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vigor and covers the ground fully; is not injured by the hard-
est frost, and offers no impediment to the dew-rotting of the
hemp, while its roots continually absorb the soluble and gas-
eous elements of plant food, to retain them and leave them in
an available state, together with a new supply of humus, when
it is plowed in to decay in the soil. If at the time of sowing
the rye the ground is also plowed and the hemp roots covered
to rot, no doubt the surface could be more benefited than if
the grain is simply sown on the surface and harrowed in.

Some definite idea of the beneficial influence of the rye
may be obtained by examining the results of the analyses of
this plant in its immature condition, as given in the tables of
Emil Wolff and Dr. Emmons, of New York. (See table in
Johnson's "How Crops Grow" and "Natural History of New
York.")

It would be quite a moderate estimate to say that rye, sown
on the rich hemp ground in early September and plowed in
early in April or late in March, would give to the land an
amount of vegetable matter, in its roots and leaves, equal to
three thousand five hundred pounds, in the dried condition, to

459



22 CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE ASHES OF

the acre, which by its decay would greatly increase its veg-
etable mould or humus, and probably replace fully that portion
which had been removed in the hemp culture. But we find,
by reference to the table of Wolff, that this amount of organic
matter would also give to the soil more than sixty-six pounds
of potash ; more than twenty-five pounds of phosphoric acid ;
nearly thirteen pounds of lime ; more than five pounds of mag-
nesia; more than two pounds of sulphuric acid, and equally
considerable quantities of soda, chlorine, and soluble silica ;
in all more than one hundred and seventy pounds of essential
mineral ingredients to the acre, in a state most favorable for
plant food, or nearly twenty times as much as need be carried
off in an average crop of merchantable clean hemp fibre. This
use of the rye plant evidently commends itself to the careful
and judicious hemp farmer for a full and thorough trial.

Another important question with our hemp farmers is, how
best to improve our old fields to a new capability of profitable
hemp culture? Such is the natural fertility of our blue grass
soil, and so very favorable are the conditions to which it is
subject, that this is a more easy problem than is generally
supposed. Indeed, our routine farmers find by experience
that a good clover rotation, or a series of years in blue grass
sod, will ordinarily recuperate a field to hemp land. The soft
Silurian limestone beneath it is constantly, although slowly,
yielding up its stores of fertilizing elements to the atmospheric
waters, which gradually dissolve it and bring them by diffusion
into the soil for the use of growing plants. But the demands
of the farmer upon the soil most generally exceeds this benefi-
cent supply of fertilizers, and hence his fields decrease in
productiveness in the ordinary thriftless husbandry which has
been kept up by this liberality of nature, and he is already
confronted with the necessity, either for the use of artificial
fertilizers or the adoption of such a system of rotation of
crops as will give time for the natural recuperation of his soil,
without a serious diminution of his annual income. The latter
alternative commends itself most in our region, and especially
a rotation which includes a clover fallow of two years. The
460



THE HEMP AND BUCKWHEAT PLANTS, &C.



red clover growing with great vigor on our ordinary soil ; pro-
ducing a great amount of herbage ; drawing largely from the
atmospheric gases and vapors, and reaching to considerable
depths in the soil for mineral fertilizers with its long tap roots ;
so that experience proves it to be the best known plant for
the renewal of our land, in our common rotations, more espe-
cially because it can be pastured with hogs or cattle without a
very serious diminution of its ameliorating influence upon the
soil. When cut for hay, which is removed from the field, the
case is very different, as can be understood when we see that
a clover hay crop of two tons carries off with it not only the
equivalent of humus which its decay on the soil would give,
but also more than eighty pounds each of potash and lime,
nearly twenty-three pounds of phosphoric acid, and other fer-
tilizing mineral substances in proportion.

The ash of the dried clover and dried green hemp plant are
strikingly alike in composition, as may be seen in the follow-
ing table :

TABLE VII. OF THE RELATIVE PROPORTIONS OF THE ASH CONSTITU-
ENTS OF CLOVER AND HEMP PLANTS, &c.





In 100 parts of
the dried hemp.
From table I. B.
(Sample C.)


In too parts of
dried clover. (E)
From Wolff's ta-
bles.*


Mineral ingredients in
an acre of clover,
including the roots.
(Say 5,000 Ibs., dry.)




2.461


2.3O


115.00 pounds.




.712


.80


40.


Potash


I .472


2.T.O


11^.


Soda ....


.O6S


. IO


c.


Phosphoric acid


. $2<(


.6q


^2. 5


Sulphuric acid


.047


.20


IO.


Chlorine


.022


.2?


12. S


Silica ... .


. I ?Q


,2O


IO.










Per cent, of ash


e .cKS


6.80


340. pounds.











* The average of fifty-six analyses.

That the clover fallow may be made very useful in the
renovation of our hemp lands, by a judicious management,
is manifest.

But other plants of a quicker growth may sometimes enter

into an improving rotation for this crop, and no other promises

4 6i



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF THE ASHES OF



better than the buckwheat plant, in ordinary seasons, which
may afford moisture enough for its luxuriant growth.

During the present year my son, Benj. D. Peter, devoted
one lot in his experimental field (see Prof. N. S. Shaler's
report) to buckwheat, sown broadcast in the spring, in order
to study its ameliorating influence on the soil when plowed in.
The season being a very wet one, the plants -grew with great
luxuriance and fully covered the ground. Samples of it were
gathered by me, roots and all, on June 2Oth, when it was in
full leaf and in flower at the top ; and also on August 4th,
when it was about three feet high, yet in flower at the top,
and had matured a good deal of seed. It had, of course,
then lost most of its lower leaves. These samples were fully
air-dried in the laboratory, incinerated, and the ashes fully
analyzed, with the following results :

TABLE VIII. OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE ASH OF THE BUCKWHEAT
PLANT, &c., CARBONIC ACID EXCLUDED.





BUCKWHEAT IN FLOWER.


BUCKWHEAT IN SEED.


In loo parts of
the ash.


In i oo parts of
dried plants.


In i oo parts of
the ash.


In TOO parts of
dried plants.


Lime


33-434
10.518
32.900
i .266
16.824
1.378
.431
3-249


2.9:9
.922
2.883
.III

1.470
. 1 2O

.o;8
.285


35- I0 3
12.586
26.180

657
23.770
not est.
35
1-354


2.131
.764

I-589

.040

1-443
not est.
.021
.083


Magnesia. .. ..


Potash


Soda . . ... ..


Phosphoric acid .


Sulphuric acid


Chlorine .. .. ...


Silica ..




Per cent, of earthy phosphates


32-873


2.880


47.198


2.865




Per cent, of ash in dried plants




8.762




7-479








Per cent, of dried to green plants




18.000




29.000









This crop of green herbage was plowed under shortly after
the last sample was gathered, in the hope that the matured
seed would germinate and produce a second growth to be
plowed under in the fall. Many did sprout, but the grass-
hoppers consumed most of the young plants.
462



THE HEMP AND BUCKWHEAT PLANTS, &C. 25

Before plowing this buckwheat under, the green growth
on a yard square was weighed, and amounted to four and
three quarter pounds, which is equivalent to about 22,990
pounds to the acre, equal to more than six thousand pounds,
or three tons, of the dried plants, including the roots, to the
acre of ground. So that, calculating on the data given in the
above table, this large quantity of green herbage, with the
seeds and roots included, would not only give to the surface
the large amount of humus, or vegetable mould, which would
result from its decomposition, but also more than ninety-five
pounds of potash ; more than eighty-six pounds of phosphoric
acid ; nearly one hundred and forty pounds of lime ; nearly
forty-six pounds of magnesia, and other essential ingredients
in proportion ; all in a state immediately available for plant
nourishment.

The experience of another season may demonstrate its
practical effect in an increased hemp production.

The buckwheat plant is used in other regions as a fertilizer,
and may very properly be introduced here in a rotation. It is
evident that future profitable hemp culture will depend greatly
on the adoption of a judicious rotation of crops suited to our
soil and markets. What the details of that rotation may be

must be worked out by our intelligent farmers.

463



INDEX.



[The figures refer to the bottom paging.]

Action of plants on rock materials . 431 to 433

Airdrie Furnace iron ores, &c * 145, 148, 149, 151, 153

Allen county ; composition of soils and subsoils of 355 to 358, 434

Analysis of, &c. See Composition of, &c.

Analyses of coals, general results of 10

iron ores of Northeastern Kentucky, general results of 10

soils, general remarks on 4

soils, method of 5, 40

Appendix to chemical report 155, 339

Ash analyses of Hemp and its products; clover, buckwheat, &c 434 to 464

coal, composition of 48, 67

coal, phosphoric acid in 67

of German millet; composition of the 426, 428

of hemp and buckwheat plants, chemical examination of 434 to 464

of Hungarian grass; composition of. . 425, 429

percentage of coals as compared with their specific gravity . 24, 105, 137, 157

Ashland Furnace, Boyd county, coal used at 166

pig iron, analysis of 25 , 26

Band iron ore, black, from Jackson county ; composition of 399, 400, 437

Barata sulphate in Owen county. 314

Baregine, in Grayson Spring sulphur waters 93

Barium and Strontian Chlorides in Glen Font brine 297 , 298

in Goose Creek brine 232

Barren County; composition of soils and subsoils of 358 to 363, 434

limestones, analyses of 16

marl and nitre earth 202, 203

Bath County ; composition of Ferruginous Magnesian Limestone of Chalybeate

Springs in 369, 370

composition of saline waters in ... 371-374

composition of the Chalybeate Springs of . . 368, 369

composition of the mineral waters of the Olympian Springs in . . . 363, 366

facts about tbe mineral waters of the Olympian Springs in 353

iron ore, analysis of 16

iron ores and pig irons 198 to 202

Sulphur waters ; composition of the 363 to 366

Bell County coals, soils, and subsoils 203 to 215

Bellefont Furnace pig iron, analyses of 25, 217

Bessemer process ; can phosphorus be removed by it? 197

Bittern water, composition and uses of, Goose Creek Salt-works 232, 233

Glen Font Salt-works 297

Bituminous Shale - . - 264, 265, 294, 295, 316, 336

Menifee county, analysis of 140

silicious petrifaction in, Lawrence county 283

465



28 INDEX.

Black Band Iron Ore from Jackson county; composition of . ... 399, 400, 437

Lawrence county 280, 281

Muhlen burg county 141 ; 143

"Black waxy" soil from Collins county, Texas, 351, 435

Block coals of Indiana, analysis of 159

iron ore of Carter county 222

Blue Lick (lower) Spring, in Nicholas county; composition of water from . 414, 415

limestone, Cincinnati Group, of Campbell county, analysis of 42

Boiler crust and sediment, Franklin county, analysis of . . 73

Boone County clay ... . . 215, 216

Furnace pig iron, analysis of 57

Bored wells of Fayette county, analyses of waters of 73 to 75

well of Franklin county, analysis of water of 78

Bourbon County rnagnesian limestone 155

Boyd County coals, description and analyses of 20 to 23

iron ores, analyses of . 17

soils and coals, analyses of 26, 166

Branching (hsetetes, fossil, from Fayette county 383, 384

Bracken County soils and mudstone rock, analyses of 28

Breathitt County coals 218 to 222

Breckinridge County; composition and uses of Marly shale from . . .374, 438

red under clay, analysis of 170

Buckwheat as a fertilizer for the hemp crop 462

plants; experiments with 432

Buena Vista Furnace pig iron, analysis of 25

Buffalo Furnace pig iron, analysis of 116

Butler County; composition of coal from 375, 436

composition of Marly clay shale or Indurated clay from 375, 376, 438

iron ores, coals, and limestones, analyses of. . , 31

Calcareous spar of blue limestone, analysis of 71

Caldwell County lead ore 34

California adobS soil, analyses of 160

Campbell County marls, shales, clays, sand, soils, analyses of 34

Cannel Coal .... 219, 220, 260, 263, 264, 265, 272 to 275, 291, 292, 295, 296, 315, 328

Hunnewell, Greenup county, analyses of 167

Carter County block iron ore and pig irons 222 to 224

clays, coals, iron ores, limestones, pig irons, soils, analyses of . . . . 43 to 64, 166
Centre Furnace, in Trigg county ; composition of pig iron from. . . . 421, 422, 437

Chsetetes, fossil branching, from Fayette county 383, 384

Chalk rock, indurated, from Texas ; composition of 425

Chalybeate mineral water, Fulton county, analysis of 81

Springs of Bath county ; composition of the 368, 369

Springs, in Bath county ; composition of Ferruginous Magnesian Limestone
of. 369, 370

waters, Grayson county, analyses of 96

Chemical Report (Third) of the soils, coals, ores, iron furnace products, clays,
marls, mineral waters, rocks, &c., of Kentucky, by Robert Peter, M. D.,

&c., &c.. Chemist to the Survey 347 to 438

Christian County coals, mineral waters and soils 224 to 231

Clay, carbonaceous, Muhlenburg county 150

County, Goose Creek salt waters, &c 231 to 233

466



INDEX. 29

Clay, fire clay, of Muhlenburg county, analysis of . 144

foot of grand chain, Illinois, analysis of 83

(potter's) from Franklin county ; composition of 384, 438

from Ohio county ; composition of 418, 438

German glass pot 342 , 344

(Indianaitej 344, 345

ironstone from Ohio county ; composition of 416, 437

ironstone, Estill county 243

Rockcastle county 321

shale, marly, or indurated clay from Butler county; composition of, 375, 376,

438

Clays 215, 239, 242, 243, 250 to 255, 287 to 289

Campbell county, analyses of 35

comparative table, composition of 45

of Kenton county, analyses of 133

of the coal fields 15

fire clays of Carter county, analyses of 43

fire clays of Greenup county, analyses of . . . . . 100

Cloverport Coal and Oil Company, their property, &c. ..... 260, 263, 264

Clinton county marls, clay, and coal 233, 234

iron ore of Cumberland Gap 197, 198, 339, 340

Coal, Cumberland mines, Clinton county 234

fibrous, Muhlenburg county, analysis of 150, 151

in subcarboniferous limestone formation, Grayson county 88

used at Ashland Furnace, Boyd county, analysis of 166

Coaltoii coal (No. 7) 46, 47

Coals, Bell county 203 to 208

block coals from Indiana, analyses of. . 159

Boyd county, analyses of 20 to 23

Boyd county, relation of specific gravity to weight of ash 24

Butler county, analyses of , 31, 375, 436

Carter county, analyses of 46, 166

Christian county 224, 225

Daviess county 239 to 241

Ed monson county, analyses of 65, 66

extremes of composition of, sulphur in 191, 192

Floyd county 248 to 250

from Illinois, analyses of 157

from Indiana, analyses of , 158

from the State of Ohio, analyses of , . . . . 155

from Winter's Gap, Tennessee 341

general results of analyses of 10

Grayson county, analyses of 86 to 89, 250

Greenup county, analyses of 102, 167, 255, 256, 392, 393, 436

Hancock county 260 to 264

Harlan county 264, 265

Hopkins county, analyses of 130, 266 to 269

Jackson county 272, 273

Johnson county 274, 275

Kentucky, table of composition of selected samples 13

Kentucky, tables of average composition of 11

467



3O INDEX.

Coals, Kentucky, &c., tables of extremes of composition of 12

Lawrence county 135 ) 281, 282

Lee county 283 to 285

Madison county 289, 290, 408, 436

Magoffin county 290 292

Martin county 292 to 294

McLean county 294 295

Menifee county, analyses of 139, 300, 301

Morgan county 295, 296

Muhlenburg county 302, 303

Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, average composition of 11

Ohio county, analyses of 152, 168, 305, 312

Owsley county 315, 316

Perry county 316 to 318

Pulaski county 318, 319

relation of ash proportion to specific gravity 192, 193, 207, 208, 222

Rockcastle county 320, 321

uncombined sulphur and lime sulphate in 151

Wolfe county 327 to 328

Coke of Coalton coal 49

used at Airdrie Furnace, Muhlenburg county 147

Collins County, Texas; " black waxy " soil from 351, 435

Texas; composition of soil from 424, 435

Composition and uses of Marly shale from Breckinridge county 374, 438

of black band iron ore from Jackson county 399, 400, 437

of clays from Ohio county 418, 438

of clay ironstone from Ohio county 416, 437

of coal from Butler county 375, 436

of coals from Greenup county 392, 393, 436

of coal from Madison county 408, 436

of indurated chalk rock from Texas 425

of limestone from Mercer county 413, 414

of limestones from Ohio county 417

of Limonite iron ore from Trigg county 420, 421, 436

of Limonite ores (iron ores) from Lyon county 407, 436

of Marly clay shale or Indurated clay from Butler county - . . 355, 376, 438
of material, soils, subsoils, and under-clays from Grant county. . 384 to 390, 434

of mineral water from Jessamine county 400 to 402

of mineral water from Lincoln county 402

of mineral water (sulphur water) from Madison county 408

of mineral water from Nicholas county 414, 415

of mineral water from Warren county .... 422, 423

of phosphatic limestones from Fayette county 380 to 383

of pig irons from Trigg county . 421, 422, 437

of potter's clay from Franklin county 384, 438

of red bud soil from Madison county 409, 435

of Saline waters in Bath county ' 371 to 374

of soils, extremes of variation in 351

of soils and subsoils of Allen county 355 to 358, 434

of soils and subsoils of Barren county 358, 363, 434

of soils of Fayette county 378 to 380, 434

468



INDEX. 31

Composition of soils from Hardin county 393 to 397 , 435

of soils from Hopkins county 398, 399, 435

of soils and subsoils from Logan county 403 to 407, 435

of soils and under-clay from McCracken county ... 410, 411, 435

of soils and under-clay of Meade county 411, 413, 435

of soils from Oldham county 419, 420, 435

of soils from Texas. ... 423, 424, 435

of the Bath county Sulphur waters 363, 366

of the Chalybeate Springs of Bath county 368, 369

of the water of the " Kaiser-quelle " at Aix-la-Chapelle 366, 367

of virgin soil and subsoil from Grayson county 390, 391, 434, 435

of well water from Fayette county ....... 376 to 378

Crab Orchard Salts 287, 288

Crown Ore, (iron) Carter county, analysis of 53

Daviess County mineral waters, soils, clays, and coals 234 to 241

"Dyestone Ore of Tennessee 339, 340

Edmonson County iron ores, coals, and cast iron 64 to 68, 162

iron ores and clays 241 to 243

Estill County iron ores and pig irons 243 to 245

Experiments with Hungarian grass, German millet, and buckwheat .... 245, 425

Extremes of variations in composition of soils 351

Fayette County ; composition of soils of 68 to 75, 378, 380, 434

composition of phosphatic limestones and soils from. . . 245 to 248, 380 to 383

composition of well water from 376, 378

fossil branching Chsetetes from 383, 384

fossil shells from , 383, 384

Ferruginous Magnesian Limestone, of Chalybeate Springs, in Bath county; com-
position of . . 369, 370

Fertilizers, mineral and atmospheric elements 9

Fibrous Coal 130, 131

Fire Clay, German glass pot 342 to 344

of Carter county, analyses of 43

of Greenup county, analyses of 100

of Muhlenburg county, analysis of 144

Floyd County Coals 248 to 250

Foxden iron ore, Carter county, analysis of 50, 51

Fossil branching Chaetetes from Fayette county 383, 384

shells from Fayette county 383, 384

Franklin County ; composition of potter's clay from 384, 438

marly shales, waters, &c 75

Fulton County, soil, mineral water, clay, silicious deposits, sandstones, &c. . 80 to 83

Galena from Owen county 313, 314

in Henry county 129

(lead ore) from Harrison county 397, 398

of Caldwell county, analysis of 174

German glass pot fire clay 342 to 344

(iron) ore, Carter county, analysis of, &c 52

millet 353 to 355

millet; composition of the ashes of 426 to 428

Glairine in Grayson Springs sulphur waters 94

Glen Font Salt Works, Meade county 296 to 300

469



32 INDEX.

Goose Creek Salt Works, Clay county 231 to 233

Grayson County coal, clay, and iron ore 250 to 255

iron ores, marly shales, sandstone, coals, waters, and soils 83 to 100, 163

Springs mineral waters, analyses of 89 to 97

Greenup County clays, coals, limestones, iron ores, pig irons, and soils, 100 to 118,

167

Grant County; composition of material, soils, subsoils, and under-clays from, 384 to

390, 434
Grass, Hungarian 353 to 355

composition of the ashes of ' 425 to 429

Grayson County, Texas ; composition of soils from 423, 424, 435

composition of virgin soil and subsoil from 390, 391, 434, 435

Greenup County; composition of coals from 392, 393, 436

coals, pig irons, iron furnace slags, and soils 255 to 260

Grey lime ore 107

Hancock County coals 260 to 264

Hardin County; composition of soils from 117 to 129, 393 to 397, 435

Hard limestone water of Fayette county for irrigation, &c . 73

Harlan County coals. . . 264, 265

Harrison County ; lead ore (galena) from 397, 398

Hematite iron ore, red, Lawrence county 137

Hemp culture, influence on soil, &c 69

and buckwheat plants, chemical examination of the ashes of .... 439 to 464

culture in Kentucky 441, 442, 443, 449, 451, 456

dew-rotting and water-rotting, changes which occur in 451, 453

Henderson's process for the purification of iron 195 to 197

Henry County galena (lead ore) and marly shale 129

metallic lead and limestone 265, 2C6

Hocking Valley (Ohio) coals 156

Hopkins County coals and ocherous iron ores 130

coals and soils 266 to 272

composition of soils from 398, 399, 435

Horsley Bank iron ores, Carter county 51, 52

Hungarian Grass 353 to 355

composition of the ashes of 425 to 429

microscopic photographs of 428

Hunnewell Furnace pig iron 116, 256 to 258

Indianaite of E. T. Cox 344, 345

Indiana coals, analyses of 158

Indurated chalk rock from Texas; composition of 425

clay, or marly clay shale, from Butler county ; composition of . . 375, 376, 438
Illinois clay, Post Tertiary, analysis of 83

coals, analyses of 157

Iron furnace slag, Raccoon Furnace 258

Henderson's process for purification of 195 to 197

Iron Hill, Carter county. 223, 224

Iron Hills Furnace, flux limestone, analysis of 56

Furnace, pig iron, analysis of 57

Iron Ore, black band, from Jackson county ; composition of 399, 400, 437

(Clay ironstone) from Ohio county; composition of 416, 437

Clinton, of Cumberland Gap 197, IPS

Iron, supposed to be meteoric, Kockcastle county -\'2'2

470



INDEX.



33



Iron Ore, limonite, from Trigg county ; composition of 420,421, 436

limonite, of Clinton Group, Bath county, analysis of 16

of Grayson county 83 ) 163, 254

Iron Ores, black band, Lawrence county 280, 281

carbonates 216 217

general results of analyses of 10

(Limonite ores) from Lyon county; composition of 407, 436

Limonite of Bath county 198 to 200

of Boyd county 17, 216, 217

of Butler county, analyses of 31

of Carter county, analyses of 49

of Ed monson county 64, 162, 241, 242

ci Estill county ... 243, 244

of Greenup county, analyses of 106

of Kentucky, extremes of proportion of iron and phosphorus in 193

of Lyon county 138

of Muhlenburg county, analyses of 143

ochrcous, Hopkins county, analyses of 131

Iron, Pig, extremes of composition of 198

of Bath county 200 to 202

of Greenup county 256 to 258

of Kentucky, average composition of 15

Irons, Pig 198, 200 to 202, 217, 218, 256 to 258

Jackson County coals 272, 273

composition of black band iron ore from 399, 400, 437

Jessamine County ; composition of mineral water from 400 to 402

mineral water 273, 274

Johnson County coals , 274, 275

" Kaiser-quelle " at Aix-la-Chapelle ; composition of the 366, 367

Kaolin, Indiana 344, 345

Kenton County silicious grit, clays, marly shales, and limestones 132 to 135



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