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mack s bank ore, Old Town Creek. Sample from ore weathered
six months. Collected by P. N. Moore.
Mostly dense, dark-grey, fine-granular clay iron-stone, with

some coarser grained and softer, with a little limonite.

No. 1507 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled "Grey ore, or main block
ore, Baker bank drift, Laurel Furnace. Averaged by P. N.
Moore, from the stock pile. Identified by Mr. G. Coxe."
Mostly proto-carbonate ore, containing many encrinital fos-
sils, with some little limonite.

No. 1508 CLAY IRON-STONE. Labeled " Grey ore from under
the hearth rock sandstone, near Raccoon Furnace. Collected
by P. N. Moore"
Mainly brownish-grey fine-granular carbonate, with a whitish

cement. Contains some little bituminous matter. Incrusted

somewhat with reddish-brown limonite ore.

107



io8



CHEMICAL REPORT.



COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY CLAY IRON-STONES, DRIED

AT 212 F.





No. 1502


No. 1503


No. 1504


No. 1505


No. 1506


No. 1507


No. 1508


Specific gravity


3.280


3- 2 97






3.26^
















Iron carbonate
Iron peroxide


54-773
8.648
7.800
3.780
3.088
1 .204

447
.298
20 . 250


78.722
.204
2.746
2.250
.380
.421

.505
i . 160
11.340

2.272


33-321

21 .270
4.991
.980

439
a trace.

434
1.208
31-730

5.627

IOO.OOO


30.516
14.271
6.197
16.980

591
a trace.
.614
2.330
28.980


44.678
6.500
4.178
2.230
1.903
a trace.
.204
250
36.880

3-177


55-258
13.468
.670
4.880
4.528
.660
368
1.043
i 5 . 660

4.065


64.624
4.044
4.414
1.340
.836
not est.
.217

.563
20.310

3-650


Alumina


Lime carbonate ....
Magnesia carbonate . . .
Manganese carbonate . .
Phosphoric acid ....
Sulphuric acid


Silica and insol. silicates .
Water, bituminous matters,
and loss


Total




100.288


IOO.OOO


100.429


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO


IOO.OOO




Per centage of iron . . .


29.851


38.146


30.975


22.270


26.073


36.103


33-627


Per centage of phosphorus


195


.221


.189


.267


.089


.200


.095


Per centage of sulphur .


.105


.524


.483


905


.104


.416


.225


Per centage of silica . .


18.560


9.700


29.520


27.360


34-360


13.360


14.440



Some of the carbonate ores, which contain a larger propor-
tion of iron peroxide, will be found described with the limonite
ores. Phosphorus is in rather large proportion in Nos. 1502,
1503, 1504, and 1507, and sulphur exceeds in 1503, 1504, and
1505. Possibly some of this latter may be driven off in the
process of roasting the ore. No. 1505, which contains the
smallest proportion of iron, having nearly seventeen per cent.
of carbonate of lime, may yet be profitably smelted, especially
mixed with richer ores.



No. 1509 LIMONITE "Limestone ore, Samuel Wamock s land,
Tygert Creek. Bed one foot thick. Collected by A. R. Cran-

dall. Not an average sample."
1 08



CHEMICAL REPORT. 1 09

Generally of a dark reddish-brown, varying to blackish
and yellowish colors. In irregular laminae. Adhering to the
tongue.

No. 1510 LIMONITE. Labeled "Average sample of lower Block

ore, from branch of Tygert Creek."

Varying in color, hardness, &c., from dark-brown, hard, irreg-
ular laminae, to yellowish-red and brownish ochreous. Powder
of a brownish-yellow color.

No. 1511 LIMONITE (with some proto-carbonate ore); labeled
"Limestone ore, Hood 's branch of Tygert 's Creek. Average
sample. Used at Raccoon Furnace"
In irregular laminae of various tints of yellowish and reddish

brown, with some portions of clay iron-stone.

No. 1512 LIMONITE, &c. "Average sample. Poynter bank.
Raccoon Furnace."
Dark brownish-red fragments, mixed some of clay iron-stone.

No. 1513 LIMONITE. "Average sample of Two Lick 'Limestone
ore' Kenton Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore, from the
stock pile."
Generally of a dark-brown color, with incrustations of soft

ochreous ore.

No. 1514 LIMONITE. Labeled " Lower block ore" from Louder

bank. Averaged by P. N. Moore.

In irregular dark-brown laminae, with softer ochreous and
grey material intermixed and incrusting.

No. 1515 LIMONITE. "Average sample of Coon Fork Lime-
stone ore ; taken from the unburnt kiln at Kenton Furnace by
P. N. Moore, and identified by Mr. Folson."
A dense, chocolate-red ore, scarcely adhering to the tongue.

Contains some iron proto-carbonate.

No. 1516 LIMONITE. Labeled "Shover drift Limestone ore.

Average sample, by P. N. Moore, Kenton Furnace."

109



1 IO CHEMICAL REPORT.

A dense, chocolate-red colored ore, with but little ochreous
material.

No. 1517 LIMONITE. Labeled "Limestone ore. Powder Mill

Hollow, Kenton Furnace."

In irregular masses and laminae of a chocolate-brown color,
with soft ochreous ore between.

No. 1518 LIMONITE. "Average sample of lower Block ore y
from James Tliompsori s bank, Kenton Furnace. Collected by

P. N. Moore."

Laminas of dense limonite, with softer ochreous material
between, and some clay iron-stone in the interior.

No. 1519 LIMONITE. Labeled "Lower Block ore. Average
sample from Allen bank, Kenton Furnace. Collected by P.
N. Moore."
Irregular laminae of hard dark brown limonite, with much

o

brownish-yellow softer mineral between, and some whitish,
clay-like substance, in the crevices.

No. 1520 LIMONITE, &c. "Main Block ore, locally changed to
a very calcareous ore, Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N.
Moore"

Ore partly of yellowish-grey iron proto-carbonate of a
crystalline-granular structure, not adhering to the tongue ;
in parts changed into dark reddish-brown limonite, which
adheres to the tongue. Contains some small scales of mica
and a few green specks (which may contain iron phosphide).

No. 1521 LIMONITE. Labeled "Main Block ore, Little Morton
bank, Laurel Furnace. Averaged by J. A. Monroe."
In irregular curved laminae of various thicknesses, differ-
ing in color, from dark clove-brown, almost black, to reddish
and yellowish-brown ; with nodules and incrustations of softer 1
ochreous ore.



CHEMICAL REPORT. Ill

No. 1522 LIMONITE, &c. "Average sample of Kidney ore,
above the main Block ore. From the Buffalo Furnace stock
pile. Collected by P. N. Moore"
Dense dark and light-brown limonite, with a little ochreous

ore ; mixed with compact or fine-granular grey clay iron-stone.

No. 1523 LIMONITE. "Main Block ore, Brushy Knob bank,
Laurel Furnace. Average sample, from the stock pile, by P.
N. Moore" (Determine only iron and silica?)
Varying from hard dark-brown laminae to brownish-yellow

ochreous ore.

No. 1524 LIMONITE. "Kidney ore, Osenton bank, Laurel Fur-
nace. Averaged by P. N. Moore. Identified by Mr. G. Cox"
{Determine only the iron and silica?)
Curved irregular laminae of dense dark colored limonite

ore, inclosing nodules of compact clay iron-stone.

No. 1525 .LIMONITE. "Rough ore, Darby branch of Clay Lick

Creek. The upper of two lower block ores, Buffalo Furnace.

Average sample, by P. N. Moore." {Determine only the iron

and silica?}

Yellowish-brown limonite, mixed with grey iron proto-car-
bonate ore. Both showing an oolitic structure.

No. 1526 LIMONITE. "Kidney block ore, or main Block ore.

McAlister Point, Buffalo Furnace. Averaged by P. N.

Moore"

Mostly in dark, purplish-brown, irregular, curved laminae.
(One small nucleus of partly decomposed clay iron-stone
noticed.)

No. 1527 LIMONITE. "Rough block ore; below the main Block
ore, at Raccoon Furnace. Averaged by P. N. Moore"
Mostly in irregular, curved laminae, with some softer ochre-
ous ore included.



112 CHEMICAL REPORT.

No. 1528 LIMONITE. "Lower Block ore, on J. Downie's land,
Old Town Creek. Averaged by P. N. Moore"

Mostly porous, ochreous ore, with some dense limonite lam-
inae included.

No. 1529 LIMONITE. " Limestone ore ; called slate ore. Ridge
between Cane Creek and Wilson Creek, Hunnewell Furnace.
Average sample, by P. N. Moore."
Mostly moderately dense, irregular laminae, of a handsome

brownish-purple color, with some ochreous ore.

No. 1530 LIMONITE. Labeled "Lime kidney ore, Brush Creek,
Pennsylvania Furnace. Average sample, by P. N. Moore."
Principally in irregular curved laminae, of a dark color;

somewhat oolitic; inclosing, and incrusted with, some little

undecomposed clay iron-stone.



113



CHEMICAL REPORT.



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114



CHEMICAL REPORT. 115

Although some of these ores contain too much phosphorus
to make tough iron, they are generally good and profitable.
The intelligent reader can estimate their relative value by this
table.

[See Appendix for other Greenup county ores, &c.]

No. 1531 PIG IRON. "Hot blast, No. i Foundry. Probably
made in 1872 or 1873, Buffalo Furnace. Collected by P. N.
Moore."
Quite a coarse-grained, brilliant, grey iron. Yields to the

fiLe ; flattens a little under the hammer.

No. 1532 PIG IRON. " Cold blast, No. i Foundry, Buffalo

Furnace, Collected by P. N. Moore"

A moderately fine-grained, dark-grey iron, which yields
easily to the file.

No. 1533 PIG IRON. "Silver-grey hot blast iron. Made when
working very hot, so that it is very cold-short. Buffalo Fur-
nace. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A mottled, nearly white, silvery iron. Soft enough to yield

to the file, but quite brittle. Scarcely flattening at all under

the hammer.

No. 1534 PIG IRON. "No. i Foundry, hot blast iron, Ken-
ton Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron. Hard, but yields

to the file. Extends considerably under the hammer.

No. 1535 PIG IRON. "Hot blast, No. i Foundry iron; made
at the fifth casting after thirty-six hours stoppage, on full
burthen. The third casting gave grey iron. Collected by P.
N. Moore."
A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron.

No. 1536 PIG IRON. "No. 2, Foundry iron; from Hunnewell
(formerly Greenup) Furnace. Collected by P. N. Moore."
A moderately coarse-grained, grey iron ; very hard, but

yields to the file. Extends considerably under the hammer.

"5



Il6 CHEMICAL REPORT.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY PIG IRONS.





No. 1531.


No. 1532.


No. 1533.


No. 1534.


No. 1535.


No. 1536.


Specific gravity . . .


6.825


6.944


6.872


6.897


7.117


7.041


Iron


QI .6^6


04 . 7 3Q


88.106


Q2.72J.


91 668


02 768




2.790


3.62O


I .QSO


1. ^2O


2.0^0


-} .600


Combined carbon . .


a trace.


.780


.570


.660






Manganese
Silicon


.084
4. 1 06


.056
.877


.014

7. 117


.612
2.090


332
1 8l7


.020
2 CI C


Slag


.600


. 1 2O


.OOO


. 100


I 2OO


I I?O




39Q


.060


.l6q


.44.2


.128


.S82


Calcium ....


.168


. Io4


128


184


.071;


048


Magnesium
Potassium


095
.086


.082
.048


.125

.048


.190

IO4


. 122

not est.


a trace .
.ot;6


Sodium


.016


O4 I


OO2


004


not est.


a trace .


Phosphorus


.60";


6O9


768


622


1 74


684


Sulphur


. I SO


.0^7


.OIQ


.046


.041


.026
















Total


loo 845


IOI 171


IOO. 1 12


IOI 298


ioo 667


101 . i 19
















Total carbon ....


2.790


4.400


2.520


3.980


2.950


3.690



[See Appendix for other pig irons of this county.]

No. 1537 SOIL. "Surface soil, from near the top of Pea Ridge;
two hundred and fifty feet above the railroad at Hunnewell,
one and a half miles southwest of hill to east. ' Coaled land.'
Has a second growth of oak, with a few maples, hickories,
pines, &c. Above the limestone of Pea Ridge. Collected by
J. A. Monroe."
Soil of a dark yellowish-grey color. The coarse sieve (289

meshes to inch) removed from it some fragments of ferruginous

sandstone.

No. 1538 SOIL. Labeled "Sub- soil of the preceding, to eighteen

inches below the surface, &c."

Of a brownish-buff color; containing nearly half its weight
of irregular fragments of ferruginous sandstone, with ferrugi-
nous concretions.

No. 1539 SOIL. Labeled "Under clay to the two preceding,
taken to three feet below the surface."

116



CHEMICAL REPORT.



117



Clay of a brownish-buff color, with lighter colored portions
intermixed. Contains a considerable proportion of fragments
of ferruginous sandstone and ferruginous concretions, but not
quite so much as the preceding.

COMPOSITION OF THESE GREENUP COUNTY SOILS, DRIED AT 212 F.





No. 1537.


No. 1538.


No. 1539.


Organic and volatile matters .


S-OSO
6.831

a trace.
.116
.089
.058
.217

055

Not estima

86.505

I .000

.079


4-030

9-595

.123
.223

"5

.017
.231
.097
ted.

84-565
.685

319


5-ioS
9.223

.091

-034
.192
.019
.312
.120

84.695
.615


Alumina ^


Iron peroxide r












Potash


Soda


Soluble silica




Water expelled at 380 F




Total




100. OOO


100. OOO


100.406
2.150




Moisture expelled at 212 F


1.650


1-775




Potash in insoluble silicates .,


Not estima


ted.






Soda in insoluble silicates


Not estima


ted.


Under clay.




Character of soil


Coaled land
Surface soil


Sub-soil.





These soils are of medium good quality ; they would be
benefited by top-dressing with lime, and, if well drained, could
be made quite productive by judicious management, the use
of green crops, and other fertilizers. The surface soil is not
as rich in the mineral fertilizers as the sub-soil and under
clay.

HARDIN COUNTY.

No. 1540 SOIL. "Forty-five years in cultivation. Taken to
the depth of eight inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Farm of H. B. Helm; three thousand two hundred and fifty

feet west from Elizabethtown, and sixteen hundred feet to the

"7



Il8 CHEMICAL REPORT.

right of the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad (facing
Paducah), twenty feet above the rail. Slope 1:25. On lime-
stone substratum. Timber: elm, sycamore, shell-bark hickory,
hazelnut, sumach, sassafras, dogwood, &c. Rotation of crops :
lately, two years in corn ; one in oats, with three in clover,
followed by two in wheat. Yield: of corn, thirty bushels;
wheat, fifteen to twenty ; of oats, twenty-five bushels to the
acre. The land has been kept in good order and has had
some straw manure.

Soil of a dark drab color. The coarse sieve (two hundred
and eighty-nine meshes to inch) sifted out a little shot-iron
ore and small fragments of ferruginous sandstone.

No. 1541 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding ; one thousand feet to the
right of the railroad, and three thousand four hundred feet
from Elizabethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Rail-
road Twenty feet above the rail. Taken to the depth of from,
eight to twelve inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Of a lighter color than the preceding; greyish-buff. Con-
tains some fragments of chert and small quartzose and ferru-
ginous concretions.

No. 1542 " UNDER CLAY to the two preceding, taken at a depth
of from twelve to thirty-six inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Of a lighter color than the preceding, and more yellowish.
Contains some small fragments of weathered chert and ferru-
ginous sandstone, and small concretions of oxides of iron and
manganese.

No. 1543 "VIRGIN SOIL, taken to the depth of eight inches.

Farm of J. B. Bryan. Collected by C. S. Schenk"

Four thousand eight hundred feet west from Elizabethtown,

on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and twenty-eight

hundred feet from the railroad. Thirty feet above the rail.

Substratum, limestone. Timber: post oak, black and red oak,

hickory, hazel, sumach, sassafras, and dogwood. The soil in

118



CHEMICAL REPORT. I 19

this neighborhood, cultivated carelessly, yields thirty-five bush-
els of corn to the acre.

Soil of a dark drab color. Contains a notable quantity of
fragments of weathered chert and some of a fossil cyathophyl-
lum.

No. 1544 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, from the depth of from
eight to thirty-four inches. The limestone rock is thirty-six
inches below the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Color lighter than that of preceding ; of brownish-buff. Con-
tains fragments of chert, more or less weathered, and of fossils.

No. 1545 " SOIL of an old field, over forty years in cultivation

without manure. Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Seven thousand two hundred and sixty feet west of Eliza-
bethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, one
thousand one hundred and forty-three feet to the left of that
road, and ten feet above the level of the rail. Slope = 1:70.
Sample to the depth of eight inches. Timber: same as the
preceding. Rotation of crops : wheat, oats, clover, &c. Yields,
when well managed, thirty bushels of corn, fifteen to sixteen
of wheat, and twenty of oats, to the acre.

Soil of a dark drab color. Contains only a few small frag-
ments (chips) of flint.

No. 1546 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken from eight to thirty-
four inches from the surface. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Sub-soil of a lighter and more yellowish color than the pre-
ceding; brownish-buff.

No. 1547 VIRGIN SOIL, taken to the depth of eight inches. Col-
lected by C. S. ScJienk."

* Field seven thousand two hundred and sixty feet west from
Elizabethtown, eight hundred and thirty-seven feet to the left
of Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and ten feet above
the level of the rail. Slope = 1:65. Has been cultivated one
year in corn, producing forty bushels to the acre; has been



1 2O CHEMICAL REPORT.

resting five years. Had no manure. Substratum limestone,
at the depth of ten feet.

Soil of a dark drab color ; contains no gravel, and very few
small fragments of weathered chert and decayed vegetable
roots.

No. 1548 " SUB-SOIL of the preceding, taken at the depth of
from ten to thirty-four inches. Collected by C. S. Schenk"
Sub-soil of a handsome brownish-salmon color.

No. 1549 "NEW SOIL, to the depth of eight inches, farm of
Daniel KlingelsmitJis heirs. Collected by C. S. Schenk."
Eleven thousand three hundred and fifty feet west of Eliz-
abethtown, on the Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad, and
two hundred and fifty feet to the north. Three feet above
the level of the rail. Slope = 1:45. Substratum, limestone.
Has been in cultivation five years. Rotation of crops : two
years in corn ; then one each in wheat, oats, and corn. Rented
out land. No manure. Yields, of corn, thirty bushels; of
wheat, twenty ; and of oats, twenty-five bushels to the acre.
Soil of a brownish, dark-grey color. Contains no gravel.

No. 1550 "SuB-soiL to the preceding, taken at the depth of from
eight to thirty-six inches from the surface. Collected by C. S.
Schenk"

Sub-soil of a greyish-buff color. Contains some fragments
of weathered chert.

No. 1551 "SoiL, taken to the depth of eight inches, from an
old field long in cultivation; rented out, and supposed to be
worn out. Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Land of heirs of Daniel Klingelsmith, thirteen thousand
eight hundred and eighty feet west from Elizabethtown, on
Elizabethtown and Paducah Railroad ; fifty feet to the right,
on a level with the rail. Slope = 1:15. Rotation of crops:
corn, wheat, oats, clover. Yields, of corn, seventeen bushels ;
of wheat, twelve ; of oats, fifteen to sixteen bushels to the
acre. No manure.



CHEMICAL REPORT. 121

Soil of a brownish drab color. Contains some few small
fragments of much weathered chert.

No. 1552 " SUB-SOIL to the preceding, taken at from eight
to thirty-nine inches from the surface. Collected by C. S.
Schenk."
Color much like that of the preceding soil. No gravel or

chert fragments sifted out.

No. 1553 "VIRGIN SOIL. Woodland. Farm of Hay den Eng-
lish, sixty feet west of the four mile-post, on the Elizabethtown
and Paducah Railroad; four feet above the level of the rail.
Collected by C. S. Schenk."

Sample taken to the depth of twelve inches. Slope = 1:15.



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