Copyright
Kew Royal Botanic Gardens.

Kew bulletin online

. (page 22 of 69)
Online LibraryKew Royal Botanic GardensKew bulletin → online text (page 22 of 69)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Guppy, who has embodied the results of his observations in a
volume on plant dispersal in the Pacific {Observations of a
Naturalist in the Pacific between 1896 and 1899. Vol. II,
London, 1906).



Nymphaea capensis, Thunb.— Through the courtesy of Dr. F. R.
Kjellman, Director of the Botanic Garden, Upsala, Kew has had
the type specimen of Nymphaea capensis on loan, and Mr. J. R.
Drummond furnishes the following note on the results of his
comparison of the South African and Indian forms often referred
to N. stellatay Willd.

Nymphaea capensiSy Thunberg in Prodromus Plant. Cap. Pars
Post., p. 92 (1800). Specimen authenticum ex Herb. Upsal.

In the joint opinion of Mr. N. E. Brown and the writer of this
note, the following are identical with the above, viz., Nymphaea
scuti/olia, A. P. de Candolle in Syst. Nat. II. 50 (1821): also
N. caeruleay Dryander ined. ex Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 552 (1801) ;
also Andr. Rep. t. 197 ; and N. stellata of Harvey in Flora
GapenstSj 1. 14, (not of Willd.).

* We have not seen Krause No. 12Z5, Flora Cap- tuid Natal-landes,
p. 25, which is the N, capensis^ Thunb. of Meisner in Hooker's
London Jou7mal of Botany y I. 461, but a^ Krause collected it in
the Zitzikamma river "Uitenhage," that was probably the true
plant of Thunberg, whose name was otherwise lost sight of,
partly owing to the brevity of his description, but partly owing
to comparison with dried specimens and figures of other
Nymphaeas, notably with the Egyptian N. caerulea of Savigny
and the N, slellata of Willd., a very difEerent form which, though



Digitized by



Google



184

allied to certain West African types, does not occur in South
Africa. The true N, capensis is represented in the Kew
Herbarium by the following examples : —

457 Zeyher, in the Zwartkop River, District of Uitenhage ;

4202 Burchell, collected in Bushman's River, near Rauten-
bach's Drift, Albany Div., Nov. 2, 1813 [this is the type of
N. scuti/oliay D.C.] ; 19 Ecklon and Zeyher, 1835, " in rivulo
prope * Zeekoe-vallej ' (Cap) et in fluvio * Zwartkop*s Rivier '
(Uitenhage) Jan-Mart " ;

[In the river at Enon, Uitenhage Division] South Africa,
Drege ; 1084/P.M.O. Macowan, in fluvio Zwartkopsa Uit.
[c. 1867] ; 701 Macowan and Bolus, in alveo fluminis Zwartkop's
Kivier prope Uitenhage, Dec. 1886 ; 1041 R. Baur, Enon. b.
Uitenhage ; 2261 Wolley-Dod, Retreat Vley [leaf doubtful].

Other specimens from South Africa referred to N. capensiSy
N. scutifolia and N. steilcUa, are more or less unsatisfactory or
doubtful, and those from the Transvaal and Zambesi region rather
approach N. zamihariensiSy Caspary, a form united with
N. scuti/oliay DC, by Hook. fil. and others, but probably a good
species.

N. capensiSy Thunb., seems to be endemic in South Africa
from Cape Town to the Natal border, in rivers and pools, chiefly
near the coast ; the forms from Madagascar and the Comoro
group that have been referred to the same species appear to be
distinct, and are probably, as most species of the genus evidently
are, very local in their distribution.

Thunberg's plant was doubtless that given by Breyn (Prodr. II.,
p. 86, 1739 ed.) as " Nymphaea flore caeruleo odoratissimo Capitis
Bonae Spei " ; De Candolle quotes the same description from the
earlier edition (1689), which is the first mention seemingly of
this species. It was afterwards confounded with the scentless
Egyptian rice-field plant by Ventenat (Malmaison, 6), and with
N. stellata, Willd., under which designation it appears in Bolus
and Wolley-Dod (Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. XIV. 207) as *' locally
frequent in Vleys." Thunberg's own type appears from Schultes'
edition of the Flora Ca2)ensis to have been collected in the
Langekloof country in the month of December, A Nymphaea
from the Durban flats, figured by Wood and Evans in Natal
PlantSy Vol. 1. 1. 33, p. 29, as N. stellatay Willd., is not apparently
N. capensiSy Thunb., nor N. stellatay Willd., but rather to be
compared with N. madagascariensiSy DC, and its immediate
allies. Conard ("The Waterlilies," Washington, 1905) has duly
reduced N. scuti/oliay DC, to N. capensiSy Thunb., but we have
not been able to follow his citation of the specimens altogether,
and he does not appear to have seen the actual type of Thunberg.
There are good examples of N. scuti/oliay DC, all from the same
region as those in the Kew Herbarium, at the British Museum.



Saussurea hieracioides. Hook, f . — Mr. J. R. Drummond, who has
had occasion to examine some specimens of Saussurea in the
Kew Herbarium, has made the following note on the forms
described as 8, hieracioides by Sir J. D, Hooker and as S. viUosa



Digitized by



Google



185

by the late Mr. Franchet respectively. In the light of more
complete material now available for stndy, it transpires that the
two are conspecific.

Saussurea villosa^ Franch. in Journ. de BoL^ Vol. II. (1888),
p. 353 = Savssurea hieracioides^ Hook. fil. in Fl. Br. Ind. III. 371.

S. hieracioides, Hook, fil., was founded on a single gathering
from Tnngn in Sikkim, and named with reference to the radical
leaves which recall those of H. pihsella^ Linn.

Franchet based his S. villosa on a Yunnan plant, No. 34 Abbe
Delavay, which he diRtinguished from S. hieracioides by the heads
(in villosa) being smaller, and by the long bristles of the recep-
tacle. In all the examples then known, and in a plant collected
in Kansu by Przewalski, which has a large head like that of the
specimen now received for examination, the scapes bore one head
only, but in No. 589, collected by the late Abb6 Soulie in
Tachienlu, which in habit and the outline of the radical leaves
connects hieracioides and villosa completely, there is a scape with
two heads, while in No. 63 from the same there are numerous
heads in a rather close irregular corymb. No. 6762 Henry from
Hupeh, which Mr. Hemsley has referred to S. villosa^ Franch.,
has root leaves ne^urly a foot in length, and the scape is branched
fastigiately for about the last five inches. 607 and 653 Pratt
(Tachienlu) show the gradation in the leaves and heads quite
plainly, and there can be no doubt that the whole material noted
above as well as No. 370 Souli6 belongs to one very variable
species. I can find no difference in the paleae, which indeed
seem to vary in the same capitulum. The flowers have the smell
of the European Centaurea nigra^ Linn.

Hab. Alps of Indo-China 9-13,000' from Inner Sikkim to
Tunnan and the Kiala Province of West China.



Botanical Magazine for June.~The plants figured are Magnolia
hypoleuca^ Sieb. et Zucc, Gonioscypha eucomoides^ Bak., Oerhera
aurantiaca^ Sch. Bip., Oladiolus primulinuSy Bak., and RhodO'
dendrmi Vaseyiy A. Gray, all of which are in cultivation at Kew.
The Magnolia is a distinct species, native of Japan and Ohina,
valued in the former country for its timber and in China for the
tonic medicine prepared from its bark and flowers. The latter are
large, creamy white or white, and are produced when the leaves are
nearly mature. The Kew plant, now about 14 ft. high, was raised
from seed received from a Japanese nursery in 1890. Gonioscypha
is a Liliaceous genus of the tribe Aspidistreae. G. eucomoideSj the
only species, is a native of the Eastern Himalaya. Mr. W. Bull, of
Chelsea, first introduced it into cultivation, and he presented a
plant to Kew about the year 1886. The Gerbera is a fine species
from Natal and \he Transvaal, having fiower-heads 2-3 inches in
diameter, the ray-florets bright blood-red above and yellow beneath.
The Kew plant was purchased from Mr. Max Leichtlin, of Baden-
Baden. Gladiolus primulinus is a tropical A.frican species remark-
able in having bright yellow flowers. The plant figured was sent
to Kew by Mr. C. F. H. Monro, of Bulawayo, and flowered in a



36263

Digitized by



Google



186

frame in September last. Rliododendron Vaseyi is fonnd only in
North and South Carolina, and its closest allies are natives of
Japan. " It adds another to the now very nnmerons cases of
remarkable relationship between the Ohino-Japanese and the
AUeghanian floras." The drawing was prepared from plants
rais^ from seed communicated by Prof. Sai^ent in 1891.



Flora Capensis.— A further instalment of this work, prepared at
Kew on behalf of our South African colonies, has appeared.
This part, vol. iv., sect, i., part ii. (pp. 193-336), contains the
conclusion of the genus Erica by the late Prof. Guthrie and
Dr. Bolus. Although the conception of the species is by no
means narrow, their number reaches the enormous total of 469,
of which 87 are described here for the first time. The main
features of the distribution of the species of Erica in South
Africa have, of course, been known for a long time. They are
so obvious that the most casual observer could not have over-
looked them ; but it is only now that we are able to gauge them
accurately. About 90 per cent, are found in the " Coast Region,"
some of them extending to the "Central Region," and very -few
beyond it. "Their greatest concentration," as the authors say,
"may be on the Cape Peninsula, where 92 species have been
recorded in an area of 198 square miles ; but the home of the
more beautiful, and now rarer, species is in the Caledon
Division." Many of the species are extremely local. The great
variability of almost all the organs makes the discrimination of
individusd variations and of forms which might reasonably be
treated as species extremely difficult, and demands much experi-
ence and tact, such as can only be acquired by continued observa-
tion in the field and the study of extensive collections. No men
with better qualifications for that task than the authors could have
been found.

Considering the extremely limited distribution of numerous
species it is not surprising that not a few of them have been
collected only once, and some no doubt have since become extinct
or only exist in the cultivated state. Moreover, as the early
collectors generally paid little attention to indicating the localities
where they collected their specimens, we do not know and in
some cases may never know the exact area of those species. So far
about six per cent, of the Ericas of South Africa have had to be put
down with the vague localisation " South Africa." South African
heaths having been very much in fashion in European gardens at
the end of the 18th and in the beginning of the 19th Century, a
tendency developed towards unduly multiplying species by
naming and describing, often inadequately, garden plants, which
in many cases may have been hybrids, and of which specimens
were not always preserved. This accounts for the unusually
long list of " imperfectly known species " — there are 90 of them
enumerated on pp. 31(>-312, and of "supposed hybrids" (129).
Some of them will probably be found in continental herbaria
which the authors were not able to consult, and may yet be
cleared up with the aid of Guthrie's and Bolus's monograph.



Digitized by



Google



187

The last 21 pages of part ii., sect, i., of vol. iv., contain a portion
of Mr. N. E. Brown's account of the smaller genera of South
African Ericacefm (Philippia to Hexastemon), Among them there
is a new monotypic genus, PlatycalyXy N. E. Br., discovered by
Mr. Rust, near Riversdale. The species described by Mr.
N. E. Brown number 36, of which nine are new. Their distri-
bution exhibits the same peculiarities as that of the Erlciis.

The authors were greatly assisted in their work by the courtesy
with which the authorities in charge of the herbaria of Thunberg
(Upsala), Harvey (Dublin), and Tausch (Prag) placed the Eri-
caceas of those herbaria at their disposal. Moreover, Dr. Bolus
lent the whole of his collections of the smaller genera of South
African Encctceae^ and Prof. Engler sent some of the types in the
Berlin herbarium for comparison.



Oeorg^ Bentham.— Of the many distinguished botanists whose
labours and liberality have materially advanced the progi*ess of
the Royal Gardens, Eew, as a scientific institution, no one
approaches George Bentham for the duration, extent, and value of
the services he rendered. Hence it is that the recent publication
of a biography of that botanist* by MK Daydon Jackson, F.L.S.
— ^for a copy of which the Library at Kew is indebted to the
courtesy of the publishers — has an especial interest for the readers
of the Kew Bulletin.

The materials for Mr. Jackson's work are compiled all but
exclusively from an autobiography of 661 quarto pages, a diary
for the years 1830 to 1883 in 20 closely written volumes, in-
numerable letters, and miscellaneous memoranda. These auto-
biographical MSS. offer advantages of singular value to the
biographer, for they are written in a perfectly clear hand, without
correction or erasure, in the methodical style that characterized
their author's scientific writings. They describe many phases of
a singularly varied life — social, literary, and scientific — ^for as
son of a distinguished father — Sir Samuel Bentham— and nephew
of the great Jeremy, as an accomplished linguist, and as possess-
ing ample private means, he was welcome in the best society.
To have sifted these materials amongst which there was no dross,
and sorted the results, must have cost Mr. .Jackson great labour
and the exercise of no little judgment, and he may well be con-
gratulated on the result in his faithful picture of his hero, of
whom a good likeness fronts the title page.

It is not the purport of the Bulletin to offer a sketch of
Bentham's life and work, of which not a few appeared shortly
after his decease,! nor to indicate the numerous characteristic
episodes of his life that Mr. Jackson has rescued from oblivion^

* EngliBh Men of Science : Edited by J. Reynolds Green, D.Sc. ; George
Bentham, by B. Daydon Jackson : London, J. M. Dent & Co., 1906.

t See obituary notices in the Jonmids of the Royal, Linnean and GeographicaJ
Societies ; Nature, toI. xxx. ; the Blog^, by Sir W. Thiselton-I^er, in the Pro-
ceedlngfs of the Linnean Society, vols, for 1877-79 ; that of Prof. A. Gray in the
Jonmal of the American Society of Arts and Science, voL xxix. ; and a fuller
biography in the Annals of Botany, voL xii



Digitized by



Google



m

for it is in his relations to Eew that this publication is concerned.
These in a strict sense commenced in 1841, when Sir W. Hooker
became Director of the Royal Gardens, and continued throughout
that directorate and to within two years of the retirement of its
successor. But having regard to the fact that the Library and
Herbarium of the Royal Gardens were the fans et origo of the
scientific status of that institution, the guardians of its nomencla-
ture, and the depository of the proofs of its labours, Bentham^s
services in the formation of these must count, and they antedate
the foregoing by 18 years. It was in 1823, when a resident in the
South of France, that he visited England and took the opportunity
of going to Glasgow to present letters of introduction to Dr. (after-
wards Sir William) Hooker, then Professor of Botany in the
university of that city. The two botanists foregathered on the
spot Each was forming a botanical library and herbarium, their
scientific interests were one and the same, their friendship grew
during three succeeding visits of Bentham to Glasgow and ripened
into a life-long one. In 1854, finding that his income could not
meet the demands for space of his rapidly enlarging library and
herbarium, Bentham, with the Director's cordial approval, offered
these to the Government for the use of the Royal Gardens,
and they were, after some demur, accepted with the condition
that they should be permanently attached to that institution and
be accessible to scientific botanists. It must be borne in mind
that up to that time the Royal Gardens possessed neither of these
necessary implements for the conduct of its duties, the desideratum
being supplied by the Director's private library and herbarium,
the latter the most complete in existence ; nor was it till after his
death, 11 years subsequent to Bentham's gift being accepted, that
the treasures accumulated by the Director were rescued from the
auctioneer's hammer by the Government and the two Kew Herbaria
united.

From 1854 till his decease Bentham resided in London, and
during those 30 years he, with annual intervals of a few weeks for
rest, repaired for five days a week to the Herbarium, arriving
punctually at 10 a.m. and leaving at 4 p.m., never breaking his
long fast of 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. Here he wrote his two Colonial
Floras — Hongkongensis and Austrdliensis — Handbook of the
British Flora^ his successive classical annual addresses to the
Linnean Society, the Oenera Plantarum, and a host of minor
botanical essays ; here, too, he concluded the formation for the
University of Cambridge of a consulting herbarium of 30,000
named species from duplicates of his own and that of his friend.
Dr. Lemann, which had been left by the will of its founder to
that university, subject to a selection by Bentham for his own
purpose. This labour occupied him for ten years continuously
and was gratuitous, the university providing only paper and the
expense of mounting the specimens. During the whole of this
30 years his services were at the disposal of the Director and of
the oflBcialfi of the Garden and Herbarium in all cases where his
vast knowledge, experience, and sagacity were sought.

J. D. Hooker.



Digitized by



Google



I8d

Presentations to the Library daring 1902.— Prof. C. S, Sargent
presented 41 books or pamphlets including : Ahern, Compilation
of notes on the most important timber tree species of the Philippine
Islands^ 1901 ; Bontekoe, Gehruik en mis- hruik i*an de Thee, etc.,
1(>86 ; Burckhardty Aus dem Walde, 1865-81, 10 vols. ; Clavi,
Etudes sur Veconomie forestiere, 1862 ; Collection choisie de plantes
et arbustes, 1796, vol. i. ; Courting Die Familie der Coni/eren,
1858 ; Demontzey, Traite pratique du reboisement . . . des
inontagnes, ed. 2, 1882 ; Oattinger, The Flora of. Tennessee, etc.,
1901 ; Jacobson, Handboek voor de kultuur en fabrikatie van Thee,
1843, 3 vols., and Handboek voor het sorteren . . . van Thee^
1845 ; Lorey, Handbuch der Forstwissenschiift, 1888, 2 vols. ;
Mackenzie, Manual of the Flora of Jackson County, Missouri,
1902; Miquel, Prodomus systematis Cycadearum, 1861, and
others, mostly dealing with shrabs or trees. The Bentham
Trustees have presented the continuation of about 20 periodicals
and the following : Amatus Lvsitanus, In Dioscoridis Anazarbei
de medica tnateria libros quinque, etc., 1558 ; Dreves and Hayne,
Chcdx de plantes d^ Europe, vols, i.-v., 1802 ; Duhamel du
Monceau, Des semis et plantations des arbres, 1760 ; Petermann,
An account of the progress of the expedition to Central Africa,
performed . . . under Richardson^ Earth, Overweg & Voges
in the years 1850-63, 1854, and two fine copies of the Ortus
SanitcUis ; both are in Latin, one without place or date, but
supposed to be about 1490, and the other was published at Mainz
in 1191 ; this is the first dated Latin edition. Britton, History
of New South Wales from the Records, vol. ii., and Historical
Records of New South Wales, vols, i.-vi., 1893-98, with charts,
were received from the Agent-Qeneral for New South Wales;
7 dissertations, from Prof. H. Solereder; 2 dissertations, from
Prof. Ed. Schaer; Davaine, Recherches sur VanguiUule du bl6
nielle, etc., 1857, and the Year-Book of Phaj'macy, 32 volumes,
from Prof. A. H. Church ; Sa>chs, Text-Book of Botany, 1875,
Curtis's Botanical Magazine, new edition . . . arranged
according to the natural orders of W. J. Hooker^ vol. i., 1833,
Sir W. J. Hooker, A century of Ferns, 1854, coloured, also a
coloured copy of the Second century of Ferns in exchange for an
uncoloured one, from Sir J. D. Hooker, G.C.S.I., who has also
presented the continuation of several periodicals ; Moeller, Ana-
tomie der Baumrinden, 1882, from Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer,
K.C.M.G. ; Arrhenius, Monographia Ruborum Sueciae, 1840, from
the Regius Keeper, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh ; Ceron,
Catdlogo de las plantas del Herbario, etc., Manila, 1892, from
Dr. A. Henry ; De Wildeman, Etudes sur la Flore du Katanga,
fasc. 1 and 2, and other publications of the Musee du Congo, fivom
the Secretaire General du Departement de rint^rieur, Brussels ;
Dicksons A Co., A catalogu^e of Fruit and Forest Trees, 1827,
from Messrs. R. P. Ker & Sons ; Lelong, Culture of the Citrus in
California, 1900, from Mr. J. Burtt Davy ; Orew, The comparative
anatomy of trunks, etc., 1675, fi'om Prof. C. S. Sherrington ;
Kanjilal, Forest Flora of the School Circle, N.-W, P. \ India'],
1901, from Mr. J. S. Gamble, CLE. ; Marshall, Arbustrtmi
Americanum, etc., 1785, from the Director-in-Chlef, New York
Botanical G^arden ; New Zealand Department of Agriculture,
Conference of . . . Fruit-growers and Horticulturists, 1901,
from Mr. T. W. Kirk ; Sodiro, Contribuciones al conocimiento de



Digitized by



Google



196

ta Jlora eeuatoriana^ vionografia 1, 1900, from Mr. J. V. Sigvald
Muller ; Moore, Hie Tanganyika problem^ 1903, from the Tang-
anyika Exploration Committee, through the Bentham Trustees;
Bulletin de la Societe dauphinoise pour Vechange des plantes, ix-
xiii., xvi., 1882-89, from Monsieur R. Buser ; Catalogue of
Scientific Papers, compiled by the Royal Society of London, sup-
plementary volume, 1902, from the Royal Society ; Rumpf Oeden-
kboek, 1902, from th^ Director, Koloniaal Museum, Haarlem ; Day,
Original drawings of Orchids, 53 volumes and ind^x, presented
to Kew by the author's sister, Mrs. Wolstenholme. The following
works have been presented by their respective authors :
R. T. Baker and B. O. Smith, A research on the Eucalypts,
especially in regard to their Essential Oils, 1902 ; E. S. Barton
{Mrs. Antony Oepp), The genus Halimeda, 1901 ; F. C. E.
Bdrgesen, The Marine Algae of the Fceroes, 1902 ; J. Briquet,
Monographic des Centauries des Alpes Maritimes, 1902 \ A. H.
Church, Foodr^rains of India, supplement, 1901 ; O, Cofnes,
Chronological tables for Tobcuxo, 1900 ; F. Coulombier, Varbre
a Thi, 1900 ; /.. L. Dame and H. Brooks, Handbook of the Trees
of Neiv England, etc., 1902 ; F. H. Davey, A tentative list of
the Flowering Plants . . . of Cornwall, etc., 1902 ; fl". N,
Ellacombe, In my vicarage garden and elsewhere, 1902;
J. Oravereaux, Les Roses ciiUivies a VHay en 1902; W. R.
Ouilfoyle, Outde to the Botanic Gardens, Melbourne, [1901 ?] ;
C. W. W. Hope, The Ferns of Norths Western India, 1899-1902 ;
T, Husnot, Les Pres et le& Herba>ges, etc., 1902 ; V. L, Komarov,
Flora Manshuriae, vol. i., 1901 ; V. J. Lipsky, Ohomaya Bukhara,
etc., part 1, 1902 ; C. H: Ostenfeld, Flora Arctica, etc., part 1,
1902 ; /. Palibin, Conspectus Florae Koreae, {muI; 3, 1901 ;
J. F. Payne, On the ^^ Herbarium ^^ and ^* Hortus Sanitatis,'^
1901 ; R. A, Philippic Analogien zwischen der chilenischen und
europdischen Flora, 1893, and Botanische Excursion in das Aran-
kanerland, 1896 ; G. Radde, Die Sammlwngen des kaukasischen
Museums, Botanik, 1901 ; J. Ramirez, Sinonimia , . . deUis
plantas mexicanas, 1902 ; J, C, Schoute, Die Steldr-TIieorie, 1902 ;
H, Shirasatva, Iconographie des essences forestieres du Japon,
vol. i., text and atlas, 1899-1900 ; jP. B. Smith, Agriculture in the
New World, 1902 ; W, A. Talbot, The Trees, Shrubs, etc., of the
Bombay Presidency, ed. 2, 1902 ; J. W. H. Trail, the Flora of
Buchan, 1902. Many of the exceedingly useful publications of
the United States Department of Agriculture have been presented
by the Secretary.

The above list does not include numerous pamphlets which
have been received from their respective authors, and others,
many of them of considerable interest, which have been presented
by Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.Q., from his own library.



Zapupe Fibre Plant.— During the past year considerable interest
has been aroused in connection with a fibre plant known to the
Mexicans under the name of Zapupe. From a note on the
subject by the United States Consul at Tuxpam, published in the
Monthly Consular and Trade Reports, Washington, U.S.A., No. 298
1905, it appears that for centuries past the Indians have employed



Digitized by



Google



191

its fibre for the mannfactare of ropes, bags, lariats, bridles, cordage
and seines, but it is only recently that attention has been seriously
directed towards its industrial development.

The Zapupe plant is described as similar in appearance to the
Henequen {Agave sisalana) of Yucatan, but differs from that
plant in producing a greater number of leaves, which are also



Online LibraryKew Royal Botanic GardensKew bulletin → online text (page 22 of 69)