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Richard.

" In 1844, as the incription states, an obelisk to Allan's memory
was erected on the small island in the course of the creek which
flows through the garden to Farm Cove. At this time the tide
nearly came up to the obelisk, but filling-in operations now leave
tne obelisk some distance inland. At the demolition ot tne
Devonshire Street Cemetery the present writer took steps with
the view to the removal of Cunningham's remains. These remains
(very few) were reverently removed on May 25, 1901, and the
actual placing of them in a small leaden casket in a cavity in the
obelisk took place in his presence and in that of Mr. George
Harwood, the superintendent, and a few friends, on June 26.
Thus the obelisk in the Botanic G^dens which has for so many
years been a memorial of Allan Cunningham is now also his
tombstone. His first tombstone is carefully preserved.

"Allan Cunningham is one of the trio (Robert Brown and
Ferdinand Mueller being the others) of botanists and explorers
pre-eminent in Australian botanical work, and the permanence of
his scientific reputation is beyond the reach of controversy.
Allan Cunningham's name will, to the end of time, shed lustre on
the Sydney Botanic Gardens. He is the only man whose statue
(if he be deemed to require one) can appropriately be placed in
that area, sacred with so many botanical associations.

** For some years after Cunningham's death the management of
the Grarden was not taken sufficiently seriously. The carriage
road (part of Mrs. Macquarie's Road) from old Government House
to the Cha'.r, passed along the northern boundary of the Garden,
thus skirting the present stone wall dividing the middle and
lower gardens. This carriage road was fenced with palings, and
had the effect of shutting out the view of the harbour, for the



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217

laying out of the lower garden in the early thirties, and to which
I have already alluded, \^a8 interfered .with by reason of its
unfenced and unprotected state. It was not many years before
Mrs. Macquarie^s Road was diverted out of the Botanic Garden
into the Domain, and the fencing of the Lower Garden completed,
that is to say, the Lower (Jarden was shut off from the Domain
on the one side, and the Government House or inner Domain
and Circular Quay on the other. When that was done, the
improvement of the Lower Ghirden advanced by leaps and
bounds.

^ On April 22, 1842, died James Anderson, who had been Super-
intendent of the Garden since Allan Cunningham's resignation.
He had been the botanical collector of Captain P. P. King's
voyage to South America and the Straits of Magellan, &c., and
on Captain King's homeward voyage Anderson remained at
Sydney. His administration of the Garden appears to have been
uneventful ; at all events, I know next to nothing of the progress
of the Garden during this period. He was buried in the Devon-
shire Street Cemetery, and on its demolition in 1901 his remains
were removed to the Presbyterian section of the new cemetery at
La Perouse.

"Governor's Bourke's statue was unveiled on April 11, 18i2.
The old cottage, the former residence of one of the Domain
bailiffs, was pulled down to enlarge the road, the site fixed for
the statue being just inside the paling fence opposite to where
the cottage formerly stood.

** William Robertson succeeded Anderson, and died in July, 1844.
I know nothing of him or his work. He was succeeded by James
Kidd, who had been an overseer since July 22, 1833. Mr. Kidd
was informed officially that his appointment was only a tempo]*ary
one. On the appointment of Mr. Bid will as director, Mr. Kidd
reverted to his position of ovei-seer, a post he continued to hold
under Mr. Charles Moore till 186t>. I do not know the date of
his death. His term of office as acting superintendent appears to
have been devoid of important incident.

" The unsatisfactory state of the Garden since Allan Cunning-
ham's death had now impressed itself on the Governor and
Council, and on September 1, 1847, Mr. John Carne Bidwill was
appointed by the Governor, with the title of director (the first
time the title was used for this office), and Government Botanist
(also a new designation).

*^ Sir J. D. Hooker speaks of him as possessed of a remarkable
love of botany and knowledge of Australian plants. Our records
scarcely refer to him, but I have seen a number of letters from
him to the late Admiral P. P. King, Sir William Macarthur, and
others, showing that he had done yeoman work in hybridising
various bulbous plants. He had spent some years in New
Zealand, and the well-known Bunya Bunya (Araucaria Bidwilli)
was discovered by him and bears his name.

"Through some confusion, the Home Government also set
about making an appointment to the Botanic Gardens, and Mr.
Charles Moore was appointed director by the Secretary of State



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218

for the Colonies, and arrived in Sydney January 14, 1848. Mr.
Bidwill had to vacate his appointment on Mr. Moore's arrival,
which he did very unwillingly, and with the good wishes of the
Governor, who shortly afterwards appointed him Commissioner of
Crown Lands for the Wide Bay district of what is now called
Queensland. He died March 1, 1853, in his 38th year, after great
suffering, caused by exposure in travelling in his district. His
Queensland post afforded him many opportunities of making
botanical discoveries, and of introducing new plants, of which he
very fully availed himself. He was therefore another of the
martyrs to science, whom the hardships of early colonial explora-
tion brought to an untimely end, and was at least the fourth
officer in charge of the Botanic Gardens who succumbed to zeal
for the public service.

"Ttis directorship of the Gardens of little more than three
months did not permit him to make his mark on the institution
to the extent that he would undoubtedly have done had he
continued in office.

" He was, as I have stated, succeeded by the late Mr. Charles
Moore, who has but recently passed to his rest. With his director-
ship commenced the modern era of the Gardens. My predecessor
wrote but little, but I have been able to gather together certain
data which will enable me, if permitted, at some future time, to
lay before my readers some account of the development under his
administration of the Sydney Botanic Gardens, an institution of
which we are entitled to be proud."

J. H. Maidbn.



X2LXVI-C0L0RAD0 RUBBEE,

{Hymenoxysy Sp.)

Early in 1904 a correspondent forwarded to Kew an extract
from the Denver Post of 26th November, 1903, which gave a
somewhat enthusiastic account of the discovery by a prospector in
Colorado of a rubber-yielding plant. This was spoken of as
occurring abundantly in the hills and mesas in the vicinity of
Salida, the belt extending into the San Luis Valley, Gunniston
County, and as far south as New Mexico. In June, 1905,
Mr. E. Naylor, of Bradford, presented to the Museum at Kew a
specimen of the dried plant, together with samples of crude and
manufactured rubber obtained from it. Mr. Naylor subsequently
also conmiunicated seeds of the plant.

Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell, to whom the Museum is also indebted
for specimens of the plant and of its rubber, published an account
of the species in the Bulletin of the Colorado Museum for
December, 1903. The plant, which is a member of the natural
fctmily CompositaSy is there identified as Picradenia floribunday
utiliSy which Mr. Cockerell considers to be part of the aggregate
4'CtineUa Richardsonu Subsequently, in fiie Bulletin of the
torrey BotaniccU. Club for. 1904 P- 461> the same author has



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219

indicated that Pieradenia may be considered a subgenus of
Hymenoxyay Cass. If this view be correct the Colorado Rubber
plant is therefore a species of Hymenoxys.

In July, 1906, Mr. Naylor forwarded to Kew a further supply
of material. Accompanying this was the following extract troua
the letter which Mr. Naylor had received with the specimens :—
'^ I have obtained a sample of crude rubber from the experimental
plant at Buena Vista ; this is, of course, not vulcanised, and if
kept in a warm place will become soft and sticky. The round
piece is just as it comes from the plant ; the flat piece is after its
second trip through the machine, and in this form is shipped east
to Uie refinery. The full size of the pieces as shipped is 10 to 15
feet long and 18 inches wide. The root of the native plant yields
about 10 per cent, of rubber."

From the evidence thus obtained there is hardly room for
doubt that this species of Hymenoxys yields a rubber-like
product. This does not, however, compare favourably with many
of the lower grades of rubber already on the market. It is there-
fore somewhat doubtful whether the expectations which have
been formed regarding it in some quarters will be realised.

J. M.H.



XXXVII.-miSH GABDENS.

At the invitation of Mr. Moore, of Glasnevin, and at the desire
of the Director of Kew, I spent a fortnight in June in visiting
some of the more interesting gardens in Ireland. Mr. Moore was
fortunately able to accompany me, and, favoured by their pro-
prietors, we inspected the gardens of the following places : —
Castlewellan, Kilmacurragh, Mount Usher, Narrow Water, St. Anns,
Fota, Belgrove, Darreen, Rossdohan, Ashbourne, near Queens-
town, and sevei'al other gardens in the neighbourhood of Dublin.

Our special object was to ascertain what had been done in the
direction of establishing reputedly tender tree3, shrubs, and
perennial plants in the more favoured parts of the island. Both
Mr. Moore and myself are fairly well acquainted with the gardens
of South Cornwall and South Wales, where the climatic conditions
are similar to those of the south and west of Ireland. We were
therefore in a position to make comparisons and offer suggestions
with regard to what might be tried in Ireland. The things we
saw, however, far surpassed our most sanguine expectations.
Ireland is favoured with a climate and, in many parts, a soil most
suitable to gardening ; and fortunately a number of people who
are in a position to do so are making good use of their gardens
and estates by devoting them to what may be termed experimental
horticulture.

During the whole fortnight (the latter half of June) it rained
daily, usually in the morning, the afternoons being hot and sunny.
The vigour and healthy look of plants of all kinds under these
conditions were delightful to behold. It might reasonably be said
with regard to Irish gardening that the tools most needed are the



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saw, pruning hook, and knife. Generally the plants grow too fast
for the gardener, and where plants are set at ordinary distances
apart this has its disadvantages. The opinion formed ssd^ter a fort-
night's rapid visit to Ireland in Jane may not be worth much, but
I have no hesitation in saying that of all the countries I have seen
Ireland is as well provided by nature with cmditions favourable
to high-class land cultures — including agriculture, horticulture,
and forestry — as the best. In the opinion of competent judges
long resident in Ireland, the great need is intelligent labour, but
so long as America and other countries hold out tempting induce-
ments in the shape of better conditions of employment to the
Irish workers, the best of them will go. If the most were made
of the land by employing upon it the best of its people — ^and there
are no better gardeners than Irishmen when they are allowed to
use their intelligence — Ireland would soon become the richest
instead of, as it is now, the poorest division of the United
Kingdom.

Glasnbyin is to Ireland what Eew is to England. The collection
of plants cultivated there is remarkably rich, in some departments
the richest I know, whilst their condition is most satisfactory.
The zeal of the late and present keepers in collecting, growing,
and encouraging others to grow plants of all kinds have no doubt
largely contributed to the spread of a taste for gardening in
Ireland. This influence is now being turned to account by the
Irish Board of Agriculture in the promotion of fruit and vegetable
culture, Mr. Moore having the control of a training college where
gardeners are taught the best methods of cultivation for the best
kinds of fruit and vegetables and then sent to different stations in
the country where model gardens are formed under Mr. Moore's
superintendence. The men are trained gardeners before they
enter the college, and in return for good work they are well
paid all the time they are there. In this practical way a
knowledge of high-class horticulture is being distributed over
the country, and if this is only backed up by capital on the
one hand and an intelligent treatment of the workers on the
other, the effort cannot foil to have far-reaching results. During
the time of my visit to the college a party of Scotch farmers
were being shown round by Mr. Houston, the horticultural
science instructor, who is also editor of an excellent little
monthly journal devoted to Irish gardening. Agriculture is also
assisted in the Qlasnevin Botanic Garden by the cultivation of
plots of agricultural plants of all kinds, including grasses, plants
yielding dyes, oils, fibres, tobacco, &c. Each plot bears a label
showing name and time of sowing. There is also a garden of
herbs and other economic plants.

Before leaving Glasnevin, note must be made of the " lions " of
the collection, such as Nepenthes Rajah^ a grand plant over
20 years old ; Gleichenias, the largest specimens I have ever seen ;
EtUophiella iieetersiana^ a giant with leaves 4 feet long and
6 inches across ; the fine specimens of palms and cycads ; the
extensive and well-grown collection of orchids ; the superb water-
gardening, where Nymphaeas are magnificent ; alpine plants and
hardy ferns, all in splendid health. Certainly the national
botanic garden of Ireland is one of its most valuable assets.



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221

CUBTLBWBLLAN. The Earl of Annesley has made his garden
famous throughout Europe. It is the best proof that Ireland is a
great gardeners' country that in the lifetime of one man a hillside
should have been turned into a grand "gallery" of trees and
shrubs in which giant specimens of many kinds of Caniferae^
looking at least a century old, of many kinds of New Zealand,
Chilian, Galifomian, Himalayan, and South European trees and
shrubs in the rudest health, all testify to the genial character of
the climate, the richness of the soil, and the sagacity of the
proprietor. A full account of this gwrden, with photo-illustrations
of some of the specimen plants, was recently published by the
Earl of Annesley. As an indication of what may be found there
I may mention the following : — Picea morindoides^ a grand
specimen tree, unique in Europe ; FagiM cliffortiana ; Comv^
floridaj a big bush in flower; Fejoia sellowiana^ ^PP7 ^ ^
privet; Bestio suhverticellatus^ three years outside and looking
quite happy ; Ac&r Hookeri ; Caniyline indivisa^ true, a grand
plant with leaves 6 inches across ; Lomatia ferruginea^ a beautiful
Protead well set with flower buds and since figured for the
Botanical Magazine, There was the usual display of Olearias,
tVicnspidarias, Azalea indica^ Himalayan Rhododendrons, &c.

ElLMAOURBAGH. The garden of Mr. Thomas Acton is the
most interesting in Ireland. Here there is little evidence of keep,
but there has tHsen much judgment in the planting, and generally
things look happy. The soil appears to be deep and rich, and
there is plenty of water. The great feature at the time of our visit
was a tree of Bmbothrium coccineiim in full bloom — it was 35 feet
high with a spread of SO feet, the trunk 15 inches through, and
covered with flowers : this was planted as a baby about 30 years
ago by Mr. Acton. Desfontainea spinosOy 12 feet through ; Drimya
Winterly 30 feet high, in full bloom ; Magnolia Camphelliy 25 feet
high; Tricuspidaria lanceokUa {Crinodendron hookerianum\
18 feet high, 10 feet through, the branches weighed down by the
flowers — I never saw such a plant ; Stvammerdamia Antennariaj
10 feet high, 15 feet through, covered with flowers ; and the
Himalayan Rhododendrons — many finer 4ihan the finest in Corn-
wall— J?. Keysii (9 feet), R. Delavayi (8 feet), R. decomm (10 feet),
R. lacteum (6 feet), R. Roylei (12 feet), R. argenteum (18 feet), and
many others — not thin bushes, but fat, mostly wider than high,
and in grand health. It was worth the journey to Ireland to see
R. Falconeri there — such a bush— 18 feet high and 21 feet through,
with six main branches each over 6 inches in diameter ; it bore tiie
remains of hundreds of flower-heads, and was in the midst of
making new growth. I noted also the following (the figures in
each case indicate height and spread of branches) : — Podocarpus
chilina^ 22 feet; Saxegothea con»picua^ 15 feet by 12 feet;
Aihrotaxis selaginoides^ 34 feet ; A. Uucifoliay 20 feet ; A, imbri^
ccUa^ 15 feet ; Cupressus Ixmtanicaj with a trunk 3 feet in
diameter and a wide-spreading oak-like head ; Prumticpitya
deganSy 25 feet ; Podocarpus nubigenvs^ 20 feet ; Libocedrus
tetragona^ 12 feet; Pinus aristata^ 12 feet; Fagvs Moorei^
14 feet; F. Cunninghamii^ with a trunk 15 inches through,
40 feet high ; Olea intermediay a large tree ; Cunninghamia
sinenaisy 25 feet ; Laurelia aromaticaj planted 30 years ago, now
40 feet high and growing with great vigour ; Hex latifoliay



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12 feet ; Myrius Luma^ 15 feet by 15 feet ; Fuchsia excoHu
catay 15 feet ; Senecio Oreyi, 4 feet by 10 feet, a magrnificent mass
of yellow flowers. Ceratonia Siliq^ia, a big bush, has stood out
for 30 years. The commoner trees are well represented. I noted
Cupresaus lawsoniana, 80 feet high ; Abies Pindrow^ 50 feet ; and
there is a grand avenue of silver firs leading up to the house.
Mr. Acton, now an octogenarian, has been his own gardener all
his life.

The only nursery we visited was that of Mr. T. Smith in the
town of Newry. This is one of the most interesting gardens in
Ireland. The collection is quite botanical in comprehensiveness ;
I doubt if there is another commercial collection of hardy plants
like it anywhere. Not only for Ireland, but for England, the
continent, and even America this nursery is the " shop " for the
choice and rare among hardy plants. The proprietor, an English-
man, trained in the Chelsea nursery of Messrs J. Veitch and Sons,
is a keen collector and cultivator, and his knowledge of plants is
quite exceptional. I found many plants there that were not in
the Kew collection. The prominent features at the time of our
visit were the Verbascums, large beds of them in full flower t
Anchusa italica grandijloray Saxifraga pyramidaliSy Incarvillea
Delavayi by the thousand, the racemes 2 feet high and the flowers
enormous ; Primulas, Dianthuses, Delphiniums, Helianthemums,
and Roses. We spent the greater part of a day in the nursery
before proceeding with Mr. Smith to Narrow Water, where there
is a fine garden and collection of plants formed by the proprietor,
Captain Hall.

Mount Ushbr is the delightful garden retreat of the brothers
Walpole of Dublin. Formerly a mill-house on a stream in a
sheltered nook it has been transformed into a garden paradise. I
have never seen a more lovely garden. Water plants, ferns,
herbaceous and alpine plants and flowering trees and shrubs are
grown in the greatest luxury and profusion. One part of the
garden is almost a wood of Gordyline austrcUiSy the under growth
being formed of such- plants as Mitrariay Tricuspidariay
Bamneyaj Desfontaineay Solatium crispuniy SaJvtaSy Galceolaria
violaceay Hahi^othamnuSy Lavatera assurgentifloray etc.
Eremurus robusta was 9 feet high, Ahutilon vitifolium 20 feet,
and a colony of Meconopsis Wallichii as happy as sow thistles.
The water plants were most eflFective — great masses of Saxifraga
pdtatay Primtda sikkimensiSy Rodgersias, Gunneras, Nymphaeas,
MimuluSy Ourisia coccineay Orchis foliosay Japanese Iris,
Myosotidium nobiley Parechites communiSy Gentians, Senecio
macrophyUa and many others were very happily provided for.
The stream sides were richly clothed with ferns and other
suitable plants.

Darrbbn. This is the Irish home of the Marquis of
Lansdowne, who adds to his great political reputation that of
being a keen amateur gardener and an excellent landlord. His
garden of some 30 acres is on the south side of Qalway Bay, and
here, as in other gardens that we saw, the conditions favour the
cultivation in the open air of what are known as sub-tropical
plants. The most striking features of the garden are magnificent



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283

masBes of Indian Bamboos and gigantic coniferous tr^s. I have
never seen Abies nordmanniana so perfect and luxuriant as at
Darreen. OaiUtheria ShaUon was 8 feet high, Oriselinia littoralis
planted in 1882 was 30 feet high, Veronica Traversii 15 feet,
Accicia decUbata 50 feet, Eiicalyptus Globulus 80 feet, Azara
microphylla 25 feet, Olearia Forsteri 20 feet by 20 feet, Euphorbia
meUifera 10 feet through, Erica arborea 10 feet, Myrtus Luma
20 feet, Hex crenata 15 feet by 15 feet, Leptospermum lanigerufn
15 feet ; enormous plants of Cordyline^ one measured had a stem
3 feet in circumference ; Ealmias like Portugal laurels ; Leptos-
permums like Privets ; Metake bamboo 12 feet high, and Falconer's
bamboo 25 feet high, 40 feet spread, with 1,000 canes, all in flower,
a marvellous sight.

ROSSDOHAN. This is also on Gal way Bay and is the property of
Dr. Heard. It is practically an island and some twenty years ago
was almost waste land with scarcely a tree upon it. By planting
first shelter trees and then many kinds of Australian, New
Zealand, Himalayan, and Californian trees and shrubs it has been
turned into a jungle of exotic vegetation. Simon's bamboo
15 yards across, Aralia Maximowiczii 20 feet high. Acacia
decurrens 30 feet, A. melanoxylon 20 feet, A. falcata 30 feet.
Eucalyptus urnigera 40 feet, Olea europaea 15 feet, Meldleiica
hypeHcifolla 10 feet, Cassinia longifolia 15 feet, Hakea saligna
with a 12 inch stem, Agonis marginatay great shrubs ;
Brugmansia sanguinea, Pittosporums, Escallonias, Kunzeas,
Ozothamnus, Callistemons, Boronias, Camellias, Daphue indica
and AsparaguH plumosUfS. These are a few of the plants noted as
being successes in Dr. Heard's garden. It is clear that, with
shelter from the strong sea winds, a very large number of plants
from sub-tropical regions may be grown on the south-west side of
Ireland. We were unable to get to the garden of Lord Dunraven,
also in (Jalway Bay, but we were informed that it is of similar
character to those of Lord Lansdowne and Dr. Heard.

POTA. This, the seat of Lord Barrymore, is famous for its
garden, the noblest in Ireland and one of the most delightful in
the world. I saw it fifteen years ago and was astonished by the
change that had taken place in so short a time. Truly, plants
grow rampantly in Ireland. Fota is a place of trees, especially
conifers. An evergreen oak with a trunk nearly 7 feet through, a
cork-barked tulip-tree and groves of Gordyline and Tu,cca gloriosa
near the entrance give the note for the whole place. All Falconer's
bamboos have fiowered and there are hundreds here, the children
of those which flowered at Fota thirty years ago. A list of the
big trees in this garden would be longer than space will permit.
The special things that may be mentioned are Fagus Gun-
mnghamiiy 50 feet ; Embothrium coccineum^ 30 feet by 30 feet ;
BerU?iamia fragifera^ 40 feet by 50 feet ; Berberis nepalensis,
12 feet by 20 feet ; Pittosporum Mayi^ 40 feet ; Ilex latifolia^
40 feet ; Genista racemoaay 12 feet ; Eriobotrya japonicay a grand
old tree ; Acacia dealbata^ a tree ; Clianthus puniceuSy 30 feet
through ; Dusylirion longifolium ; Asparagus retfofractuSy a
great mass against a wall ; Phoenix senegalensiSy two big specimens
outside for twelve years. The great trees of Pinus AyacahuitCy
P. inaignisy P. MontezumaCy Picea Morinday P. alcockianay Abies
grandiSy A. numidicay A. bracteatay A, religiosay A. webbianay



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224

A, cephalonicay Tsuga b^ninaniana, and Cryptomerias are grand
to see, and the groves of bamboos, Phormiums, Cordylines,
Chamaerops, Aralias, etc., are noble. Water gardening is a special
feature, and in swampy situations there are many kinds of
flowering and foliage plants that love moisture.

Bblorovb. a few miles from Fota is Mr. Qumbleton's garden,
the home of many rare and interesting plants, the proprietor being



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