Top Soil, one to eigJit inches from
surface. Old field in grass ; thin and bare in places. Sample
from a fertile corner, beyond the fence where it had been out
of culture for five years or more. 11 Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaler.
Of a dark grey-buff color. Contains no gravel or coarse

sand.

No. 1305 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding; taken fourteen to
eighteen inches below the surface, just above the rock sub-
stratum. It has some faint traces of original bedding, show-
ing that it had been formed by decomposition of rock in place.
Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."
Of a handsome yellowish-buff color. No gravel.

No. 1306 TOP SOIL of the field No. 1304; taken in a worn
place ; has been longer in cultivation and is much more worn
than that. Will not hold sod. Has been in cultivation over
twenty years. Collected by Prof . N. S. Shaler."
Of a yellowish-buff color, very little darker than that of the

sub-soil. Contains a small quantity of small fragments of red

ferruginous shale.

28



CHEMICAL REPORT.



EXTRACTED FROM 1000 PARTS OF THESE SOILS (AIR DRIED) BY DIGES-
TION IN CARBONIC ACID WATER.





No. 1304.


No. 1305.


No. 1306.


Organic and volatile matters . .


0.487


o 600


O.2Q4


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides . . ...


.01 7


.OI7


.OIO


Lime, carbonate


.406


.04.0


O8O


Magnesia


.O7o


.02"?


.OI4.


Potash


O7O


OIO


O2O


Soda


.020


.020


.O2O


Soluble silica .


.060


. i TO


. IIO


Phosphoric, sulphuric, and nitric acids and loss


.184


.130


.118


Total extract from 1000 parts .


i . 716


o 960


.666










Color of the extract


Light


Light
brownish


Brownish




brown.


grey.


grey.



COMPOSITION OF THESE BRACKEN COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1304.


No. 1305.


No. 1306.


Organic and volatile matters


4. 140


4 77?


2.37C


Alumina


c.8^7


e . cj-2


3-837


Iron, peroxide


7 I CQ


6 025


3.061;


Manganese, brown oxide


.22?


. 170


.070


Lime, carbonate


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


Magnesia


.207


. 260


.268


Phosphoric acid


.277


424


.217


Sulphuric acid


a trace


a trace.


a trace.


Potash


. no


. 107


IH


Soda '


a trace.


. 174


.076


Sand and insoluble silicates . . ,


82. 140


Si .Q7O


87.811;


Water expelled at 380 F


i .01 ;


I . IOO


not est.










Total


101 147


I OO 6l7


QQ 7l8










Water expelled at 212 F


2. 2OO


7. 200


2. TOO











These soils are all deficient in lime. Top-dressing with this
material would doubtless greatly improve their productiveness.
This should, however, be accompanied with the use of clover
or other green fertilizing crops, to increase the proportion of
humus, which is also deficient in the soils. The difference in
the amount of soluble matters extracted by digestion in water
charged with carbonic acid, as well as the relative proportions
of the potash, &c., in that extracted matter, and the amount



3O CHEMICAL REPORT.

of sand and silicates, correspond with the observed relative
productiveness of the soils.

No. 1307 SILICIOUS MUDSTONE (of Dr. Owen). Rock below
Soil No. 1 304 ; averages from twenty-eight to thirty-five inches.
Uniform. Some of the layers completely decomposed ; all of
them softened by decay. Three miles northwest of German-
town. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
A dirty grey-buff, friable, sandy shale. Adhering to the

tongue. Many fossils in the laminae.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Silica 76.060

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides 14.959 (by difference).

Lime, carbonate .500

Magnesia, carbonate , . 345

Phosphoric acid .486

Potash 2.735

Soda I-5I5

Water expelled at red heat 3.400



IOO.OOO



This analysis having been made by fusion, instead of diges-
tion in acids, &c., &c., gives the total contents of alkalies and
phosphoric, as well that quantity which may be immediately
available for plant nourishment as that which for the present is
locked up in firm combination in the silicates, which can only
become available in the natural course of long weathering.

BRECKINRIDGE COUNTY.

No. 1308 " RED UNDER CLA.Y,/rom near Brandenburg. Col-
lected by Mr. G. E. Chick.

A somewhat adhesive ferruginous clay, of a dark brick-red
color ; containing some fragments of weathered chert.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Organic and volatile matters, mostly water 9.000

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides 20.860

Lime, carbonate 1. 060

Magnesia .684

Phosphoric acid .230

Sulphuric acid .061

Potash (including that in the silicates) .982

Soda (including that in the silicates) .501

Sand and insoluble silicates 66 . 680

100.058
3



CHEMICAL REPORT.



Although this clay contains a considerable per centage of
potash, nearly one per cent., it is not probable that it could be
profitably used as a fertilizer, because of the fact that a very
large proportion of its alkalies is in the insoluble silicates,
where they would not be immediately available for plant nour-
ishment.

It might be employed, however, to improve the condition of
light sandy soils.

BUTLER COUNTY.

No. 1309 LIMONITE. Labeled "Ore from the farm of Jas. E.
Taylor, near the mouth of Little Reedy ; one mile and a half
from Green river. Average sample by J. R. Proctor"
Limonite in irregular laminae ; with much softer ochreous ore.

No. 1310 LIMONITE. Labeled "Ore above the upper coal.
Stevens coal mine, near the mouth of Bear Creek. Average
sample by P. N. Moore"
In dense, curved, dark-brown laminae, incrusted by and

inclosing softer ochreous ore.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMONITES, DRIED AT 212 F.






No. 1309.


No. 1310.




4.8 . 04.0


4.4. 7Q4.




. 171


2. 7QI


Manganese, brown oxide


. I4.O


a trace


Lime carbonate


. 54.O


.64.1




. IQ5


.274,




.lAC


. <;*<




.4.77


.iq8




Q.7CO


7 . 7OO




^1 . QOO


AA , I 8(3




4.^7










Total


IOO.OOO


100.815










'?'*,. 6"? 4.


31 .4.82








Phosphorus, per centa^e


. I SO


.211








Sulphur, per centage


. 1 80


,061








Silica, per centage


20.4.60


42 2OO









CHEMICAL REPORT.



The somewhat large proportion of phosphorus in these two
ores may make the iron obtained from them somewhat "cold-
short," and the sulphur in No. 1310 is in rather too large
quantity. In other respects these ores are good, and they
might be profitably smelted for ordinary foundry iron.

No. 1311 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Ore from Jno. Hud-
sons on Young s Ferry road. Average sample by P. N.
Moore"
A dark grey, fine-granular iron carbonate, partly converted

into limonite.

No. 1312 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Ore resting on the coal
at Knob Lick, half a mile from Big Reedy Creek, near road
to Young s Ferry. Average sample by P. N. Moore."
Granular iron carbonate, somewhat oolitic, partly converted

into limonite, and containing small fragments of fibrous coal.

COMPOSITION OF THESE CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 131 1.


No. 1312.


Iron, carbonate


2Q.QI4


22. 1:83


Iron, peroxide ....


17 .04.1;




Alumina


3.i;8l


8i<;


Lime, carbonate


12.0^6


6.714.


Magnesia, carbonate
Manganese, carbonate


3-677

a trace.


2.830

a trace.


Phosphoric acid


.467


.072




.;8i


.47?




28 . O4O


44 . 240




7.0C7


4.O4O








Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO








Iron, per centage


27.041


22.060








Phosphorus, per centage


.204


.42"?










. 152


.180








Silica, per centage


25 . 260


42 . 760








Specific gravity


not est


not est.









32



CHEMICAL REPORT.



33



No. 1313 COAL. Labeled "Stevens coal. Stevens' bank, Bear
Creek) two miles from Green river, Butler county. Average
sample by P. N. Moore"

A deep-black coal, breaking into thin layers under the ham-
mer. Fibrous coal and fine-grained pyrites between the
laminae. Contains a little shale.



COMPOSITION OF THE AIR-DRIED COAL.



No. 1313.



Specific gravity I -3?8

Hygroscopic moisture 3. 40

Volatile combustible matters 30.66

Coke 65.94

Total 100.00

Total volatile matters 34 .06

Fixed carbon in the coke 54-94

Ashes 11.00

Total 100.00

Character of the coke Spongy.

,-, , c ., Brownish

Color of the ash

lilac-grey.

Per oentage of sulphur " 2-544

No. 1314 LIMESTONE, from Barren river, near the mouth of
Gasper Creek; sub-carboniferoiis. From the stock pile of
Airdrie Furnace. Sampled by P. N. Moore."
A light-grey, fossiliferous limestone.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Lime, carbonate 93.020 = 52.091 per cent, of lime.

Magnesia, carbonate 2.088

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides .917

Phosphoric acid .243= 0.106 per cent, of phosphorus.

Sulphuric acid .604= .242 per cent, of sulphur.

Silica and insoluble silicates 2 . 760

Water and loss . 368



33



34 CHEMICAL REPORT.

CALDWELL COUNTY.

GALENA (lead sulphide), selected from specimens sent by
S. Marble & Son, Princeton, Kentucky, from their lead mine
in this county. The vein is in the sub-carboniferous limestone,
described as generally five feet wide. The mine has a twenty
feet drift, forty-five feet wide. The gangue of the ore is prin-
cipally fluor-spar, containing more or less zinc blende.

This ore was examined principally for its proportion of
silver; and by a careful analysis of the lead, obtained from it
by reduction with the usual flux, (of soda carbonate, potash
nitrate, and sodium chloride), solution of the reduced metal in
diluted nitric acid, and precipitation of the filtered solution by
means of a very dilute solution of lead chloride, a very small
proportion of silver was obtained, not exceeding in amount
two hundred and sixty-six (266) grains to the ton (of 2,000
pounds) of the selected galena. As is well-known, pure
galena contains from eighty-one to eighty-six per cent, of lead
in general

This mine cannot, therefore, be profitably worked for silver;
but if fluor-spar is found to be practicably valuable for the
purification of iron from phosphorus, &c., this, as well as the
lead, may be advantageously explored.

CAMPBELL COUNTY.

No. 1315 MARLY SHALE. Labeled " Clay Marl, from Cincin-
nati Group ; qiiarter of a mile from Neiuport, on the Alex-
andria Turnpike ; upper blue clay. Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaler." Lower Silurian.
A dark-grey, soft shale. Adhering to the tongue.

No. 1316 MARL. Labeled " Marl, from the silicious mud-stone
of Dr. Owen, ten feet from the surface. Not distinctly strati-
fied. Gallows Gap. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."
Buff-colored; friable; fine-grained.

34



CHEMICAL REPORT. 35

No. 1317 CLAY SHALE. Labeled "Newport Reservoir; three
hundred and forty feet above the Ohio river. A mixture of the
clays in a set of beds, containing a few limestone layers, six
feet from the surface to twelve feet." Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaler.
A yellowish, soft shale, with some softer ferruginous clay

mixed. Adhering to the tongue.

No. 1318 CLAY SHALE. Labeled " Newport Reservoir, upper
blue clay, three hundred and twenty feet above high water in
the Ohio river." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
A dark, bluish-grey soft shale. Adhering to the tongue.

No. 1319 CLAY. Labeled '" Brick Clay, about three feet above
high water in the Ohio river ; Newport, Kentucky " Collected
by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
A light, ferruginous, yellow silicious clay.

No. 1320 SANDY FERRUGINOUS CLAY. Labeled "Sandy Clay,
three feet from surface ; Mt. Vernon road, half a mile from
Alexandria Turnpike." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
Of a light reddish-brown color.

No. 1321 FERRUGINOUS CLAY, &c. Labeled '" Ferruginous Con

glomerate ; side of road, one mile north of Grant's Creek.

North head waters of Phillips Creek." Collected by Prof.

N. S. Shaler.

Ferruginous clay, with nodules of impure hydrated peroxide
of iron included.

No. 1322 SAND. " Labeled " Moulding Sand, Columbia Trace,
half a mile northeast of Newport Water- Works Reservoir"
Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
A fine sand of a dirty-salmon color, composed mainly of

minute rounded quartz grains.

35



3D CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1323 SAND. Labeled "Sand beneath the Brick Clay. Sec-
tion on Columba corner of Harris street ; Newport, Ken-
tucky." Collected by Prof N. S. Shaler.

A moderately fine sand, of a dirty-buff color. Examined
with the glass it showed mostly rounded grains of hyaline, yel-
low and milky quartz, with dark grains of some ferruginous
mineral.



COMPOSITION OF THESE CAMPBELL COUNTY MARLS, CLAYS, AND SANDS,

DRIED AT 212 F.





No 13*5


No. 1316


No. 1317


No. 1318


No. 1319


No. 1320


No. 1321


No. 1322


No. 1323




47.320

28.050
'3-4yo

1.135
3-254

.640
.-345.
Notesti
4.800
.966


68.760

12.050
9.860

3.859
1.329
.976
.223
mated.

2. 2OO

743


58.080

3 1 -49
.660

''35
3-45
.986
255

4.700


51.420

29.450
6.850
1.256
4.124

-567

. 122

4.400
l.SlI


72.660

20.500
a trace.
.832
1.243
not est.
. 192

4.200


82.560

12.223
.160
a trace.
.675
.282
not est.

4. 100


57.160

33-540
.860
1.776
2.698
555
not est.

34"


81.660

12.700
a trace,
a trace.
-756
637
a trace.

4.400


85.840

3.500
7.400
.296
not est.
not est.
not est.

2. 2OO

.764


Alumina, and oxides of iron and
manganese


Magnesia, carbonate
Potash


Soda




Sulphuric acid
Water expelled at red heat . . .


Total














IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


100.351


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


100.153


IOO.OOO





These marly shales, marls and clays, are not especially valu-
able as fertilizers, although some of them contain considerable
proportions of potash and phosphoric acid. The former, how-
ever, is mostly in firm combination in the silicates, which are
insoluble in acids, so that it can only be made available by
long weathering, or, possibly, by the action of lime, &c.

No. 1315 appears to be the best of them. They all would
be useful as top-dressing for improving light sandy soil.

The sands have no peculiar interest, although useful for
many well-known purposes.

No. 1324 SOIL. Labeled "Virgin Soil, in open woods, farm
of Gen. G. B. Hodge. Flat Woods ; waters of Phillips'
Creek; one and a half miles southeast from Grant's Lick.
Timber white oak, hickory, small beech, and walnut." Col-
lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
Soil of a warm yellowish-drab color. It all passed through

the coarse sieve (of 289 meshes to the. inch), except some

36



CHEMICAL REPORT. 37

rootlets, a very small quantity of shot-iron ore, and a few
small rounded pebbles of milky quartz.

No. 132 5 SOIL. Labeled ' ' Old Field Soil. Field adjoining the
woods whence came No. 1324. CtUtivated in corn and tobacco
for more than forty years. No manuring. Still brings a lit-
tle corn. Sample one to seven inches from the surface." Col-
lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.

Soil of a warm yellowish-drab color. All passed through
the coarse sieve except a few fragments of wood, two or three
small water-worn pebbles of milky quartz, and some small
angular fragments of decomposing chert. It also contains
some fine shot-iron ore.

No. 1326 SOIL. Labeled "Same old field as the preceding.
Plowed in 1871 to the depth of twenty inches and sub-soiled.
Now (1873) in timothy grass. Seems to want lime." Col-
lected by Prof. A?. S. Shaler.
Color, &c., much as in preceding soil.

No. 1327 SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil, twelve inches from the
surface, same field as preceding, forty years in cultivation.
Silicious muds tone beneath." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
Soil of a yellowish-drab color; more yellowish than pre-
ceding. All of it passed through the coarse sieve, except a
very small quantity of shot-iron ore.

No. 132 8 SOIL. Labeled "Spur of hill sixty feet above the posi-
tion of the preceding soils. In corn for tivo years. Twenty
bushels to the acre this year (\%^^)\ bad culture. Surface
soil."

Soil of drab color. Lighter colored than any of the preced-
ing soils. Moist soil cakes in the bag like clay. It mostly
passed through the coarse sieve, leaving only some shot-iron
ore and small quartz pebbles, &c.

37



38 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1329 SOIL. Labeled "Virgin Soil, border of cultivated
field> newly cleared. Slope faces southwest. Land reputed
rich ; but in the midst of much poor land. Sells for two
hundred dollars per acre. Youtsey s land, eight miles from
Newport, Alexandria Turnpike." Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaker.

A clay soil of a dark buff-grey color. Aggregated, on dry-
ing in the bag, &c., into quite hard, irregular and angular small
lumps. Makes a very tenacious, sticky clay when wet.

No. 1330 SOIL. Labeled ''Sub-soil (under the preceding soil}
two feet from the surface, &c." Collected by Prof. N. 'S.
Shaler.
A clay soil of a light grey-buff color; aggregating into

pretty compact lumps on drying.

See No. 1334 for composition of the limestone underlying
this land.

No. 1331 SOIL. Labeled "A curious gravelly loam, two feet
below surface, with bits of chert, from the sub-carboniferous
of Upper Licking. Silicious mudstone and limestone below.
Upper waters of Pond Creek, near Pond Creek Post-office,
on new turnpike, about four miles southwest of Alexandria"
Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.

A deep yellow-buff colored sub-soil, containing nearly one
sixteenth of its weight of fragments of ferruginous shaly
sand rock, rounded quartzose pebbles, and shot-iron ore.

No. 1332 SOIL. Labeled "Old field in grass. Slope of 10
south. Resting on river detritus. Side of run near Newport,
Kentucky." Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler.
Soil of a dark grey-buff color. All of it passed through the

coarse sieve.

No. 1333 SOIL. Labeled "Bottom field of the next preceding,
taken two feet from the surface. Detrital grit. Twenty feet
above high water of Ohio river."
Soil of a handsome orange-grey, or grey-orange-buff color.

Aggregated into friable clods.

38



CHEMICAL REPORT.



39



COMPOSITION OF THESE CAMPBELL COUNTY SOILS AND SUB-SOILS,

DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1324


No. 1323


No. 1326


No. 1327


No. 1328


No. 1329


No. 1330


No. 1331


No. 1332


No. 1333


Extracted from i ,000
parts by carbonated


2.290


1.700


1.220


0.830


1.860


2.700


5.650


0.716


1.080


1.200





COMPOSITION OF THE CARBONIC ACID WATER EXTRACT.



Organic and volatile mat-
ters


i. 060




0.580














o 8is


Alumina, oxd. iron, &c.
Manganese oxide . . .
Lime, carbonate ....


.320
.060
.610

.080


.130
.070
.400


. no
.080
.260


.040
not est.
.090


.080
not est.
.760


.020
not est.
1.620


.050
not est.
4.440


.010 }
not est J
.180


.060

43


.030
.280


Nitric acid


Not esti


mated.


















Sulphuric acid


a trace.

Not esti


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


a trace.


Potash


























































.180




.080


.067


Loss












































Total .


2.322


1.876






1.860








1.080



























COMPOSITION OF THESE SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.



Organic and volatile mat-
ters


3.650
3-375
3- I2 5
059
.130
034
.145
a trace.
.120
.047
045

87.545
i. 160
.565


2-555
3-4>5
3.038

37
.090
.496
.109
a trace.
.062
.132
.090

89-335

I. IIO


2.540
3.900
3-274
not est.
.125
.008
.093
a trace.
.064
.160
.055

88.395
i. 020
.366


z-435
3.868
3.972
.427
.125
.250

.122

a trace.
.062
.109
.015

87.560
1.040
.015


8.965
4.040
4-787
471
45
.250

93
a trace.
.240
.071
.170

78.963
1.500


7.615

5.I7S
6.750
.260
.990
.520
483
a trace.
.726
a trace.
.070

75-59
1.850


5-9 6
5-323
6.890
.080
3.890
.500

3'3
a trace.

593
.019
.180

75-4I5
1.017


5.160
3-815
4.300

39
a trace.

474
.420
a trace.

443
.045
.130

83- 775
1.250


2.775
1.587
2.980
.070
a trace.
.191
.256
a trace.
"5
.048
.080

9I-655
1.035


2-135
2 -737
4-465
.320
a trace.
3o
.240
a trace.

"!
.106

.067
89.040

I.OIO






Manganese, br. oxide. .
Lime, carbonate ....


Phosphoric acid ....
Sulphuric acid
Potash






Sand and insoluble sili-


Water expelled at 380 F.
Loss


Total


















IOO.OOO


100.469


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


100. 180


i 00.202


100.792


100.545




Water expelled at 212 F.
Potash in insoluble sili-
cates


1-765

not est.
not est.


1-550

1.311
.700


1.665

not est.
not est.


2.235

1-477

389


2.550

not est.
not est.


5-075

2.731
.929


4.300

not est.
not est.


4.825

not est.
not est.


1.400

not est.
not est.


2.215

not est.
not est.


Soda




Character of soil ....


Virgin
soil.


Old field


Old field


Sub-soil.


New soil


Virgin
soil.


Sub-soil.


jravelly
loam.


Old field


Old field



*It is proper to state, that this quantity does not represent the "soluble silica" which might have been extracted
by boiling the "silicious residue" in solution of" carbonate of soda, &c., but simply the amount which was held in
the acid solution of the soil. But little importance was attached to this determination, not because its existence in
the plant is considered by many modern agricultural chemists as " an accident " and " unessential," if not " useless "
(see " How Crops Feed," by Prof. S. W. Johnson, page 353); but because it is to be found, ordinarily, dissolved
in all waters which percolate soils. Moreover, Prof E. A. Hilgard shows that the amount of soluble silica in the
silicious residue of a soil usually bears a pretty constant relation to the quantity of lime in it. Its proportion at
any given time doubtless depends on the relative decomposition of the silicates of the soil at that time.

In addition to the determinations given in the preceding
table of the composition of these soils, the "sand and insoluble
silicates" were analyzed, by the method of fusion, &c., &c.,
with the following results, viz :

39



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THE SAND AND INSOLUBLE SILICATES IN THE 100



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