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that there is in the Kew collection of Conifers a specimen of this
remarkable Spruce. The species has been found wild only on the
summits of the Siskiyou Mountains in Northern California, and
in one locality on the coast range of Oregon. One of the rarest
of all trees, its numbers, even in a wild state, are, so far as is at
present known, limited to a few scores. The Kew plant was
presented to Kew in its seedling state by Professor Sargent, of the
Arnold Arboretum, Mass., a few years ago, and it is, we believe,
the only one alive in Europe. It is now about four feet high and
in perfect health. The species was first discovered in 1884, but
seeds were not collected till 1892. Of the thousands of young
plants raised in the Eastern States of North America from these
seeds, scarcely any survived, and a few grafted plants in the
Arnold Arboretum are all that now remain.



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17S

Picea breweriana belongs to the Omorica section of the genus
— an interesting group known commonly as the " flat-leaved
Spruces." They differ from the commoner Spruces (of which
P. excelsa is the type) in the leaves being more or less flattened
(not tetragonal), and in bearing stomata on the upper surface
only. The group is remarkable for the curiously isolated habitats
of its members ; one is found in South-East Europe, one in the
Himalaya, another in Japan, and two in Western North America.
Recent exploration in China has also revealed the existence of
allied species there. P. breweriana attains to a stature of over
120 feet, and is distinguished by its beautifully pendulous
branchlets which, whilst being no thicker than a lead pencil,
hang straight down six or eight feet in length. This characteristic
is only to be seen in adult trees ; the young specimen at Kew is
of sturdy habit, and in general appearance similar to its ally, the
Servian Spruce, P. omorica.



A photograph of the tree of Robinia Pseudacacia struck by
lightning in the Royal Gardens on May 8th last and referred to in
Bulletin No. 4, 190(>, p. 124, has been placed in the Annexe of the
Timber Museum, where are also a section from the base of the
stem and a photograph of the Deodar shattered by lightning near
the Palm House in August, 1885.



Leeythis Pruit. — Messrs. Bieber & Co., of Fenchurch
Avenue, E.C., have recently presented to the Museum a fruit of
an unknown species of Leeythis from Brazil. Its dimensions
are: — Height, 11 ins.; greatest diam., 33^ ins.; weight empty,
8| lbs., of which the operculum or lid weighs 14 ozs. This will
form an interesting addition to the series of these curious woody
fruits placed in Case 56, Museum No. 1.



Chilian or Coquito Nut Palm (Jubaea speciabilisy H.B.K.). — The
Museum is indebted to Prof. C. S. Sargent, Director of the Arnold
Arboretum, for a sample of •' Miel de Palma " or Palm Honey
from Chile, prepared from the sap extracted from the trunk. A
good tree, it is said, will yield as much as 90 gallons of sap,
which is concentrated by boiling into the thickness of treacle.
The fruits may frequently be met with in this country under the
name of " Pigmy Cocoa Nuts '* or " Stanley Nuts." The kernels
are edible and are made into various kinds of confectionery. See
Museum No. II., Case 62.

A fine specimen of this palm is growing in the Temperate
House*



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176

Orchella Weed.— Under this name, which is usoally applied to
various species of Roccella^ a specimen of Lichen from the West
Coast of South America was recently received from a Liverpool
firm for determination. The plant was found to be Parmelia
trulla, Ach. This species, so far as can be gathered, has not
been need for commercial purposes, although various other
lichens, and among them several species of Parmelia^ have been
employed as substitutes for Rocella. None of these substitutes
has been considered, however, to be of the same value as
-K. tinctoria.

Before the introduction of coal-tar dyes, Orchella or Orchil was
largely used for dyeing, the principal species so employed being
RocceLla tinctoria. At the present time, Orchella is chiefly
employed in the preparation of Litmus.



Oil-seeds.— Samples of Oil seeds for determination are frequently
received at the Museum, more particularly from Liver^xwl and
London firms. Of those recently submitted the following may be
recorded : —

OwALA of Gaboon, Opachala of the Ebob country
{Pentaclethra inacrophyHa^ Benth.), a tree of the natural order
Leguminosae, native of Upper Guinea, attaining a height of 50 or
60 feet. The thick woody pods are 20 to 25 inches long, and
3^ to 4 inches broad, and contain much-compressed dark brown
shining seeds, samples of which have been frequently received
from Liverpool oil merchants for determination.

The seeds are employed as food on the Niger, and the natives
extract a fatty oil from them which they use for domestic purposes.
The oil is also suitable for lubricating machinery, for candle-
making and soap-making. The yield of oil is estimated to be
45 per cent., and the refuse cake after the expression of the oil is
stated to contain 30 per cent, of albuminoids.

Specimens of the pods, seeds, and oil are exhibited in Case 43,
Museum No. 1. A living plant will be found in the collection.

KusAM Lac Tree of India (Schleichera trijtcgay Willd.). — A
large tree of the order Sapindaceae, found in the dry forests from
the North-west Himalaya at Sirmor, throughout Central and
Southern India, Burma and Ceylon, Java, Timor, &c. The fruit
is I to 1 inch long, containing one to three seeds, surrounded with
a whitish pulpy edible aril. According to Dymock in " Pharma-
cographia Indica," the seeds yield an oil used for burning in
lamps in India, and it is reputed to be the original Macassar oil,
and is also stated to be a valuable stimulating and cleansing
application to the scalp, which promotes the growth of the hair.
The tree is further valuable as it affords a strong durable timber,
employed to a considerable extent in India for oil and sugar mills,
rice pounders, agricultural implements, &c. It is also considered
the best tree for lac, known in commerce under the .name
of kusam.

An interesting series of products from this tree, including
Macassar oil from the Dutch East Indies, and samples of *^ Samba"



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177

or " Key NutB " and oil received from the neighbourhood of New
Oainea, are shown in Case 27, Museum No. 1. A living plant
will be found in the collection.

Shea Butter Tree (Butt/rospermum Parkii, Kotschy), found
in Upper Guinea and Nile Land. It belongs to the natural order
Sapotaceaey and attains a height of 30 to 40 feet, with a trunk 5 to
6 feet in diameter, branching like an oak, and yielding a copious
milky juice which coagulates into a friable resinous substance, re-
sembling an inferior quality of gutta,. The fruit is ellipsoid, 1^ to
2 inches long with a thin pericarp, and usually contains a single
seed with very thick cotyledons. A solid fat is obtained by the
natives by drying the kernels in the sun, after which they are
bruised and finally boiled, when the fat floats to the surface, and
is skimmed off for use. This product is employed by the natives
as food, for anointing their bodies, and also as a luminant. Shea
butter is exported to Europe for the manufacture of soap, chiefly
in combination with other oils. A gutta-like substance to the
extent of '7 to '75 per cent, is present in Shea butter. See Kew
Report for 1878, p. 38. Specimens of all these products are
contained in Case 73, Museum No. 1. A living plant will be
found in the collection.



Collection of Drawings of Orchids by the late John Day.— In
September, 1902, Mrs. Wolstenholme, of High Cross, Tottenham,
sister of Mr. John Day, well known during his period as an
amateur grower of orchids, presented to Kew the very valuable
collection of drawings of cultivated orchids made by that
gentleman. Mrs. Wolstenholme had previously bequeathed the
collection to Kew, but felt that she was delaying its usefulness
by keeping it in her possession. As delivered at Kew, it con-
sisted of 53 oblong books of about 90 pages each, with a
complete index. The books have since been bound in 17
volumes, and they contain approximately 3,000 coloured draw-
ings, with about 500 in sepia, besides copious original notes and
a large number of cuttings from the '' Gardeners' Chronicle "
and other papers relating to orchids. We have not succeeded in
finding any published biography of the author, and only a few
scattered facts concerning his life and his collections. But
Mrs. Wolstenholme has communicated the following particulars :
John Day was bom on February 3rd, 1824, in London, where
his Either, a city merchant, resided until 1840, when the family
removed to a pleasant old house in Tottenham. After his father's
death in 1851 he continued to live at the old home, and from
there he married in 1853 ; but losing his wife in 1857, he sold
the old home, and joined Mr. and Mrs. Wolstenholme at High
Cross, Tottenham, the present residence of Mrs. Wolstenholme.
Thither, in 1858, he removed his large collection of cultivated
ferns, to which he had for some years devoted much attention.
Shortly afterwards he took up the cultivation of orchids. He
built suitable houses, and soon filled them with valuable plants.
In course of time his collection became one of the richest and
most famous of the period. Then his health broke down, and he
visited the Mediterranean countrieBy which gave him a zest for



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178

travelling to more remote places, and he subsequently went to
India, Ceylon, Brazil, and Jamaica. In 1881, previous to these
longer journeys, his collection of orchids was brought to the
hammer, and realised £7,000. Three plants of Gypripedium
Stoneu var. platyiaenium^ fetched over £400. Subsequently he
again became a collector of living orchids, chiefly of rare and
curious kinds. But latterly he devoted much attention to the
dried ferns he had collected on his travels. He died on
January 15th, 1888, and his second collection of orchids was sold
in May of the same year, when a small plant of the Cypripedium
mentioned above brought the sum of £159 125.

For some years Mr. Day employed Mr. C. B, Durham, a miniature
painter, who exhibited largely at the Royal Academy and Suffolk
Street galleries between 1828 and 1858, to make coloured drawings
of orchids ; and from a note in the Kew Correspondence there
were 300 drawings by this artist made at a cost of £3 each. This
collection, described as a very fine one, was sold by auction after
Mr. Day's death, and is now the property of Mr. Jeremiah Colman,
of Gatton Park, Surrey.

We have mentioned Durham, because his name occurs here and
there in Day's books, appended to the drawing of a flower or a
plant, and because he appears to have given Day lessons in
drawing. In Book iv., p. 10, for instance, there is the note,
appended to a drawing of Gattleya hicolor: "My 9th lesson."
At p. 66 of the same book is a coloured drawing of Gattleya
Schilleriana splendens^ and the following note : " Drawn by
Mr. Durham, June, 1862 ; the first drawing he ever did here.
This from the plant bought at Mr. Allen's sale at Stevens's in
June, 1860, and the subject of Mr. Durham's beautiful drawing
in Vol. vii., p. 11."

In 1863 Mr. Day himself began sketching, the first sketch being
dated January 10, and he continued to make drawings up to
within a few weeks of his death, January 15, 1888 ; the last but
one bearincr the date November 12, 1887, the last being undated.
All of the earlier ones are in ink ; but in many places he after-
wards added coloured sketches, always giving the date when
done. The earliest sketches are somewhat rough and diagram-
matic, though botanically correct ; but he improved rapidly, and
his later work was admirably executed, both as to drawing and
colouring. Day must have been very industrious at that period,
for by the middle of February, 1864, he was half way through his
seventh book, where (page 45) there is a coloured figure of
Gyprijjedium 2Jurpuraium, with the following note : " This is
the first drawing I attempted in colours, using Gerty's paint box.
I was sufficiently satisfied with the result to buy a box for
myself." His satisfaction was quite justifiable, and his perse-
verance was soon rewarded with great success. Practically all he
did after this was coloured. In December, 1882, he wrote to Kew
applying for a pass of admission to the gardens before the general
public, in order that he might make drawings of the "smaller,
insignificant orchids." This was granted, and writing again in
1886 he mentions that he had drawn at least 70 that he had not
seen elsewhere. His last Kew drawing is dated October 29, 1887.
From time to time he presented living plants to Kew.



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179

The fact that the John Day collection contains drawings oC a
large number of the types of Reichenbach's species adds greatly
to its value, as most of them are not otherwise represented at Kew,
and probably in no other herbarium except the Reich enbachian
shut up at Vienna, which, according to the terms of Reichenbach*s
testament, will not be accessible till 1914.

W. B. H.



Additions to the Herbarium during 1902.'Donations of speci-
mens were made by more than eighty persons and institutions,
and amounted to over 11,500 sheets. The specimens purchased
amounted to about 6,500. The principal collections are enu-
merated below.

Various parts op thb World. Pr^sen^.— Cyperaceae, by
Mr. C. B. Clarke ; species of Selaginella described by Warburg and
Hieronymus, by Botanic Garden, Berlin.

Purchased : — Eneucker, " Cyperaceae et Juncaceae Exsiccatae,"
lief, iii.-iv. ; ** Qramineae Exsiccatae," lief, vii.-x.

Europe. Pr^^n/ed .-—"Kryptogamae Exsiccatae," Cent, viii.,
by the Imperial Natural History Museum, Vienna ; " Hieraciotheca
galUca et hispanica," fasc. xii., by M. G. Gautier ; Herzegovina, by
Mr. A. Callier.

Purchased : — Rehmann and Woloszczak, " Flora polonica exsic-
cata," Cent. ix. ; Degen, ** Gramina Hungarica," fasc. i. ; Dahlstedt,
Scandicavian Hieracia, Cent. xiv.

Orient. Presented : — Persia, by Mr. St. George K. Littledale ;
Syria, by the Rev. G. E. Post ; Statice hybrids from the Canary
Islands, by Dr. G. V. Perez.

Purchased : — Sintenis, Transcaspia and K. Persia, Cent, i.-iva.

Northern Asia. PurcJuised : — Karo, Amur Region.

China and Japan. Presented :—E. H. Wilson, China and
Tonkin, by Messrs. J. Veitch & Sons ; Japanese Acer and Tilia, by
Mr. Homi Shirasawa.

India. Presented .-^Simlsk Herbarium of the late Col. Sir H.
CoUett, by Mr. E. Collett ; Bombay, by Dr. T. Cooke, CLE. ;
Johore, by Mr. C. H. Ostenfeld ; Upper Burma, by Sir D. Brandis,
E.O.I.E. ; Penang, by Botanic Gardens, Penang ; various parts of
India, by Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.

Malay A. Presented .— Weinland, New Guinea, by Botanic Gar-
den, Berlin ; Tengger Mts., Java, by Botanic Gkirdens, Buitenzorg.

Australia. Presented : - West Australia, by Dr. A. Morrison ;
Victorian Characeae, by the Rev. F. M. Reader ; rare Australian
species, by Mr. J. H. Maiden; duplicates of Robert Brown's
Australian Euphorbiaceae, by the British Museum (Nat. Hist.).

Purchased : — Pri.tzel, West Australia.

New Zealand. Presented: — Set of Veronica and Gentiana,
by Mr. T. F. Oheeseman.



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180

Tropical Africa. Presented .—Gold Coast, by Mr. W. H.
Johnson ; Dawodu, Lagos, by Sir W. MacGregor, KC.M.G., C.B. ;
Angola, by Mr, J. Gossweiler ; Sudan, by Mr. A. F. Bronn ;
Uganda, by Mr. J. Mahon ; Zanzibar and Pemba, by Mr. R. N.
Lyne ; Nyasaland, by Mr. J. McCiounie ; various German col-
lections, by Botanic Garden, Berlin.

Purchased : — Zenker, Cameroons ; KSssner, British East Africa ;
Busse, German East Africa.

Mascarbnb Islands. Present .—Seychelles, by Mr. H. P.
Thomasset.

South Africa. Presented :—KomsLti Poort, by Lieut. J. W. C.
Kirk ; Major A. J. Richardson, Orange River Colony, by
Mrs. Richardson ; l^fatal, by Botanic Gardens, Durban ; Namaqua-
land, by Miss E. Foxwell ; various pares of South Africa, by
Dr. H. Bolus ; do. by Dr. Hans Schinz.

North America. Presented : — Grasses of the Western United
States, by the United States Department of Agriculture ; " Exsic-
catae Grayanae," by the Gray Herbarium of Harvard University ;
Western Minnesota Mosses, by Prof. J. M. Holzinger; North
American Trees, by the Arnold Arboretum ; Calif omian Lichens,
by Dr. H. E. Hasse.

Purchased : — Rosendahl and Brand, Vancouver Island, Cent. i. ;
Cusick, Eastern Oregon ; H. M. Hall, San Jacinto Mountains, Cali-
fornia ; Elmer, Monterey, California ; Trask, Sta. Catalina, Cali-
fornia ; C. ¥. Bilker, West Central Colorado ; Eggleston, Vermont ;
Curtiss, Southern United States, ser. viii.

Central America. Presented :— Langlasse, Mexico, by M. M.
Micheli ; Palmer, Acapulco, by the Gray Herbarium of Harvard
University.

Pu7xhased : — ^Tonduz, Costa Rica.

West Indies. Presented : — Heller, Puerto Rico, by the New
York Botanic Garden ; Britton and Cowell, St. Kitts, by the New
York Botanic Garden ; Jamaican Fungi, by the Department of
Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica.

Tropical South America. Pr^s^^^ .-—British Guiana, by
Mr. G. S. Jenman ; Langlasse, Colombia, by M. M. Micheli.

Purchased : — Miller and Johnston, Margarita Island, Venezuela.

Temperate South America. Presented .—Chile and Argen-
tine Frontier, by Mr. H. J. Elwes ; Chilian Ferns, by StafiE-Surgeon
S, W. Johnson.

Purchased : — Dusen, Chilian and Patagonian Mosses.

The most important accession was the first set of E. H. Wilson's
Chinese plants, collected during his first journey for Messrs. J.
Veitch & SonSyby whom the set was presented. The collection
contained about 2,700 numbers, chiefly from Western Hupeh.
The complete nature of the specimens deserves remark, both
flowers and fruit having been collected in a very large number of
instances. , . . /.



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181

Another yalnable addition -was the Simla Herbarium of the late
Col. Sir Henry Collett, K.C.B., presented by his brother, Mr.
Edward Collett. It is the type collection from which Collett's
Flora Simlensis was elaborated.

An interesting set of specimens from Mahe, Seychelles Group,
was contributed by Mr. H. P. Thomasset, who has devoted much
time to the investigation of the rarer trees of the island.

A fine series of specimens of Pachira aquatica, Aubl., and
P. insignis^ Savigny, accompanied by fruits, was communicated
by the late Mr. G. S. Jenmau, and was exhibited at a meeting of
the Linnean Society of London (see Proc. Linn. Soc. 1901-1902,
p. 11). It was found that the two species were best distinguished
by their flowers, and that they could not be distinguished by
their fruits, which exhibited great parallel variations in size and
shape.



Additions to the Herbarium during 1903.— Donations of speci-
mens were made by about one hundred persons and institutions,
and amounts to over 36,000 sheets. The specimens purchased
amounted to over 10,000 sheets. The principal collections are
enumerated below.

Various Parts of the World. Presented c^The Herbarium
of the late Dr. R. C. Alexander Prior, bequeathed by him.

Purchased : — ^Kneucker, " Cyperaceae et Juncaceae Exsiccatae,"
lief. V. ; " Gramineae Exsiccatae," lief, xi.-xiv. ; "^Carices Exsic-
'catae," lief. xi.

Europe. Gollections presented .• — Hampstead Herbarium of the
late Richard Heathfield, Q.C., by Mrs. Cooke Yarborough ; Algae
of the Faeroe Islands, by Herr F. Borgesen ; " Herbarium Florae
Rossicae," fasc. xix.-xxiv., by the Imperial Botanic Garden, St.
Petersburg ; " Flora Exsiccata Austro-Hungarica," Cent, xxxv.-
xxxvi,, by the University Botanical Museum, Vienna ; " Krypto-
gamae Exsiccatae," Cent, ix., by the Imperial Nataral History
Museum, Vienna.

Collections purchased: — ^Wittrock, Nordstedt and Lagerheim,
" Algae aquae dulcis exsiccatae," fasc. xxx.-xxxv. ; Rabenhorst,
" Fungi Europaei," ser. II., Cent. xliv. ; Briosi and Cavara,
" I Funghi Parassiti,'* fasc. xv. ; Dahlstedt, Scandinavian Hieracia,
Cent. XV. ; Degen, " Gramina Hungarica," fasc, ii.-iii. ; Stribrny,
" Plantae Bulgaricae Exsiccatae," Cent, iv., part.

Orient and Central Asia. Presented :—Gyi^T\iB, by Miss
M. E. Lascelles.

Par(;7ww^ .—Bornmuller, "Iter Persicum alterum, 1902";
Sintenis, Transcaspia and North Persia, Cent. \\h, — xa.

Japan, PtircAas^ .—Okamura, *' Algae Japonicae Exsiccatae,"
&8c. ii.

India. Pr^sew^ .—Bandelkhand, by Mrs. A. S. Bell; Malay
Peninsula, by Botanic Gardens, Singapore ; various parts of India,
by Botanic Gardens, Calcutta.



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182

Australia. Presented: — ^Wert Australia, by Mr. G. H.
Thiselton-Dyer.

Purchased: — C Andrews, West Australia; Max Eoch, South
Australia.

Polynesia. Presented:— H^y^ali and Fiji, by Mr. H. B. Guppy.

Tropical Africa. Presented :—WsiTneckey Togoland, by
Botanic Gardens, Berlin ; Nyasaland, by Mr. J. McOlounie ; Whyte,
British East Africa, by the British Museum ; do., by Mr. A. Whyte ;
British East Africa, by Mr. C. F. Elliott ; Portuguese East Africa,
by the Ven. Archdeacon W. P. Johnson ; Somaliland, by Major
Appleton ; Sudan, by Mr. A. F. Broun ; Grasses, by the Natural
History Museum, Paris ; do., by Dr. J. A. Henriques.

Purchased : — Zenker, Cameroons.

Mascarbnb Islands. Presented .—SeychelleSy by Mr. H. P.
Thomasset.

North America. Presented: — Arctic North America, by
Mr. D. T. Hanbury ; Canada, by Geological Survey of Canada ;
Crataegus, by the Arnold Arboretum ; Seymour and Earle,
Economic Fungi, Suppl. C, by Mr. 6. P. Clinton.

Purchased: — Holway, "Uredineae Exsiccatae et Icones," fasc. iv.;
Weiz, Labrador ; Rosendahl and Brand, Vancouver Island,
Cent. ii. ; C. F. Baker, West Coast, North America ; Elmer,
California ; Heller, California.

Central America. Pr^s^n^^d.-— Various parts, by Capt. J.
Donnell Smith ; Mexico, by Mr. C. G. Pringle ; Gatimer, Yucatan,
fasc. i., by the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago.

West Indies. Presented: — Jamaica, by the Department of
Public Gardens and Plantations, Jamaica.

Purchased : — Curtiss, Bahamas.

East Tropical South America. Presented:— Gran Chaco,
Paraguay, by Mr. Andrew Pride.

Purchased: — Hassler, Paraguay ; Robert, Matto Grosso.

West Tropical South America. Presented :—Wi[l'mmBy
Bolivian Mosses, by the New York Botanical Garden.

Purchased : — H. H. Smith, Santa Marta, Colombia.

The most important accession was the Prior Herbarium, which
has already been noticed (Keiv BulL^ 1903, p. 32).

Three valuable Tropical American collections were received
during the year. The most extensive was the second set of
H. H. Smith's Santa Marta plants, which contained nearly 2,500
specimens. Mr. Smith's original plan was to explore the whole
Department of Magdalena, Colombia, but he was prevented from
doing so by a civil war which broke out in 1899, and made
travelling practically impossible. Consequently he was restricted
to a limited area, extending about 50 miles east of the town of
Santa Marta and 40 miles south, never more than 30 or 35 miles



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183

from the coast. Mr. Smith considers that his collection is very
nearly complete for altitudes below 4,000 feet ; it is certainly one
of the finest botanical collections made in a limited area in South
America. The first set is in the Herbarium of the New York
Botanical Garden, and has been named in large part by Dr. H. H.
Rusby, with the co-operation of specialists.

A further instalment was received of Hassler's Paraguay plants,
amounting to nearly 1,500 sheets. It included his collections of
the years 1900-11)02. Most of the determinations have already
been published in the Bulletin de rHe7'hi&)^ Boissier^ under the
title Plantae Hasslerianaey edited by Dr. R. Chodat, who still
continues the list, in collaboration with Dr. Hassler. Many of
the orders have been worked out by specialists.

A valuable collection of more than 1,000 Mexican plants was
received from Mr. C. G. Pringle, in part exchange for the late
Dr. Prior's set of Hooker and Thomson's Indian plants. It
included Mr. Pringle's collections of 1901 and 1902, and his
re>issued species of the same years.

A set of over 1,200 West Australian plants, collected by
Mr. Cecil Andrews, was acquired by purchase.

One of the most interesting accessions was a collection of nearly
100 drift-fruits and seeds from the Pacific, presented by Mr. H. B.



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