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or gelatinous principles, is what is called Baregine.

By exposure of these waters to the air this dissolved nitro-
genous matter undergoes a change ; becomes less soluble and
forms a sediment, or deposit, in the spring and its channel, of
a slimy nature, which is called glairine, and which is usually
combined with other precipitated materials from the water,
such as iron and manganese sulphides, lime and magnesia
carbonates, free sulphur, &c., &c., and probably changes, by
gradual decomposition, into crenic and apocrcnic acids, &c.

G/airine, with crenic and apocrenic acids, and other sub-
stances mentioned above, were abundantly found in the
unctuous slimy sediment of these Grayson sulphur springs.
Generally more of the latter than of the crenic.

This sediment was collected by Mr. Talbutt from the bottom
of the water in the "gum" usually, from the following springs,
viz: "Centre," "Moreman," "McAtee," "Stump," and "Hy-
menial," and brought to the laboratory for examination, in
close bottles, with some of the water of the spring included.

On examination, some weeks afterward, the supernatant
water was found to be glairy in all except that from the Stump-
Spring. In those from the Centre and Moreman springs the
water over the sediment was of a dirty-olive green color, of
a sulphurous and putrescent odor, glairy, and as thick as
ordinary white of egg. When this was poured off and the
sediment agitated with more distilled water, this also became
glairy and colored, on standing ; and the same result was
obtained in a second and third operation of the kind ; the
quantity of the dissolved organic matter appearing gradually
to be diminished. The "Centre" sediment gave the most of
this glairy material; that of the "Moreman," "McAtee," and
" Hymenial " gave less, and that of the "Stump," although it
colored the water slightly, did not make it glairy or communi-

94



CHEMICAL REPORT.



95



cate to it the semi-putrescent, sulphurous odor, so marked
with the others.

The glairy colored solution, poured off from the sediment,
was evaporated and analyzed. The dark brownish solid resid-
uum, obtained by evaporation, presented the usual properties
of glairine. It burnt with a burnt-horn, ammoniacal odor, leav-
ing a large quantity, more than forty per cent., of whitish ash.
This ash was largely silicious, but contained also alumina,
iron and manganese oxides, lime, magnesia, and phosphoric and
sulphuric acids. The glairley soluble matter also contained
apocrenic acid.

The dark colored original sediments, which had thus been
washed with water to remove some of the glairine, &c.. were
found to contain much apocrenic and crenic acids, especially the
former, with alumina, iron and manganese oxides, lime, mag-
nesia, phosphoric and sulphuric acids, sulphur, &c. Becoming
somewhat charred when calcined and giving off the odor oi
burnt animal and vegetable matters. That from the " Centre"
Spring giving more of the odor of burnt animal matter. Those
of the others giving mostly the odor of burnt vegetable mat-
ter.

Doubtless the other sulphur waters of this locality also con-
tain these remarkable organic ingredients, or most of them.
What influence they have in therapeutic applications of these
waters has not been determined. It is probable, however,
that this decomposable organic material, from whatever un-
known source derived, may, by reaction upon the dissolved
earthy sulphates of the water, produce some of the sulphydric
acid which it contains.

It may be interesting to append the chemical composition
of glairine of three different varieties, as determined by J.
Jkmis. ^Comptes Rendus" X LI, page 116.)





Carbon.


Hydrogen.


N.:r:-t-.


Ashes.


Glairine, pulpy, grey
Glairine, fibrous, red .....


48.69

. . -,-


7.70
6 60


8.10

5tT


:: -
*r OO


Glairine, pulpy, green


i.' -'


- . ;


?.6o


4D.OI













95



CHEMICAL REPORT.



No. 1466 CHALYBEATE WATER, from the chalybeate well at
Gray son Springs.

Well ten feet deep ; walled up with rock, three feet square.

Water about four feet deep in well. It is said that three

streams of chalybeate and one of fresh water flow into it. A

very slight occasional evolution of gas. Temperature of the

water, 71 F. The water is raised with a wooden pump. The

sediment or deposit, where the water flows from the pump and

trough, is ferruginous, brownish-red. Reaction, neutral.

No. 1467 CHALYBEATE WATER, from, a well near Grayson

Springs; sent by Mr. Van Meter, proprietor of the springs,

for examination.

This, like the preceding, deposited a flocculent light-brown
ferruginous sediment in the containing bottle.
No. 1468 CHALYBEATE WATER, from "Indian Spring," a natu-
ral source, near Jones Mill; head of Sunfish Creek, five miles
from Paducah and Louisville Railroad. Sent for examination
by Mr. H. Haynes.

This also deposited a brownish ferruginous sediment in the
bottle.

COMPOSITION OF THESE CHALYBEATE WATERS, IN looo PARTS OF THF

WATER.





No. 1466.


No. 1467.


No. 1468.




o 207


not est


not est












o 1251


o 21580




Magnesia carbonate


a trace


0020




Iron and manganese carbonates and phosphates, with traces


0118


0800






OO22


0180


0028












O. I3QI


o. ^So


O O277










Lime sulphate


O OI IO


2 128


o 0692'






7/11




Potash sulphate




06 7








I I7O






Oo8l


I ^IO






.0076




0018






OI <\O


0086












o 1658


4 786


o 1476











96



CHEMICAL REPORT. 97

From these analyses, which can only be considered approxi-
mative, it appears that the water from the well near Grayson
Springs is the strongest and the most aperient. The small
quantity of the water sent, and the alterations which always
take place in waters of this kind, under the influence of the
atmosphere, prevent these examinations from being entirely
conclusive.

No. 1469 SOIL. "Sample to the depth of eight inches from an
old field, fifty years in ciiltivation, which has been lying un-
cultivated for the last fifteen years. Collected by C. Schenk."
Situated twenty-five hundred feet west of the twenty-first
mile-post on the Louisville and Paducah Railroad; west of Big
Clifty. Locality, six hundred and seventy feet to the right of
that road and four feet above the level of the rail. Underlying
rock, sandstone. Timber of the locality, mostly black oak, with
some white and red oak ; with a few poplars on the creeks.
Undergrowth sumach, dogwood ; much sassafras and persim-
mon. Rotation of crops: i. Tobacco; 2. Corn; i. Oats;
sometimes with clover. No manure. Yield: of corn and oats,
of each ten bushels to the acre. Soil of a yellowish light-
umber color.

No. 1470 SOIL. "Sub-soil of the preceding, taken at a depth
of from eight to forty inches. Collected by C. Schenk."
Sub-soil of a dull-light-brick color.

No. 1471 " VIRGIN SOIL. Sample to depth of six inches. Col-
lected by C. Sckenk."

From a point two hundred feet east of the twenty-second
mile-post, on above named railroad ; two hundred and fifty
feet to the right of the road, and four feet above the level of
the rail. Underlying rock, sandstone. Has been two years in
cultivation. Usual yield of this locality, according to report of
the farmers, of corn and oats, each ten to twenty bushels, and
of wheat five to ten bushels. It yields tobacco only when
manured. Timber same as in preceding.

97



98 CHEMICAL REPORT.

Soil of a greyish-brown or light umber color. The coarse
sieve (two hundred and eighty-nine meshes to inch) removed
from it a few rounded ferruginous particles only.

No. 1472 "Sub-soiL of the next preceding ; taken to the depth
of from six to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. Schenk."
Sub-soil of a light greyish-buff color. Contains a few small

rounded ferruginous particles.

No. 1473 "ViRGiN SOIL, three years in cultivation. Collected

by C. Schenk."

Sample to the depth of seven inches, from a locality one
thousand feet west of the twenty-sixth mile-post, on the Louis-
ville and Paducah Railroad, and three hundred and sixty feet
to the left of that road, at the level of the rail. Drainage
slope = 1:150. Substratum, limestone. Timber, red, black,
and white oak, with sugar-tree and poplar. Timber full of
holes, except the poplar. Undergrowth, dogwood, sassafras,
persimmon. Sometimes one hundred cords of wood to the
acre.

Rotation of crops : two years in corn ; yield, twenty-five
bushels to the acre ; one year in oats ; same yield. New land
here yields fifteen to thirty bushels of corn, twenty to thirty
of oats, and eight hundred to a thousand pounds of tobacco,
per acre.

Soil of an umber color; darker than the preceding virgin
soil. It contains a few rounded ferruginous particles.

No. 1474 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, taken at the depth of
from seven to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. Schenk."
Sub-soil of a light grey-buff color. Contains a few small
rounded ferruginous particles.

No. 1475 SOIL. "-Sample to the depth of Jive and a half inches,
of an old field, forty years in cultivation. Collected by C.
Schenk."
Near the Grayson Spring Station, Louisville and Paducah

Railroad, four hundred and fifty feet to the right of that road,



CHEMICAL REPORT.



99



at a point five hundred and thirty feet east of the twenty-six
mile-post. Fifteen feet above the level of the rail. Drainage
slope = 1:30. Substratum, limestone. Rotation of crops: two
years in corn, one in oats and clover (sometimes tobacco first).
Field has been in grass for the last three years. Yield : corn,
twelve to twenty bushels ; wheat, eight ; and oats, fifteen per
acre.

Dried soil of a brownish-grey color. Sifted out very few
small rounded ferruginous particles.

No. 1476 "SuB-soiL of the next preceding, taken from jive and
a.Jialf to thirty -six inches below the surface. Collected by C.
Schenk."
Sub-soil of a grey-buff color. Contains but few rounded

ferruginous particles.

NOTE. For the rest of this serial collection of soils, &c., made by Mr. Schenk, on and neat
the line of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, see Hardin and Ohio counties.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GRAYSON COUNTY SOILS, &c., DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1469


No. 1470


No. 1471


No. 1472


No. 1473


No. 1474


No. 1475


No. 1476


Organic and volatile matters
Alumina, and iron and manganese oxides .


3.850
7- 2I 5
345
.240
.076
Not esti
243
125
86.850
9 2 5


3-375
10.990

*93

159
.166
mated.
.308
.104
84.490
.425


4.850
5-SI5
'45
.140
-125

. 112
.051
88.790
1-325


3. 200
7-497
045
. 140
093

.105
.044
87-565
8 75
43 6


4.950
6. 195
34
.176
125

327
.023
86.780
1.075
.009


3-350
6.647
.020
.104
93

.105
.070
88.965

I. IOO


4.500
4.172
.220
.167
.118

. 120
.045
90.640

I. TOO


3-275

6.022
145
125

93
.405

' 89.580
35
.005












Sand and insoluble silicates
Water expelled at 380 F




Total












IOO.OOO


106.212


IO1.O53


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


100.454


IOI.O82


IOO.OOO




Moisture expelled at 212 F


2.025


2-925


2.125


2.700


1.950


1.650


1-775


3.500


















.828


































.624


















Character of the soil


Old field
soil.


Sub-soil


Virgin
soil.


Sub-soil


Virgin
soil.


Sub-soil


Old field
soil.


Sub-soil



Although these Grayson county soils cannot be classed
amongst the naturally very rich soils, because they are rather
too sandy ; yet, if they are well drained, they may be made
quite profitable with proper management and by the judicious



99



IOO CHEMICAL REPORT.

use of fertilizers. There is no reason, except unskillful culture,
why they are not at present more productive than is repre-
sented above. Their near vicinity to good markets should
introduce a more scientific husbandry.

GREENUP COUNTY.

No. 1477 CLAY. Labeled " Fire-clay \ Louder s land, near Ken-
ton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore"
A compact, fine-grained, non-plastic clay-stone of a light-grey
color ; hardly adhering to the tongue ; breaking readily into
sharp angular fragments ; fracture somewhat conchoidal. This,
when reduced to powder, easily works up with water into a
plastic mass, which is the case with the other samples of this
kind described below.

No. 1478 " FIRE-CLAY, two feet above the limestone ore; head
of Powder-mill hollow, two miles from Kenton Furnace. Col-
lected by P. N. Moore"
An olive-grey shaly clay, breaking easily into layers, but

not so easily across them ; adhering to the tongue.

No. 1479 " CLAY, fourth above the limestone and limestone ore,
on Pea Ridge. Thickness two to two and a half feet. Weath-
ering white. Collected by f. A. Monroe."
A whitish clay, in soft friable lumps ; colored with oxide of

iron in the crevices.

No. 1480 "CLAY; thin bed, resting on limestone ore of Pea

Ridge, near Hunnewell"

A soft friable plastic clay ; colored olive-green and brownish
and yellowish-grey.

No. 1481 "CLAY. Two and a half feet bed ; second above
limestone ore. Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe"
Olive-brownish-grey. Harsh to the feel. Breaks in angular

fragments.



CHEMICAL REPORT.



101



No. 1482 " CLAY, fourteen inches thick. Third bed above the
limestone ore at Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe."
A brownish-grey compact clay, breaking into irregular layers,

which are polished on their surfaces ; adheres slightly to the

tongue.

No. 1483 CLAY. "Fire-clay. Thomas' bank. Average sam-
ple of upper layer; five feet above the cherty limestone. Head
waters of Wing s branch of Shultz Creek. Collected by P. N.
Moore"
A compact clay-stone of a light-grey color (yellowish and

bluish) ; even fracture ; soapy feel ; not scratched by the nail ;

scarcely adhering to the tongue.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY CLAYS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1477


No. 1478


No. 1479


No. 1480


No. 1481


No. 1482


No. 1483


Silica


49 . 680
35.281
a trace.
.213
.136
.626
not est.
193

.211

13.660


62.920
20.735
3.820
.213
2.281

371
not est.
2.601
6 59

6.400


66.560
22.679
a trace.

'57
.605

.563
not est.
1.946
.690

6.800


47 . 060
36.620
a trace.
.615
.389
.626
not est.
1 .156
234

13.300


67.700
22.092
a trace.

. IOI

.285
.498
not est.
1.156
.268

7.900


55-56o
31.027
a trace.
325
403
358
not est.
1.167
.560

10.600


47.560
40.661
a trace.
.280

497
.249
a trace.
.308
.409

10.036


Alumina


Iron oxide, &c
Lime .


Magnesia .


Phosphoric acid
Sulphuric acid


Potash


Soda


Water expelled at red heat,


Total


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO





On submitting these clays to the action of the blow-pipe,
No. 1480 was found to be most softened by the heat, while
Nos. 1477, 1481, and 1483 were most refractory; the others
occupied an intermediate position. They all burnt nearly
white, but No. 1478 burnt of a light-buff color, and No. 1479,
No. 1480, and No. 1483 acquired a very light pink tint on
being calcined. They are undoubtedly all very good clays,
and the more silica they contain, within certain limits, and the
smaller their proportions of potash, soda, oxide of iron, lime,
magnesia, and phosphoric acid, the better they withstand the
melting influence of fire.

[See Carter county for other clays of this kind.]



IO2 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1484 "CoAL, No. i, used at Kenton Furnace. Average
sample."

A brittle coal, breaking into irregular layers ; fractured sur-
face dark, glossy, asphaltum-like. Impressions of reedy leaves
on the laminae, and some fine-grained pyrites.

No. 1485 " COAL, average sample, from J. Thompson s bank,
near Kenton Furnace. Bed sixteen inches thick. Collected by
J. A. Monroe."
A brittle coal, breaking into thin irregular layers, which have

much pulverulent mineral charcoal between them.

No. 1486 COAL, No. 3. "Average sample of the main coal of

Raccoon Furnace. Below the shale parting."

A dark colored coal, breaking easily into thin layers. Sep-
arated by much fibrous coal, with some fine-grained pyrites
diffused in it.

No. 1487 COAL, No. 3. "Average sample of the upper part of
the coal used at Raccoon Furnace. Mi?ie one and a third
miles east of southeast of the furnace. The upper twenty
inches of the thirty -six inch bed. Collected by P. N. Moore"
Much like the preceding.

No. 1488 COAL. "Main coal, No. 3; lower part below the
shale parting. Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore"

No. 1489 "MAIN COAL, No. 3; above the shale parting. Buf-
falo Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore."

No. 1490 COAL. "Alcorn Creek coal ; probably sub-conglom-
erate. Raccoon Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore"

No. 1491 COAL, No. I. "Hanna bank coal. Average of the
upper portion of the bed, from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore"

No. 1492 "Hanna bank coal, &c. Averaged from the lower
part of the bed, from the stock pile, by P. N. Moore. Coals
identified by Mr. Witherow."



CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 03

No. 1493 " COAL, probably No. 3 ; thirty feet below the Kidney
ore, Laurel Furnace. Average from coal shed, by P. N.
Moore"

No. 1494 COAL, No. 6; from the hill back of Amanda Fur-
nace. Average sample from all parts of the bed, by A. R.
Crandall"
A bright, jet-black, splint coal, with but little fibrous coal

between the layers. Some slight ferruginous external stain.

No_. 1495 COAL, No. 6; from branch above the shops, Hunne-
well Furnace. Averaged from the upper part of the bed only,
by A. R. CrandalL" '
Splint coal. Has but little fibrous coal between the laminae.

Slight external ferruginous stain.

No. 1496 COAL, No. 3. "From drift near Pennsylvania Fur-
nace. Averaged by P. N. Moore."
A glossy jet-black coal, with fibrous coal and very little

appearance of pyrites between the thin laminae.

No. 1497 COAL, No. 6. "From a new opening one mile above
the shops at Hunnewell Furnace. (Old Greenup Furnace.}
Average sample"
A glossy pitch-black splint coal ; shows but little fibrous coal

or pyrites.

[See Appendix for other Greenup county coals.]

103



IO4 CHEMICAL REPORT.




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104



CHEMICAL REPORT.



105



These comparative analyses show how much the coal of a
given bed may vary in its different layers in the proportion
of sulphur, ashes, &c. These Greenup county coals are
generally very good coals, well suited to the working of iron.
Some of them, however, are rather too sulphurous for this
purpose.

A certain correspondence, not perfect, is to be observed in
these coals, between their specific gravity and proportion of
ash, as is shown below :



Specific gravity.


Per centage of ash.


Specific gravity.


Per centage of ash.


.250


7.98


355


11.03


.289


5-40


365


9.86


.292


6.20


374


12.60


.300


7.06


374


13.00


.316


7.10


389


10.90


335


9.00


389


12.00


345


6.60


.420


1 2. 2O



No. 1498 LIMESTONE. "Average sample of the ferruginous
limestone from Pea Ridge. Collected by J. A. Monroe"
A compact, or fine-granular, brownish-grey limestone. Non-

fossiliferous. Varying in tint.

No. 1499 LIMESTONE. "Sub-carboniferous; used as flux at the
Raccoon Furnace. From the head of Old Town Creek"
A compact or fine-granular limestone, varying in color from

light reddish-grey to darker greenish-grey. Contains chert.

No. 1500 LIMESTONE. "Sub-carboniferous. Average sample
of the limestone used as flux at Kenton Furnace. Collected by
J. A. Monroe."
A compact or fine-granular limestone, of a light-grey color.

No. 1501 LIMESTONE. "Ferruginous. Buffalo Creek, Boone

Furnace"

A compact or fine-granular limestone ; grey-buff, varying in
tint.

105



io6



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY LIMESTONES, DRIED AT

212 F.





No. 1498.


No. 1499.


No. 1500.


No. 1501.






2.680


2.700


2.770














88.140


88.150


Q2.OSO


60 . 7 <;o




.707


.^8;


.220


2Z.6S.6










1.420










4. 167




1 760


I ?2


I 4QO




Manganese oxide )












.178


.OSI


.128


.013


Sulphuric acid


.04.4.




. 1 00


.^H


Potash


.260


not est.


not est.


not deter'd.


Soda


. 24O


not est


not est.


not deter'd.


Silica and insoluble silicates


e 060


9c6o


4.4.60


5.680




612


I 702


I .413














Total


IOO.OO


IOO.OO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOI












Per centage of lime


40. -icS


4Q.-JCQ


1 i . 1548


34.020












Per centage of phosphorus


O77


O O22


,oc6


.00?












Per centage of sulphur


.OI7


not est


.070


.126













These limestones are quite pure enough and quite good for
use as flux in the iron furnace. No. 1501 is a magnesian lime-
stone. The proportions of phosphorus and sulphur are low in
all of them. Nos. 1499 and 1500 would yield a very pure
white lime on calcination.

No. 1502 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Lower block ore, near
the level of the limestone ore. Alcorn Creek, Raccoon Fur-
nace"
A fine-granular, dark-grey ore ; adhering slightly to the

tongue.

No. 1503 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Blue kidney ore, locally
replacing the main block ore ; from drift one mile southeast

from Laurel Furnace"
1 06



CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 07

A fine-granular ore, of a grey color more or less deep ; with
very thin incrustation of limonite ore. Some portions adhere
to the tongue.

No. 1504 - - CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Main block ore,
Amanda Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore"
A dark-grey granular proto-carbonate ore, with some dense

irregular laminae of limonite ore.

No. 1505 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Conglomerate ore, on
Darby branch of Clay Lick, Buffalo Furnace. Average sam-
pler

Principally grey granular proto-carbonate ore, with some
limonite.

No. 1506 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Lower block ore" Wo-



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