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** which the former is the principal. Fruits which fall off the
^ trees are not collected, as they spoil rapidly ; those plucked from
"the trees are stored in the shade, as the hot sun turns them
** black. When the nuts are freshly gathered some difficulty is
" experienced in skinning them, but if they are stored for a short
" time, the skin can be readily removed with the fingers. If the
" nuts harvested exceed the demand, the surplus is skinned and
"packed with the leaves of a particular plant (Thaumatococcua
^ DanielU^ Benth.) in broad baskets made of piailm leaves, and
"stored.

" The Hausas, who are the principal consumers, convey ^It to
" the cola districts and barter it for cola, 1 lb. of salt valued at 6^.
" being exchanged for 100 cola nuts. The price of cola, in the
" districts where it is produced, fiuctuates between Zd. and la, per
" 100 nuts, but in Accra cost of transport raises it to 1^. &d. per
" 100. Cola is principally exported by sea to Lagos ; the value of
" the exports in 1900 and 1901 were £43,133 and £35,024 respec-
" tively, while the estimated annual value of the exports overland
"to the hinterland is £75,000.

" The principal cola markets in Akim are Insuaim, Essamang,
"Kwaben, Tumfa, and Kankan. In Kwaben or Tumfa it is
"possible to purchase from a single person 10 loads containing
" 2,000 nuts each. E^reviously the cola produced in Ashanti was
" only purchased by Hausas and transported by them northwards
" to the Hausa States, but the restoration of order in Ashanti and
"the completion of the railway to Kumasi has facilitated tbe
" transport of this crop to the coast.*'



XVI.-PUNOI EXOTICI, IV.

The fungi described below are new species that have been
recently received at Kew for identification. With the exception of
one from the Tibetan Tableland all are species from South Eastern
Asia. Those from Narcondam, a volcanic outlier of the Andaman
group, some ninety miles to the east of Port Comwallis in
North Andaman, were collected by Mr. C. G. Rogers, F.L.S., of

94Seo A 2



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92

the Indian Forest Department. Those from Northern India
(Dehra Dun), from Southern India (Mysore), and from Assam,
were collected by Dr. E. J. Butler, F.L.S., Cryptogamic Botanist
for India. Those from Singapore and from Christmas Island were
collected by Mr. H. N. Ridley, F.L.S., Director of the L3otanio
Garden, Singapore. The species from Tibet was collected by the
Lama XTjyen Oyatsko, who a number of years ago made a collection
for Sir George King, K.C.I.E., then Superintendent of the Royal
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, at the instance of Sir Alfred Croft,
K.C.I.E., Director of Public Instruction, Bengal.

Agaricaoeab.

Lepiota microspora, Massee.

Pileus camosulus, convexus dein expansus, late umbonatus,
pallidus, prime villoso-fibrillosus postea squamulis rufescentibus
adpressis vestitus, l'5-2 cm. latus. Lamellae liberae, subconfertae,
angustatae, albae. Sporae anguste cylindraceo-ovatae, liyalinae,
4-5-5 X 2-2*5/*. Stipes brevis, 2 cm. longus, fistulosus, aequalis,
basi bulbillosus, pallidus, infra annulum floccis albis cito deciduis
prime vestitus.

Andaman Islands. Narcondam ; on the ground, Rogers.

Distinguished at once from every known species by the very
minute, subcylindrical spores ; resembling in general appearance
and stature L. metnlaespora^ Berk. & Broome.

Omphalia Bogersi, Massee.

Pileus membranaceus, tenax, convexo-umbilicatus, glaber, hy-
grophanus, striatus, ochraceus centre obscuriore, 1'5 cm. latus.
Lamellae subdistantes, longe decurrentes, albidae« Spo7*ae hy-
alinae, ellipsoideae, basi oblique apiculatae, 7-8 x 5fi. Stipes
fistulosus, glaber, aequalis, deorsum castaneus, sursum pallidior,
4-5 cm. longus, 1 mm. crassus, basi radicatus, albo-lanosus.

Andaman Islands. Narcondam ; on the ground, Rogers,

Allied to 0. camptophylla. Berk., differing in the much more
deeply decurrent gills, and the chestnut colour of the lower portion
of the stem.

Panus ochraceus, Massee.

Pileus carnoso-lentus, tenuis, prime piano- dein expanso-
depressus, subcyathiformis, testaceo-vel lurid i-ochraceus, squa-
mulis punctiformibus obsitus, aetate glabrescens, 4-6 cm. latua.
Lame^/ae angustiflsimae, confertissimae, valde decurrentes, albae
dein pallide ochraceae, acie Integra. Sporae subcylindra?eae,
hyalinae, 7-8 x 4-5/1*. Stipes solidus, excentricus aut fere lateralis,
squamulis ochraceis obtectus, 2-3 cm. longus, 4-6 mm. crassus.

Northern India. Dehra Dun; fasciculate on dead wood,
Butle^\ n. 397.

Allied to PanUrS torulosuSy Fr., differing in the narrower, more
densely crowded gills and smaller spores.



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Leptonia altUsima, Massee.

Pileus tenais, primo convexus dein plano-umbonatos, interdum
depressns, cinerens, fibrillis obscurioribus virgatus, 4-7 cm. latus.
Lamellae distantes, posticae sinuato-aduexae, uncino decarrentes,
ex albo coerulescentes. Sporae snbglobosae, baei oblique apicu-
latae, 7 — 8 x 6-7/*. Stipes altissimus, 9-14 cm. longus, sursum
attenoatuB, subfibriilosns, cinereus, caviiB.

Malay A. Singapore Botanic Garden ; on the ground, Ridley^
No. 4.

One of the largest and most beautiful of species included in the
genus Leptonia. Allied to L. chalyhea^ Pers., and L. eurhroa^
Pers., in the colour of the gills and silky pileus.

PsiloGybe tibetensis, Massee.

Piletis submembranaceus, campanulatu^, dein expansus, glaber,
udus visciduluB, griseus cenlro brunneus vel rufescens, margine
primo involutus et albo-pruinatus, 3-4 cm. latus. Lamellae
confertae, ventricosae, postice rotundatoadnexae. ex purpureo
fuscescentes. Sporae ovatae, brunneae, 13 x 5 — 6/j. Stipes
fistulosus, subaequalis, concolor, glabrescens, 2*5-3*5 cm. longus.

TiBBT. Between Phari and Shigatse ; growing on sandy
ground. King's collector, No. 167.

Most closely allied to P, cano-f^bra, Berk. & Broome, which
dififers in the striate margin of the pileus and much smaller
spores.

POLYPORACRAE.

Polystictas 71110608, Massee.

Pileus semiorbicularis, convexo-applanatus, sessilis, villosus,
pallidus, zonis discoloribus variegatus, margine albicans, 3-5 cm.
latus. Tubuli rufescenti-ochracei, curti ; pori concolores, rotun-
dati, minutissimi. Sporae obovatae, hyalinae, basi truncatae
7-8 X 5/i.

Northern India. Dehra Dun. Southern India. Mysore;
on dead branches, BxUler, Nos. 243 and 415.

The present species possesses many features in common with
Polystictus Feeiy Fr., differing in the villose pileus, shorter tubes
and smaller pores. Flesh of pileus quite thin« whitish.

Porta ohlorina. Massee.

Sporophorum latissime effusum, chlorinum vel flavo-viride,
margine albidum, subfimbriatum, demum evanescens ; subiculum
tenue, submembranaiceum. Pori majusculi, subangulati, ore
primo integro demum lacerate. Sporae ovatae, hyalinae, 6x3
-3-5m.

Chbistmab Island. On dead wood, Ridley, No. 344.

The general habit is that of P. vuporaria, Fr., distinguished by
the clear yjellowish green colour, and somewhat angular^ not
sinuous pores.



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baedaleft suberosa, Massee,

Pileus saberosns, dimidiatus, suborbicularis, sesailis^ tennis,
margine acutas interdum lobatos, ochraceus, zonis concoloribus,
glabrinscaluB, 4-6 cm. latus. Fori in sinalos subcontortos vel
kimellosos labyrinthiformes abenntes, acie obtusa. Sportu ovatae,
hyalinae, 5-6 x 3fi.

Southern India. Mysoi^e ; on wood, Butler^ Nos. 399, 400.

Allied to Z). tenuis Berk, from which it is distinguished by
the almost glabrons pileus, clear ochraceous colour, and much
thfoker dissepiments with an obtuse edge.

Thblbphoracbab.
Stereum papyraoeum, Massee,

Pileus papyraceus, sessilis, convexo-planus, triqueter, postiee
angustatus^ obscure brunneus, obsolete zonatus, setoeo-hlrtus,
margine acuto patente. Hymenium nudum, laeve, glabrum,
cinereo-lividum, purpurascens. Sporae ellipsoideae, hyalinae,
basi apiculatae, 6-7 x 4-5^.

Assam. Khasia Hills at Wajhain ; on dead wood, Butler^
No. 380.

A well marked species, readily distinguished by the iusky
colour of every part ; the hispid pileus, and more especially by
the thin, papery texture. Allied to S. pannosum^ CkQ,y a native
of New Zealand ; in the latter, however, the pileus is glabrous,
and the texture thicker and firmer ; the spores are also larger than
in S. papyraceum.

Aurioularia Butleri, Massee.

Pileus coriaceo-gelatinosus, tenuis, flaccidus, elTusus, reflexus,
sericens, cinnamomeus, zonis concentrieis discoloribus variegatis,
m^giue lobato. Hyrnenium rugulosum, glabrum, nudum, e
cinereo-nigro purpurascens. Sporae subcylindraceae, curvulae,
hyalinae, basi oblique apiculatae, 10-11 x 5/ti.

Northern India. Dehra Dun ; on dead wood, BtUUvy
No. 255a.

A very distinct and beautiful species, sometimes imbricated and
extending laterally for a considerable distance. Most nearly
allied to A. mesenterica, Fr., which differs in the absence of a
lobed mai'gin, non-rugulose hymenium and very much larger reni-
f orm spores.



XVIL-AORICULTURE AND THE EMPIRE.

Under this title the subjoined valuable article, from the pen of
Bir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, appeared in the issue of Nature for
March 22, 1906:—

*^Natui^ for January 11 contains a short paper on a large
** subject. Seeing that the cultivation of the soil, or Agriculture,



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**4fl the fundamental condition of hnman existence with any
'* approach to ciyilisatiou, large is a very moderate description.

" I take it that the object of the writer was to discuss the part
" that the Home Country should play in advancing agriculture in
" the Empire at large. That this is a matter which seems to me
" important enough to receive a little discussion. It is one with
" which I have been a good deal occupied during the past thirty
** years. I should like tiierefore to attempt to define the present
" position of the problem a little more precisely.

** May I begin with a very obvious remark : Agriculture is a
•*8ort of 'noun of multitude.' There is undoubtedly only one
" agricultural science based on physiological principles : there are
" many agricultural 'arts' based on the application of that science,
"whetiier empirical or otherwise, to widely different physical
"conditions. The agriculture of the I^othians differs widely from
" that of Bengal, and both differ from ,that possible on the Gold
"Coast. This will seem to many an absurdly trite remark.
" Nevertheless, experience shows that it represents a fact which
'* has often been overlooked with loss and disappointment as the
" result.

" It may, I think, be confidently stated that arable cultivation
♦*lxas been brought in the British Isles to a pitch of perfection
"which is not surpassed anywhere in the world. It is, however,
"an * intensive' and highly specialised agriculture. This is
"readily illustrated by the yield of wheat per acre. On land of
" prairie value where the nitrogen removed is balanced by that
" received from the atmosphere it has been shown at Rothamsted
" that the yield is roughly some ten bushels or less. This actually
"represents the state of things in the great wheat-growing countries
" from which we draw our supplies : — Argentina, Australia, India
"and Russia, and the United States with .13 bushels are not much
" better. The yield of the United Kingdom for the five years
" preceding 1904 was 31 bushels, and this was only surpassed by
" that of our antipodal colony New Zealand, 32.

" This is largely due to the scientific research in agriculture for
" which, I think, it may be fairly claimed this country has always
"been pre-eminent. I by no means think that it is exhausted.
" I remember Sir John Lawes saying to me that having devoted
"half a century to the study of the soil actually cultivated, he
"was still absolutely ignorant as to the subsoil and the part
"played by it. Our luiowledge of the action of manures is
"mainly empirical and we have still to learn much of ils physio-
* logical significance, Without this it cannot be said that we
" possess a rational theory of manuring. Farmers must have
"wasted enormous sums in the application of nitrogenous
"manures till Frankland showed that a considerable proportion^
" passed off unused in the drain- water. .:

" I must confess that I am not clear that the arable agricultu^
"of the United Kingdom is in a backward condition, that it does
" not compare favourably with that of other countries, or that it
"stands in urgent need of Government aid in regard to reseavclv.
"Its theoretic^ principles can be taught in our Universitiea-and
*' schools : it« practice can only be learnt on the farm. Whil%



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9e

^^ saying this I must also express my conviction that the agri-
" cnltaral wealth of this country imight be increased in many
" ways. In my evidence before the recent Departmental Com-
'* mittee on Fruit Calture 1 expressed a strong opinion that the
" condition of that industry was in no way creditable to us.

*' At the moment) where, so to speak, the shoe pinches is not
" above but below. There is no dearth of scientific knowledge in
*' the country, but it floats on the surface and does not permeate.
" The scientific and even practical ignorance of the small cultivator
"is profound. The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries has tried
" to grapple with this by the wholesale distribution of carefully
" prepared leaflets. But such a method of disseminating know-
" ledge is of almost heart-breaking difficulty. I have had pre-
" pared at Kew a series of diagi*ams illustrating the diseases of
" trees, suitable for schools. The Daily G?'aphic was good enough
" to say that : — * This publication is equal to the very best of those
*'*ever sent out by the United States Department of Agriculture.'
" Yet the sale has been disappointing and the Board of Agriculture
" and Fisheries does not see its way in consequence to proceed
** with the further and still more needed series dealing with the
" Diseases of Fruit Trees. The crying need, in my judgment, at
" the moment is the introduction of intelligent cultural instruction
** into rural elementary schools.

" If we turn to India we have to face a difificult problem. The
"revenue is dependent on the land, and this in turn has to
"support a constantly increasing population. It has been sup-
" posed that this might be met by the use of British methods.
" But how ? Sir James Caird, who was sent out to study the
" problem on the spot, reported that if the produce of the land
" could be increased by one bushel per acre, all would be well.
"No doubt, but how is this intensive cultivation to be accom-
" plished ? Long cultivation has brought the land down to a
"condition of nitrogen-equilibrium. Dung is used as fuel and
" the cultivator is too poor to import artificial manures.

"In 1900 I attended a conference at the India Office on the
"qualifications of an Inspector-General of Agriculture. The
"report of the proceedings is printed in the Bltiebook of the
''Botanical Work Committee (pp. 77-78). I stated then and the
" statement met with general assent : — ' It would be the greatest
" * mistake to substitute for Indian agricultural practices western
" * methods, merely because they had succeeded in the west. . . .
"•The problem in India was how best to graft the results of
"'scientific agricultural knowledge on to the stock (the really
" ' valuable stock) of Indian agricultural practice and experience.'

"India has long had experimental farms in plenty. They
" have not been without their usefulness. But they have lacked
"permanence and a guiding principle. It now owes in great
"measure to the munificence of an American gentleman, an
" Agricultural Reseai-ch Institute at Pusa. It is further, I believe,
** intended to establish a number of subordinate stations at a cost
" of £250,000. If these are to be staffed from home forthwith the
"r«6alt will be very much what the Transvaal Director of Agri-
"culture points out. The Government of India should at once



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97

^' make up its mind what appointments it proposes ultimately to
*' make and inform the Universities at home five years in advance.
^Stndents at the Universities cannot be expected to enfarage in
*' agricultural or allied studies unless they see clearly what is to
*' come of it at the end.

" Let me turn now to the problem presented by the West Indies
**and other of our tropical possessions. Sir Daniel Morris is
*• quoted as saying in regard to the former : — * Agricultural
** * education is at the root of the successful development of these
" * Colonies.' This is perfectly true, only I rather doubt whether
**the writer of the article quit« understood the reason. In
^ temperate countries agriculture is a necessity of existence ; in
**many tropical it is not. The wasteful production of a few
'Aground provisions calls for the minimum of effort and is sufB*
'* cient to sustain indolence. But with the introduction of orderly
'* government a revenue becomes necessary. Sir Charles Bruce
"has laid it down that : — *in the Crown Colonies generally . . .
** ' the only taxable fund is the wage fund supplied by the annual
" ' proceeds of the cultivation of the land' (Proc. Colonial Institute,
'* vol. xxxvi., p. 248). To induce the negro to engage in profitable
'* cultivation instead of contenting himself with a bare modicum
'•of ground provisions, provides a source of revenue, raises his
" standard of comfort, and makes for his moral progress. But he
" has to be taught by example how to do it and this is the agri-
" cultural education which Sir Daniel Morris had in his mind. It
" is widely different from anything of the kind in the country.

" In point of fact Ti*opical Agriculture has little relation to that
'' of Temperate countries. Its methods are those of Horticulture :
" it is essentially extended gardening. For the supply of men for
'* this purpose our agricultural colleges would be of little or no
" use. The problem has had to be met in a wholly different way.
** The machinery for the purpose is compendiously described in
** the following extract from the Colonial Office List (p. xx.) : —
*^ ^ Botanic Stations . . . are small and inexpensive gardens,
" ' devised in 1885, in order to affoixl practical instruction in the
"'cultivation of tropical crops, and were intended to develop the
*** agricultural resources at first of the smaller West Indian
'* * Islands, and subsequently (1887) of British possessions in Tropical
*** Africa. Each is in charge of a Curator, who is a gardener
"* trained at Kew.' The sort of success that has attended the
^'system may be illustrated by a single example. Cacao was
** introduce to the Gold Coast from Kew. In 1891 the export
" was valued at £4. In 1900 I was able to exhibit at the Paris
" Exhibition from the Botanic Station the first sample, to the best
" of my belief, grown on the African continent when it received a
" bronze medal. In 1904 the export had risen to a value of over
** £200,000. In effect Cacao is exchanged for imported goods ;
** besides thus adding to the comfort of the cultivators, it enables
*' them to pay the taxes necessary to maintain peaceful government.

"For work of this kind the Empire has to depend on Kew
'' which is organised for the purpose as an advanced horticultural
" school. At the present moment some seventy Kew men are in
** official employment and carrying on the work I have described
" in our various tropical colonies and possessions.



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'' fiat besides native peasant caltnres British capital and enter-
" prise are also largely embarked in the tropical regions of the
"Empire in 'planting industries.' These meet with diflBcultles
" which the local Government can and does supply skilled aid to
" mitigate. Most of the West Indian Colonies have a ' Government
'^ ' Analyst.' Cambridge has secured the traditional right to train
"and supply these. Incidentally they are able to give important
" aid in dealing with agricaltural problems. The value of the
" work done by Professor Harrison in British Guiana, and Pro-
" fessor d' Albuquerque in Barbadoes can hai'dly be over-estimated.

" Oeylon possesess an almost unique staff of trained experts
" of every kind at Peradeniya, and a similar organisation is in
" process of establishment in the Federated Malay States. The
" rubber industry of the Straits Settlements owes its success to
"the Director of Public Gardens at Singapore. Besides Pusa,
" India has experienced botanical experts, all University men, at
" Calcutta, Madras and Saharunpore.

" Our self-governing colonies know pretty well how to take
" care of themselves. All possess Agricultural Departments and
"produce Journals which will compare more than favourably
" with anything at home. In Canada the Central Experimental
" Farm at Ottawa is certainly not eclipsed by any institution in
" the United States. I may be pardoned a little vanity if I
"remark that when the Transvaal Government applied to
"Washington for an Agrostologist, it received a Eew man.

" To sum up : — ^What the Home country can supply to the
" Empire is : - -(i.) cultural instructors such as are trained for
" the purpose at Kew, (ii.) men with a sound scientific training
"and a firm grasp of the principles underlying agricultural
" practice of whatever kind, and for these we must look to the
" Universities. Men who are merely familiar with British agri-
" cultural conditions will be mostly of little use unless they
" possess the flexibility of mind which will apply theory to new
" and unfamiliar conditions.''



XVIIL-DIAONOSES APRICANAE, XVI.

811. Polygala latipetala, N, E. Brown [Polygalaceae] ; affinis
P. tenui/oliae, Link, sed floribus multo minoribus facile
distinguitur.

Planta multicaulis. Caules 15-25 cm. longi, erecti, graciles,
virides, minutissime puberuli. Folia alterna, 6-17 mm. longa,
1-1*5 mm. lata, linearia, acuta, glabra. Racemi terminaleis et
pseudolaterales,3-9 cm. longi. Bracteae et bracteolae 1 mm. longae,
ovatae, subacutae, concavae, deciduae. Pedicelli 2*5-3 nun. longi,
minutissime puberuli. Sepala 2 inm. longa, inferiora connata.
Aloe 4 mm. longae, 3 mm. latae, ellipticae, obtusae, virides, maj-gine
roseo-purpureo. Petala lateralia 4 mm. longa, 5 mm. lata,



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latissime cuneato-obovata, apice truncato-rotundala, pnrpufeO-
caernlea, glabra. Carina 6*5 mm, longa, 2*5 mm. lata, obtusa
cristata, purpureo-caerulea. CapsnUi 4*5 mm. louga, 3 mm. lata
oblonga, apice breviter bifida, obtusa, glabra. Semimi strophiolata
dense albo-sericea.

Rhodesia. Mashonaland, between Umtali and Salisbury,
Hon, Mrs. Evelyn Cecily 45.

812. Abntilon Oecili, N. E. Brown [Malvaceae-Malveae] ; affine
A. Rehmannh Baker f ., sed earpellis apice rotundatis differt.

Frutex ramis velutinis et pubescentibus. Folia rotundato-
cordata, obtuse acuminata, grosse crenato-dentata, supra viridia,
pnbescentia, subtus velutino-tomentosa cum pills longioribus
munita, 5-6*3 cm. longa, 5 cm. lata, petiolis 2*5-4 cm. longis.
Florea axillares, subfasciculares. PedicelU 2-3*5 cm. longi, breviter
villoso-pub^Ksentes et velutini. Calyx ad medium 5-lobn8,
▼elntino-tomentosus, lobis ovatis acutis. Corolla 2*5 cm. diam.,
alba, basi rubro-pnrpuiea. Columna staminea rubro-pnrpurea, ad
medium parce pubescens. Carpella apice obtuse rotundata, dense
tomentosa.

Rhodesia. Manika District, on the Inyanga Mountains, 1800-
2100 m., E. Cecily 196.

813. Hibiscus mutatus, N, E, Br&wn [Malvaceae-Hibisceae] ;
aifinis H. Carsoniy Baker, sed elatior ramosior et foliis elliptico-
ovatis nee 3-nervatis dififert.

Frutejr ramosus, 1-1*3 m. altus, ramis pilis stellatis scabridis.
Folia parva, breviter petiolata, 8-12 mm. longa, 6-12 mm. lata,
elliptica vel elliptico-ovata, crenato-dentata, utrinque scabrida.
Siipnlae parvae, subulatae. PedicelU 8-17 mm. longi, scabridi.
Bracteolae 7, lineai*i-subulatae, 2-4 mm. longae. Calyx prof unde .
5-lobus, scabridus, lobis 4-6 mm. longis, 1-1*3 mm. latis, lineari-
bus, Bubobtnsis. Corolla primum alba, mox carnea vel rosea,
petsdis 2 cm. longis, suberectis, obovatis, extra sparse stellato«
pubescentibus. Styli 5, e columna staminea longe exserti.
Capaula globosa, 6-i$ mm. diam., puberula.

Rhodesia. Matabeleland, on the Matoppo Mountains, Hon.
Mrs. Evelyn Cecil, 108.

814. Helhania obtusa, N. E. Brown [Sterculiaceae-Dombeyeae] ;
affinis M. acuminataey Mast., sed foliis obtusissimis obscure denti-
cnlatis differt.

Fnitex ramis brunueo-tomentosis. Folia petiolata, 2-6 cm.
longa, 1-2 cm. lata, oblonga vel sublanceolato-oblonga, subtrun-



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