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Kentucky Geological Survey.

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Porous and showing a small oolitic structure. Color brown-
ish and greyish-yellow.

No. 1376 LIMONITE. Labeled "German Ore. Smith Hill.
Taken from an imperfectly s/town bed, possibly not fully repre-
senting the whole bed, except tliat the ore seems very uniform.
None of the blue ore, or kidneys above the main bed, included
in this sample. Iron Hills, Carter county. Collected by P.
N. Moore."

52



CHEMICAL REPORT. 53

Ore generally porous or ochrey, of a yellowish-brown color
mottled with light-grey. Some few laminae of hard limonite.

No. 1377 LIMONITE. Labeled "Crown Ore. Smith Hill.

Iron Hills, &c. Average sample, from upper part of the bed

only, by P. N. Moore."

Composed of irregular laminae of dense dark-brown limonite,
with cavities and included soft ochreous ore.

No. 1378 LIMONITE. Labeled "Loiver Block Ore. Perry's
branch of Tygert Creek, west of Olive Hill. Land of Tygert
Valley Iron Company. Average sample by P. N. Moore!'
Fragments of dense limonite laminae mixed with some small

clay iron-stone nodules.

No. 1379 LIMONITE. Labeled "Average sample of Lower
Block Ore, from road on west side of Garvin s Hill, west of
Olive Hill. Land of Tygert Valley Iron Company."
Fragments of limonite laminae and clay iron-stone nodules.

No. 1380 LIMONITE. Labeled "Block Ore from Garvin s Hill,
west of Olive Hill. Land of Tygert Valley Iron Company.
Average sample."

No. 1381 LIMONITE. Labeled "Main Block Ore ; Old Mount
Tom Ore, Carter county. AveragedbyJ. A. Monroe."
A very dense ore, in curved irregular laminae of deep bluish

and brownish colors, with some dark-brown softer ore between.

No. 1382 LIMONITE, &c. "Main Block Ore with associated
overlying Kidney Ore, from Kibby Diggings. Divide between
Lost and Tygert Creeks. Carter county. Averaged by J. A.
Monroe".

Small nodules oi Ime-grauuicu grey carbonate ore, sur-
rounded by curved irregular laminae of dense limonite, fre-
quently separated by soft ochreous ore.

No. 1383 LIMONITE. "Roiigh Ore, one hundred feet above the
Foxden Ore (see clay iron-stones}, on Means and Russel 's
land, dimming' s branch of Everman s Creek. Averaged by
/. A. Monroe."

53



54 CHEMICAL REPORT.

In irregular hard thin laminae of dark-brown to brownish-
yellow colors ; with some soft ochreous ore.

No. 1384 LIMONITE. "-Red Limestone Ore from Graham-
bank. Average sample from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore"
In curved, irregular, hard laminae; varying in color from
yellowish and reddish-brown to deep brown and almost black,
with soft, lighter colored ochreous ore incrusting and included.

No. 1385 LIMONITE. "Yellow Kidney Ore, Mount Savage
Furnace, Carter county. Average sample, by P. N. Moore"
In irregular curved laminae, involving nuclei of softer ore.

Color varying from deep brown and red to yellowish.

No. 1386 - LIMONITE. "Main Block Ore, Stinson Creek.
Mount Savage Furnace. Average sample, by J. A. Monroe"
Curved irregular laminae of dense limonite ; generally dark

colored, including light-grey nodules of porous carbonate of

iron ore.

No. 1387 LIMONITE. "Ore seventy-three feet above the sub-
carboniferous limestone. On Clark 's branch of Tygerf s Creek,
two miles from Iron Hills Furnace. Average sample, by P.
N. Moore."

Varying from dense, dark-colored limonite laminae to soft
ochreous ore.

As will be seen, on examination of the following table of
their composition, these limonite ores of Carter county are
generally good, and may be profitably worked with proper
management in the smelting ; although some of them contain
too much sulphur and phosphorus to make very tough iron.

54



CHEMICAL REPORT.





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55



CHEMICAL REPORT.



LIMESTONES OF CARTER COUNTY.

No. 1388 "LIMESTONE used as a flux at Boone Furnace when
in operation. Collected by P. N. Moore"

A hard, compact, light buff-grey limestone. Fracture some-
what conchoidal.

No. 1389 -"LIMESTONE (sub-carboniferous} to be used as flux by
the Iron Hills Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore."
A compact or fine granular limestone, of a light-grey color.

No. 1390 "LIMESTONE used as flux at Mount Savage Furnace.

Average sample, by J. A. Monroe"

A compact limestone of a dark-grey color, mixed with frag-
ments of ferruginous sandstone and chert.

COMPOSITION OF THESE LIMESTONES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1388.


No. 1389.


No. 1390.




2.624


2.700


not est.






97.720
not est.
.300
.083
not est.

"5

. 167
i .560

. I2O


95-iSO
-245
1.390
.130

a trace,
not est.
not est.
3.060
not est.


75-750
575
6.403

057

775
not est.
not est.
14.700
*l.740












Soda






Total


100.065


99-975


100. OOO






54-723


53-284


42 . 420




Per centage of phosphorus


.036


.056


.032






not est .


a trace.


.310





* Water and loss.



Nos. 1388 and 1389 are very pure limestones, and very
suitable for use as flux in the iron furnace; but No. 1390 is
quite objectionable, because of its considerable proportion of
sulphur, and its nearly fifteen per centage of silicious matters.

56



CHEMICAL REPORT.



57



PIG IRONS OF CARTER COUNTY.

No. 1391 PIG IRON. "Foundry No. 2, made at Boone Fur-
nace, Carter county, in 1870."
A brilliant grey iron ; moderately coarse-grained. Yields to

the file ; but breaks readily under the hammer.

No. 1392 PIG IRON. "Foundry Iron No. i, made at Boone

Furnace in 1870."

Darker colored, somewhat finer-grained, and softer than the
preceding; flattening somewhat under the hammer.

No. 1393 PIG IRON. "Hot Blast, No. i Foundry ("sow"),
Iron Hills Furnace, Carter county. Collected by P. N. Moore"
Rather coarse-grained ; with brilliant grains. Yields to the
file, but is somewhat hard. Flattens but little under the ham-
mer.

No. 1394 PIG IRON. "Hot Blast, No. i Foundry, Mount
Savage Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A brilliant coarse-grained iron. Hard, but yields to the file.

Extends but little under the hammer.





No. 1391.


No. 1392.


No. 1393.


No. 1394.


Specific gravity


6.42'?


6.001;


7 .O2I


6.889












Iron


QO.qt;8


Q"?. 212


92. "?87


01 . SO2


Graphite


2. 164


2 . 940


T,. ^40


2.67O


Combined carbon


.116


.060


.760


.O7O


Manganese .


.us


.08^


.OS6


. 12^?


Silicon


2.682


1 .6^4


2.240


4.47O


Slag


4. 1 80


2.460


.620


i . 160


Aluminum


479


.T?O


. 1 20


.128


Calcium


not est.


not est.


. 1 20


. 144.


Magnesium






.os6


. 1 12


Potassium ....






.080


.076


Sodium








.023


Phosphorus


. 104


.486


.8^6


.20}


Sulphur


not est.


.O7Q


,O?7


.O4I












Total


100.008


IOI.284


100.672


IOO.68O












Total carbon. ... ... ...


2 280


-j QOO


4. IOO


2.7OO













VOL. I.-CHEM. 5.



57



>8 CHEMICAL REPORT.

SOILS OF CARTER COUNTY.

No. 1395 SOIL. "From the farm of fas. W. Scott, near Lower
Tygert bridge, near Olive Hill, Carter county. Top soil in
oak woods, sixty feet above the bed of the creek. Limestone
slope southward. Drainage between the slope and the sand-
stone capping the hills. Sample to depth of six inches. Col-
lected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."

Virgin soil. Soil of a greyish orange-buff color, with streaks
and mottlings of dark-grey. Compacted into clods in the
bag. The coarse sieve (289 meshes to inch) removed about
six per cent, of ferruginous and decomposing cherty fragments.

No. 1396 SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of the preceding, one foot

below the surface, &c."

This sub-soil is of an orange-red, or bright red ochre color.
Compacted into clods in the bag.

The coarse sieve removed from it a very small quantity of
small fragments of weathered chert, &c.

No. 1397 "SoiL from the farm of fas. IV. Scott (locality as
above]. Old field, in pasture for eighteen, and cultivated for
five years. Slope from height of limestone bench and sand-
stone beyond. Northern exposure, thirty feet above Tygert
Creek. Collected by N. S. Shaler."
Soil of a dirty-grey buff color. Sifted out about five per

cent, of cherty and ferruginous small fragments, with the

coarse sieve.

No. 1398 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, one foot below the

s^trface, &c."

Sub-soil colored like next preceding ; slightly more reddish.
Sifted out, with the coarse sieve, about twenty-three per cent
of small fragments, more or less rounded, of ferruginous sand-
stone, iron ore, and weathered chert.
58



CHEMICAL REPORT. 59

No. 1399 "Top SOIL. Woods near Iron Hill, Carter county.
From eastward slope, ravine to southward. Limestone above,
twenty-five feet thick. Conglomerate still above. Oak and
beech woods, about one hundred feet above Tygert Creek.
Collected by /. A. Monroe"

Soil of a grey-buff color. Sifted out, with the coarse sieve,
about sixteen per cent, of shaly ferruginous sandstone frag-
ments.

No. 1400 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, taken eighteen inches

below the surface, &c., &c."

Sub-soil of a lighter color than the surface soil and more
adhesive. Contains fragments of sandstone.

No. 1401 "Tor SOIL, for six inches below the surface, from an
old field on Riggs farm at Iron Hills. From the slope of hill
toward Tygert Creek. Limestone one hundred feet or more
above, and sandstone above that. Woodland a few rods off to
top of the hill. This field has been cultivated in corn for
many years." Collected by J. A. Monroe.
Soil of a grey-buff color. Sifted out of it, with the coarse
sieve, about twenty per cent of fragments of ferruginous sand-
stone, &c.

No. 1402 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, taken eighteen inches

from the surface, &c., &c."

Of a handsome yellowish-buff color. Compacted into friable
lumps in the bag. Sifted out, with the coarse sieve, about ten
per cent, of fragments of ferruginous sandstone and iron ore.

No. 1403 "SURFACE Soil., from woodland on farm of William
Abbott, five miles west of Olive Hill, Carter county. One
hundred and fifteen feet above the west branch of Tygerfs
Creek. Slope northwest. Limestone on top of the hill. Col-
lected by A. R. Crandall."

Soil of a grey-buff color. The coarse sieve removed a con-
siderable quantity of small ferruginous and cherty fragments.

59



6O CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1404 "SuB-soiL of tfte next preceding. One foot from the
surface, &c., &c. Collected by A. R. Crandall."
Of a buff color. Contains angular fragments of ferruginous

sandstone.

No. 1405 "OLD FIELD SOIL. Farm of William Abbott, west
branch of Tygert 's Creek, &c. Field fifty-five feet above the
bed of the creek ; on bench of Waver ly sandstone. Tops of the
hills capped with limestone. Surface soil ; has been cultivated
sixty years ; was once an orchard." Collected by A. R. Cran-
dall.
Soil of a light grey-buff color ; aggregated into friable clods

in the bag. The coarse sieve removed from it less than two

per cent, of small silicious sandstone, cherty, and ferruginous

fragments.

No. 1406 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding ; one foot below the

surface, &c." Collected by A. R. Crandall.

Sub-soil of a lighter and more clear buff color than the
surface soil ; contains less than two per cent, of small cherty
and ferruginous gravel.

No. 1407 SOIL from an old field on Widow Garvin s farm,
four miles west of Olive Hill. Ten feet above the bed of
Tygert 's Creek. On Waver ly sandstone; with limestone and
coarse sandstone near the tops of the hills. Surface soil. Col-
lected by A. R. Crandall."
Soil of a grey-buff color, contains about four per cent, of

small rounded ferruginous sandstone and cherty fragments.

No. 1408 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, one foot to eighteen
inches below the surface. Collected by A. R. Crandall."
Sub-soil of a lighter color than the preceding surface soil ; in
friable clods.

Sifted out, with coarse sieve, about eight per cent, of fer-
ruginous, cherty, and sandstone fragments.
60



CHEMICAL REPORT. 6 1

No. 1409 SOIL. Labeled "Sub-soil of bottom land, two feet
from the surface ; twenty-five feet above Little Sandy river,
Grayson, Carter county. The surface soil was not collected on
account of accidents affecting its composition." Collected by-
Prof. N. S. Shaler.
Sub-soil of a light buff-grey color; nearly white; in friable

lumps. Seems to be mainly composed of fine grains of sand.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Volatile and combustible matters, expelled at red heat . . 2.500

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides 11.500

Lime carbonate .560= .313 per cent, of lime.

Magnesia .121

Phosphoric acid . 223

Sulphuric acid not est.

Potash (total obtained by fusion) .366

Soda (total obtained by fusion) . 587

Silica (separated by fusion) 84.000

Loss .143

IOO.OOO

This sub-soil having been analyzed by fusion with the mixed
alkaline carbonates, and not by digestion in chlorohydric acid,
as the other soils of this county were treated, could not be
tabulated with them.

The proportions of potash and soda given above appear
large, as compared with those found in similar sandy soils by
digestion in acids ; but these represent the total amount oi
these alkalies, contained not only in the soluble portion of
the soil, but also in the insoluble silicates; the process of J.
Lawrence Smith for the separation of the alkalies from sili-
cates, viz : fusion with a mixture of lime carbonate and ammo-
nium chloride, having been employed in the above analysis.

61



62



CHEMICAL REPORT.





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6.3



64 CHEMICAL REPORT.

Although these Carter county soils cannot be classed with
the naturally very rich soils, there is no apparent reason, in
view of their composition, why they may not be made quite
profitably productive, under proper culture and by the observ-
ance of the golden rule of agriculture viz : to restore to the
soil in manures, &c., the essential ingredients which are
removed from it in the crops. These soils are measurably
deficient in humus or organic matters, and contain rather more
than the normal proportion of sand and silicates. These
defects may be remedied in some localities, where the sub-soil
contains more clay, &c. (as is the case with No. 1396), by
gradually bringing up the sub-soil, in the annual plowings, with
the simultaneous use of clover and other green crops. It ap-
pears also from the analyses, that while lime and potash seem
to be in sufficient abundance, phosphoric acid is rather defi-
cient in most of these soils. The use of bone-dust, or other
phosphatic fertilizers, would doubtless be beneficial.

The influence of cropping on the composition of the soil
may be measurably observed by comparing the analyses of
the virgin soils and the old field soils, as given above. In all
the proportion of organic matters is found to be reduced, and
that of the sand and silicates increased, in the old field, as
:ompared with the virgin soil ; and in most of them a reduction
in quantity may be seen in the potash and phosphoric acid of
the old field ; showing the exhausting influence of cropping
without the use of manures.

EDMONSON COUNTY.

No. 1410 LIMONITE. Labeled "From By the Meredith farm.

Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler (Nolin)"

Composed partly of elliptical hollow concretions of dense
dark reddish-brown laminae, with some softer ochreous ore.

No. 1411 LIMONITE. Labeled "Proctor Ore Bank, Sycamore
Creek. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler and J. R. Proctor."
Principally in dark brown dense laminae, forming an irregular

stalactitic, hollow columnar structure with septae (or irregularly
6 4



CHEMICAL REPORT.



large cancellated), incrusted with some softer yellowish and
brownish ochreous ore.

No. 1412 LIMONITE. Labeled '" Frederick 's Bank, Beaver Dam
Creek. Two hundred feet above the limestone. Collected by
Prof. N. S. Shaler. {Five feet ore. Uniform .")
Generally of a yellowish-brown color, porous and cellular;
but with some dark hard laminae, small whitish oolitic concre-
tions some of which are hollow, and brownish and yellowish
ochreous material. Contains some fossil shells, &c.

COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY LIMONITE ORES, DRIED

AT 212 F.





No. 1410.


No. 1411.


No. 1412.


Iron, peroxide ,


5;=; .028


76.284


C2 026


Alumina


1 .006


2.361


4. 702


Manganese, brown oxide


.040


.030


.210


Lime carbonate


a trace.


.180


.180


Magnesia


.108


.068


.42C




.312


I .OS?


. 3' !


Sulphuric acid


. 133


. I CJ


14.3


Water expelled at red heat


8.300


12 OOO


10 400


Silex and insoluble silicates


?r 1 80


7 QC I


7O c8o










Total


IOO IO7


ioo 080


IOO OI I










Iron, per centage


7C CIO


C 1 1QQ


37 O4.8










Phosphorus, per centage


f -JC


460


I S4.










Sulphur, per centage - .


OC7


oco


OC7










Silica, per centage .




7 660













These are good iron ores. No. 1411 is more than usually
rich in iron, but it contains more phosphorus than is desirable.

[See Appendix for other iron ores of this, county.]

No. 1413 COAL. "From Tar Lick, Davis Creek, Edmonson
county. Five and a half feet thick. Collected by Prof. N. S.
Shaler."

65



66 CHEMICAL REPORT.

A glossy splint coal, breaking into thin irregular laminae,
with tar (petroleum) and fibrous coal the remains of reedy
leaves and more or less fine-granular pyrites between them.

No. 1414 COAL. "Found on Mill branch. Level of main
Nolin coal. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler"
Splint coal. Separates under the hammer into thin irregu-
lar laminae, with fibrous coal, containing fine-granular pyrites
between.

No. 1:415 COAL. "Found on the surface. Has been longer
exposed and more weathered than the preceding. Mill branch.
Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler."

No. 1416 COAL. "From Knob Lick, Dismal Creek. Geolog-
ical level of main Nolin coal. Collected by Prof. N. S. Sha-
ler."

A weathered specimen of splint coal, incrusted with ochreous
iron oxide on the surface. Separating into thin irregular lam-
inae, with fibrous coal between.

No. 1417 COAL "At Gross, one hundred and eighty feet
above Bear Creek, Collected by Prof. N, S. Shaler and
7 R. Proctor^

A splint coal, breaking into thin irregular laminae, with
fibrous coal and much fine-granular pyrites between.

No. 1418 COAL. "Shoal branch, Nolin coal. Collected by

Prof. N. S. Shaler and J. R. Proctor."

Splint coal, breaking into thin laminae, with fibrous coal and
but little pyrites between them.

No. 1419 COAL. "Tar Lick Coal, branch of Davis. (Main
Nolin coal.} Collected by f. R. Proctor. Five and a half
feet thick."
A deep-black coal, with soft bituminous matter between the



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