Copyright
Kentucky Geological Survey.

[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) online

. (page 6 of 34)
Online LibraryKentucky Geological Survey[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 6 of 34)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


thin laminae, and but little fibrous coal or pyrites.

66



CHEMICAL REPORT.



6 7



No. 1420 COAL. "From Mill branch of Bear Creek. Average

sample, by P. N. Moore"

Much of it breaks into thin laminae, with but little fibrous
coal, and some fine-granular pyrites between.

COMPOSITION OF THESE EDMONSON COUNTY COALS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1413


No. 1414


No. 1415


No. 1416


No. 1417


No. 1418


No. 1419


No. 1470




1.282


I-3SO


1.367


1-345


1.429


1-336


1-335


1-437






2.30
32.10
65.60


3.60
33.00
63.40


3.20
33-8o
63.00


2.60
33-So
63.60


1.20
39.00

59.80


3.66

35-14
61.20


4.06

33-24
6-2 . 70


4.06
32.00
63.94


Volatile combustible matters
Coke


Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


100-00


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO






35-4
56.3
9-3


36.60

54-4
9.00


37.00

52.60

10.40


36.40

53.14

10.46


40.20
45.46
14-34


38.80
54-26

6.04


37-3

51-7

1 1. CO


36.06

50.84

13.10


Fixed carbon in the coke




Total


TOO. CO


TOO 00


. IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


100.00




Character of the coke


Cellular.


Spongy.


Moder-
ately
dense.


Spongy .


Dense.


Light
cellular.


Spongy.


Light
spongy.






Light li-
lac-grey


Lilac-
grey.


Lilac-
grey.


Light-
grey.


Dark

greyish-
purple.


Lilac-
grey.


Light
lilac-
grey.


Grey-
lilac.




Per centage of sulphur


1.059


V. 101


2.923


2-425


8.685


2.706


1.670


4.938


Per centage of phosphoric acid


not est.


not est.


not est.


not est.


o. 178


not est.


not est.


not est.



These Edmonson county coals answer very well for the ordi-
nary purposes of fuel, and those which do not contain an inor-
dinate quantity of sulphur will doubtless answer well for the
working of iron. No. 1417, however, contains more than
eight per cent, of this ingredient, and more than fourteen per
cent, of ashes, containing a notable proportion of phosphoric
acid. Yet even this impure coal contains more than eighty-
four per cent, of combustible matters, including part of the
sulphur (some of which, however, remains in the ashes com-
bined with iron), and may answer for ordinary fuel.

[For other Edmonson county ores, see Appendix.]

CAST IRON from Baker Furnace. Some fragments from this

old furnace, which had been exposed to the weather for twenty

6 7



68 CHEMICAL REPORT.

years, were collected by Prof. Shaler, for examination of its
general quality.

It is a fine-grained, light-grey iron, which is more tenacious
and extends more under the hammer than most samples of
best pig iron. Possibly it has been improved in this respect
by its long weathering in thin pieces. The analysis of a piece
of the pig iron from this furnace will be found in the Ap-
pendix.

[For Nos. 1421, 1422, and 1423, see Barren county.]
FAYETTE COUNTY.

No. 1424 "SURFACE SOIL to depth of one foot, of a field which
has not been very long in cultivation, principally in hemp, of
which it no longer produces very good crops. Blue-grass land,
seven miles from Lexington on the Newtown Turnpike. Sub-
stratum, Lower Silurian blue limestone. Land of E. M. Cole-
man." Why is it not very good hemp land?
Soil of a light greyish-brown color. It all passed through
the coarse sieve, of 289 meshes to inch, except a small propor-
tion of shot-iron ore and irregular fragments of chert.

No. 1425 "SoiL to the depth of four inches from an old field
fifty years or more in cultivation almost without intermission,
without manure of any kind, principally in hemp and corn,
with occasionally small grain. Farm of R. Peter, formerly
of the late Col. S. Meredith, on the Newtown road, six and a
half miles from Lexington; blue-grass land. Sub-stratum,
blue limestone of the Lower Silurian formation."
Soil of a warm grey-brown color ; containing only a few

small angular fragments of weathered and porous chert.

This field was selected by my son, Benj. D. Peter, for some

experimental agricultural operations, which he has reported to

Prof. Shaler.

68



CHEMICAL REPORT. 69

COMPOSITION OF THESE FAYETTE COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1424.


No. 1425.


Organic and volatile matters


6. 740


6. 57C




8.890


8. 200


Lime carbonate


.74t


.440


Magnesia ...


.^66


.221


Phosphoric acid


. ^"JO


.116


Sulphuric acid


.06?


.016


Potash


. 1 60


24.7


Soda


.CK7


.261


Sand and insoluble silicates


81 .467


8^. ^40


Water and loss . . . . ,


i . cc6


. ^62








Total


IOO OOO


IOO OOO








Potash in the insoluble silicates


O.QCK


1 .256








Soda in the insoluble silicates


.844


. IOI









The apparent paucity of potash in No. 1424 may account
for its failure to produce good hemp crops.

As compared with the original virgin soil of the same local-
ity, these soils contain much less organic matters (Jiumus), and
a smaller amount of potash, than that. These essential mate-
rials are especially influential in v hemp production, as the
presence of these and of lime seems to be necessary to a
vigorous growth of this plant ; the only kind of growth consid-
ered profitable by our farmers.

The current belief amongst our hemp-growers is, or has
been, that this crop does not rapidly exhaust the soil, provided
the hemp is spread for rotting on the field which produced it.

The rotting process does undoubtedly restore to the soil, in
an available condition for plant nourishment, a considerable
proportion of the fertilizing principles which had been with-
drawn from it in the crop ; but in the operation of braking the
hemp, the hemp herds and rough tow being generally burnt
on the spots where the process is performed, the alkaline and
earthy ingredients of these become irregularly deposited, and
much of the soluble fertilizing mineral matter of the ashes is
liable to be washed down into the sub-soil, to become for the
time unavailable ; while a large quantity of vegetable matter,



7O CHEMICAL REPORT.

which ought to be employed in returning to the soil the kumus,
which has been destroyed during the growth of the crop, is
converted into atmospheric gases by burning.

The adoption of some plan by which our hemp-raisers may
restore the organic matter of the hemp herds, &c., to the soil,
in the form of humus, would tend to retard the exhaustion of
the hemp land. But there exists a prejudice among them that
hemp herds are injurious to the land, which is probably not
based upon fact.

The insoluble silicates left after thorough digestion of these
soils in warm chlorohydric acid assisted by a little nitric acid,
was found upon analysis by fusion, to contain quite a large
proportion of alkalies. In both cases these silicates contained
about Jive times as much potash as was dissolved out from the
soils by the acids. This quantity of the alkalies, in combi-
nation in the insoluble silicates, so-called, is not immediately
available for plant nourishment, but yet serves to prolong
the fertility of the soil ; for these silicates, although not easily
decomposable by acids, are gradually decomposed by the
atmospheric agencies, and especially under the influence of
alkaline substances.

Hence the application of lime, for instance, to soil of this
kind, which has been measurably exhausted of its immediately
available alkalies, may, by partial decomposition of these sili-
cates, bring more of these alkalies into a soluble condition,
and thus temporarily increase its fertility.

These insoluble silicates, left after the acid digestion, when
examined with the lens, exhibit small grains, which look like
partly decomposed feldspathic mineral, sometimes of different
tints, mixed with minute rounded or angular grain's of hyaline
and milky quartz, &c.

These facts, especially that of the existence of so much
potash and soda in these insoluble silicates of the soil, throw
some light on the origin of soils ; as they tend also to aid us

in scientific agriculture.

70



CHEMICAL REPORT. Jl

No. 1426 QUICKLIME, obtained by the calcination of limestone
of some of the fossiliferous layers of the blue limestone of tJie
Lower Silurian formation. Cliff on Elkhorn Creek, northeast
boundary of the above named farm. Also some milky calca-
reous spar, from a four to six feet wide vein at the same locality,
which was mixed and calcined with the limestone.
This lime, not perfectly calcined, was used on the experi-
mental field above mentioned.

Its composition was found to be as follows :



Lime


68 . 804




.24.1




4. ">6<




.4ic


Sulphuric acid


.4.46


Carbonic acid


II . 4-sO


Potash


I .2-JO




.OQQ




6. I TO




6. S2O






Total


IOO OOO







This lime was not submitted to analysis until after it had
been exposed to the air for a few days.

It will be seen from this analysis, that lime from these
fossiliferous layers of our limestone may prove a valuable
fertilizer, on fields which have been impoverished by too
much cropping. For, not only will it, by its decomposing
action on the insoluble silicates, render a new quantity of
alkalies available for plant food, but its own considerable pro-
portions of phosphoric and sulphuric* acids, and of potash and
soda, will greatly aid in the amelioration.

No. 1426 CALCAREOUS SPAR (above mentioned} from the vein,
nearly vertical, in the blue limestone on North Elkhorn Creek,
land lately belonging to R. J. Breckinridge s estate (Bradal-
bane).

Analyzed by my son, Alfred M. Peter, as was also the quick-
lime.

*The considerable proportion of sulphuric acid given in the preceding analysis is probably
partly derived from iron sulphide sometimes diffused in this limestone.



72 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION, DRIED AT 212 F.

Lime carbonate 96.610 = 54.101 percent, of lime.

Magnesia, carbonate .401

Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides I-74O

Phosphoric acid .057

Sulphuric acid not est.

Potash . . . . ; '443

Soda .275

Silica and insoluble silicates .360

Loss .114



This nearly opaque, milky calc. spar is much stained su-
perficially with iron oxide, &c. The analysis shows a much
smaller amount of phosphoric acid than is contained in the
limestone layers ; but the proportion of alkalies, if no error is
made, is quite considerable.

WATERS OF FAYETTE COUNTY.

As is well known, the spring and well waters of this blue
limestone region are what are denominated "hard waters,"
containing a considerable quantity of dissolved carbonates of
lime and magnesia, &c.

As a type of these limestone waters, that of a remarkable
spring, the " Big Spring," on the writer's farm, about six and
a half miles from Lexington, on the Newtown Turnpike, was
selected for chemical analysis.

This "Big Spring" is a perennial stream of considerable
force, boiling up in the bottom of a sink-hole, which is some
fifty to sixty feet deep, and flowing through underground chan-
nels and caverns a considerable distance, to be discharged
into the North Elkhorn Creek.

The water was taken after the long dry season of our late
summer and autumn, and was remarkably clear ; as it always
is except after heavy rains. The temperature of it was noted
during one of our late protracted cold spells ; and when the
temperature of the atmosphere was at zero and only ten
degrees above, it maintained that of fifty-three or fifty-four;
very little below the mean of the temperature of this region.

The analyses of this water and of the waters of the bored
wells given below, were made by my youngest son Alfred
72



CHEMICAL REPORT. 73

Meredith Peter, under my inspection, as a chemical exercise,
and were very carefully and faithfully performed.

The results show that the hard waters of our springs and
wells might not only be fertilizers, when used for irrigating
growing crops, but that, as was first noted by the celebrated
Boussingault, they may supply to growing animals neces-
sary earthy salts which may be deficient in their food. That,
especially, they may supply lime to animals fed on Indian corn,
which food is found to be somewhat deficient in this ingredient.

COMPOSITION OF THE BIG SPRING WATER IN IOOO PARTS.

Held in solution by
No. 1427. free carbonic acirt.

Lime, carbonate 0.2027

Magnesia, carbonate .0227

Iron, carbonate .0027

Manganese, carbonate .0003

Alumina .0012

Phosphoric acid . . .0001

Silica .001 1



Total of sediment formed on boiling 0.2308

Contained in the
boiled water.

Lime, sulphate 0.0208

Potassium, chloride .0012

Sodium, chloride .0018

Magnesium, chloride , .0027

Silica .0074

Organic matters .0086

Lithia a trace.



Total saline matters 0.2733

The total saline matters amount to about sixteen grains to
the wine gallon of water. They are doubtless derived from
the soil and the limestone rock.

As was stated in the previous volumes of Kentucky Geolog-
ical Reports, the water obtained in this region by boring into
the limestone substratum is always more or less salt, and is
frequently accompanied with gas (carburetted hydrogen), the
flow of which, however, is not very durable. During the late
"Very dry season a number of borings were made in this neigh-
borhood (near Lexington), with the same results ; the water
smelling strongly of petroleum, and sometimes of sulphuretted
hydrogen, being always more or less brackish, and there being
generally a temporary emission of gas.

VOL. I.-CHEM. 6. 73



74



CHEMICAL REPORT.



The waters of three of these bored wells were analyzed by
my son (A. M. Peter), with the following results, viz :

No. 1428 "WATER from a bored well of Mr. Suttons, about

ninety-eight feet deep, on the Leestown road, near the Scott

county line."

A weak sulphur water.

No. 1429 " WATER from a bored well of Mr. Edward P. Gains,

about one hundred feet deep, on the Georgetown Turnpike, about
nine miles northwest of Lexington, near Donercnl"
The water rose about thirty feet in the well. Specific grav-
ity = = 1.035.

No. 1430 "WATER from a bored well, about ninety-six feet deep,

on the farm of Mr. Price McGrath, two and a half miles from
Lexington, on the Newtowu Turnpike."

The water rose to within about twenty-eight feet of surface.
Gas was evolved in considerable quantities during the boring.

COMPOSITION OF THESE WELL WATERS; in 1000 parts.
Held in solution by free carbonic acid.





No. 1428.


No. 1429.


No. 1430.




o. 1 008


0.0104


0.1711




.0882


.0018


.OO? T.




.0042


.0008


.OO62








.OOO";




a trace.




.OOO2




.0078


.0038


.OOI7












O.2OIO


0.0168


o. 1850











In solution in the boiled water.







0.6263


0.0309




0.0541

0355

.0600

.1448






















3.0246
2.9881

34-43I3
.1883

0157
.0096
.0181


5794
737
10. 1040

.1120

a trace,
a trace,
a trace.








1.9409














a trace.




2.4363


41.3188


11.8750





74



CHEMICAL REPORT. 75

The water from Mr. Button's well smells strongly of hydro-
sulphuric acid ; which was not estimated, because this could
only be done correctly at the well. All these waters contain,
in addition, a little organic matter, and a little silica in the
boiled water.

The amount of saline matters in Mr. Gains' well water is
remarkable, being about five ounces and a half to the wine
gallon. The saline matters in quantity and in kinds resemble
those of the oceans ; and doubtless had their origin in the
ancient sea under which our rock strata were deposited.

Another well bored by Mr. Wm. Adams, on his farm next
adjoining that of Mr. McGrath, gave water at the depth of
about seventy-eight feet; which rose fifty feet in the bore.
Much gas was blown out during this boring also.

The water of this well contained 0.54 of saline matter in
the thousand of the water; which, tested qualitatively, was
found to contain sulphuric, carbonic, and phosphoric acids,
chlorine, lime, magnesia, potash, iron oxide, and a trace of
lithium. It doubtless resembles that of Mr. McGrath, but is
weaker. It, like that, smells strongly of petroleum.

Mr. Jno. Keiser bored to the depth of about two hundred
and sixty feet, on an elevated ridge on his farm, about six
miles from Lexington, on the Newtown Turnpike, and obtained
only a very small quantity of brackish water, which gradually
rose to within sixty feet of the surface. Some of the borings,
taken at various depths, were preserved for examination.
They indicate the usual layers of limestone, with thin marly
shales and occasional silicious beds, of the formation in this
region.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.

No. 1431 "GREEN MARLY SHALE from below the Arsenal at
Frankfort. Bed about eight inches thick ( Upper Cambrian
Group). Collected by Prof. N. S. Skater"
A friable shale of a greyish-green color.

75



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1432 "MARLY SHALE. Same locality as the preceding, but
lying above that. Collected by N. S. Shaler."
Quite friable. Of dull olive and brownish colors.

No. 1433 " MARLY SHALE. Used as a paint at Frankfort, &c.
Sent by Mr. James L. Sneedfor analysis."
Of an olive-grey color, with some brownish-yellow mixed.

No. 1434 "MARLY SHALE. From Armstrong farm, Bridge-
port. Geological position Cincinnati Group, just below the
silicious mudstone. In same position as the marl near New-
port. Collected by Prof. N. S. Shaler" Used for paint.
Said to be good for polishing iron, &c.
Of a handsome light olive-grey color.

COMPOSITION OF THE FIRST TWO OF THESE MARLY SHALES, DRIED AT

212 F.





No. 1431.


No. 1432.


Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides


10.415


I C. 7QC


Lime, carbonate


1 .440


*.87S


Magnesia .


.800


2.208




.435


.460




.7^?8


. C.7O


Potash


3.488


T.. s6i;


Soda


.042


.318


^fater expelled at red heat . ...


e . 7 co


6.400




77.^80


70.060








Total


100.088


QQ.Q4I








Per centa^e of potash in the silicates


4.QQI


3.565








Per centage of ^oda in the silicates .


.6c.4


.4^0









* Lime.



These marly shales are remarkable for their large per cent-
age of potash ; which probably may make them valuable for
application to exhausted land of a light and sandy nature. A
previous moderate calcination with lime intimately mixed,
might, if practicable, make them more available in this respect
by setting free more or less of the potash locked up in the
insoluble silicates. It will be seen that No. 1431 contains in
76



CHEMICAL REPORT.



77



all, as much as 8.479 per cent, of potash, and No. 1432 a
total amount of 7.130 per cent.

These, and similar marly shales, have been used as pig-
ments ; for which purpose they are quite appropriate, if of an
agreeable tint, as they will not decompose the oil with which
they are mixed, are not readily altered by atmospheric agen-
cies under such conditions, and contain nothing of a poisonous
nature. Their use for scouring or polishing depends on the
very fine silicious sand contained in them.

COMPOSITION OF THE LATTER TWO OF THESE FRANKLIN COUNTY
MARLY SHALES, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1433.


No. 1434.




50.360


52.O6O


Alumina


16.816


18.831


Iron and manganese oxides


6.Q.Q7


9.2OO


Lime . . ...


8.736


T.666




.Q?6


I .2IO




.217


. 7IO


Sulphuric acid


2.280


.020


Potash (total)


T..62T.


$ .4.02


Soda (total) ...


I .7^1


.720


Carbonic acid . ... 1






Water and loss J


8.304


7.673








Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO








Per centage of phosphorus ....


OQf.


O I3Q








Per centage of sulphur


OI 2


368









Although the sulphur and iron in these marls are calculated
in these analyses as sulphuric acid and iron oxide, severally, a
portion of each, not determined, is combined as iron sulphide.
These two analyses are tabulated separately from the first two
of similar marls of this county, because in these latter analyses
the method of complete decomposition by fusion was employed,
while the first two were analyzed by digestion of the marls
in acids, and the subsequent fusion of the insoluble silicious
residue for the determination of the total amount of the alka-
lies. The remarks appended to the first two apply equally to
these.

77



78 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1435 " WATER from a bored or driven well, near the Ken-
tucky river. Water stands about thirty-four feet from the sur-
face of the ground, which is twelve to fourteen feet above low
water level in that river. The height of the well water is
affected by that of the river. Used in the steam boiler of the
Frankfort Cotton Mill Company."

The sample of the water, together with some of the white
powdery sediment and hard scale of the boiler, were sent to
the laboratory by Mr. Milton McGrew, President of the com-
pany.

Nothing had been added to the water in the boiler, and the
sediment and scale had been taken out of the boiler after
running with this water for two weeks.



COMPOSITION OF THE WELL WATER IN IOOO PARTS.
Held in solution in the water by the free carbonic acid deposited on boiling.

Free carbonic acid not est.

Lime carbonate - 2 493

Magnesia, carbonate * . .0032

Silica 0005



Sediment on boiling 0.2530

Contained in the boiled water.

Lime sulphate o.iioo

Calcium chloride O2 54

Magnesium chloride O!74

Sodium chloride 0460

Potassium chloride .0142

Soda carbonate 4 I 3

Nitric and phosphoric acids a trace.

Silica 0006

0.2549

Total saline contents of the water, 0.5079 to the thousand
parts. The fresh water gives a slight alkaline reaction with
reddened litmus ; the soda, stated as carbonate above, is doubt-
less present in it as bi-carbonate.

On examination of the white powdery boiler sediment, it was
found to be mainly lime carbonate, with about five per cent, of
magnesia carbonate, two to three of lime sulphate, more than
one per cent, of alumina and iron oxide, with a trace of phos-
phoric acid, a little silica, and traces of the alkalies.
78



CHEMICAL REPORT.



79



The hard boiler scale, on the contrary, was found to be mainly
lime sulphate, with small proportions of lime and magnesia
carbonates, and traces of silica, phosphoric acid, &c.

It is evident that the hard scale, which is the most injurious
to the boiler, may be prevented by the addition to the water of
enough carbonate of soda, say in the form of cheap soda ash,
to decompose the lime sulphate. This would probably cause
the sediment to be wholly powder.

No. 1436 SULPHUR MINERAL WATER from a bored well, ninety-
six feet deep, at Fleetwood Farm of Col. J. W. Hunt Rey-
nolds, near Frankfort.
The water stands at about twenty-five feet from the bottom.

COMPOSITION OF THIS WATER.





In 1000 parts.


In a wine gallon
(231 cubic inches).


Free hydrosulphuric acid gas


0.0343 parts.


1 .0081 grains.


Free carbonic acid gas


. 2' 7 72 ' '


1 6 . 1 7 70 ' '









Held in solution by the free carbonic acid.



Lime carbonate


I "JQ7 oarts


8 1 1 Co trains


Magnesia carbonate


. IO2Q ' '


6 0030 ' '


Iron and manganese carbonates


marked traces.


marked traces.








Total sediment on boiling


o 2426


14 1380










.2? 7? oarts.


14 . 7800 grains.


Sodium sulphide


. IOC7


6. 1670


Sodium chloride


I 0152


CQ 2I4.O


Potassium chloride


0708


4 6580


Calcium chloride


O7I ?


4 1620




.0228


i . "?Tto


Silica ...


O'? 4.7


2 OOOO






a trace.


Bromine, iodine, and lithium




marked traces.








Total


I 8250 parts


106 4420 grains.


i







A very good saline sulphur water, which may be useful in
cutaneous and parasitic diseases, granular sore eyes, some
forms of neuralgia and rheumatism, &c., &c., when employed



79



8o



CHEMICAL REPORT.



externally or internally under the advice and direction of a
physician.

This water was analyzed by the writer, for Col. Reynolds,
before the reorganization of the Geological Survey ; but it has
been reexamined recently in this laboratory, and, in addition
to the ingredients reported to him, notable quantities, not
quantitatively estimated, of iodine and lithium, were observed
in it. The water acquires a yellowish tint on standing in
bottles ; doubtless owing to the formation of sulphuretted sul-
phide of sodium by the decomposing influence of the atmos-
pheric oxygen on the hydrosulphuric acid.

FULTON COUNTY.

No. 1437 SOIL. Labeled ''Sub-soil of an old tobacco field.
The soil proper has been washed away. Field about one hund-
red and fifty feet above the Mississippi river, four miles east of



Online LibraryKentucky Geological Survey[Reports of special subjects] A[-D, F] (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 6 of 34)