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must be one of the first places where it has flowered in Scotland.
It was growing quite in the open.

There is a goodly number of New Zealand and Tasmanian
plants here too, and a suggestive indication of the character of the
climate is aflforded by the way they thrive. Veronicas, for
instance, are coming up over the place from naturally sown seed,
and V. acUicifolia is 7 feet high. Rich as Scotland is in her
conifers one would scarcely expect to find Podocarpuz Totara —
^e ^' Totara ^* of New Zealand, and perhaps the most valuable of
itis timbers— '-growing out of doors. Yet here it is in perfect
health. A plant of BUlardieria langijiora^ 8 feet high, and
trained up a tree trunk, was very prettily in flower, but it is even
more attractive when followed by the crop of bright violet-blue
berries. Olearia Traversi and Leptospermum lanigerum were
both 8 feet high, and Correa cUba^ on a wall, was 6 feet high.
Oleaf'ia rruicrodarUa has, I believe, been very fine this year in
Ireland and other mild districts. A fine bush, 14 feet in diameter,
and some smaller ones were simply masses of white flowers.

Of Chilian shrubs I noted the following : — Loniatia ferruginea^
often known as L. pinnatifolia^ very healthy (I learnt that in
another Ross-shire garden it was 10 feet high) ; Muiiaia
decurrensy the rare climbing composite, in good condition ;
Ahutilon mti/olium^ 10 feet high, and flowering freely ; Azara
Oillieaiit Escallonia pterocladon (very charming here as elsewhere
in Scotland), Cestrum elegans^ Tricuspidaria^ Eucryphia cordata^
Des/orUairiea spinosay and Fuchsias as hedge plants.

Of species from the Cape of Good Hope, Fhygelitts capensiSy a
bush 7 feet high, and a very healthy Freylinia ceatroides were
the most noteworthy that I saw.

Drummond Castle.

The ancient seat of the Earls of Perth is about three miles out of
Crieff, being set on an eminence and approached by a long narrow
avenue of Beech and Lime. It is now one of the seats of the Earl
of Ancaster, but the present residence is a modem building quite
separate from, but close to, old Drummond Castle. This latter
building (or, rather, what remains of it) is still in perfect repair,
and from its highest tower a glorious view is to be had : mountain
in the distance, wooded country and loch nearer, and, close
beneath, the unique formal garden of Drummond. This garden,
which is of an imposing and elaborate design and admirably kept,
was originally planned and carried out in 1703 by a former
proprietor and his gardener named Kennedy. The original
design has been maintained for over 200 years although additions
have been made. The beds and masses are in geometrical form —
triangular, circular, &c. — and they are largely filled with shrubs
of various sorts kept low and flat, whilst the paths are bordered
with a variety of shrubs clipped into narrow, columnar shape.
These columnar trees are as good as any of the kind I have seen ;
they are now 80 years old, in excellent hesdth and perfectly

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furnished. The plants used are Box, Yew, Purple Oak, Fern-leaved
Oak, Thuya occidentalism and the golden and silver varieties of
Holly. The effect of the whole is impressive, especially when
seen from the castle on its abrupt eminence above. This was, no
doubt, the point of view of the original designer, for, like all
examples of this type of gardening, it is the view as a whole that
constitutes its chief raison cTetre, Seen in detail, its lack of
variety, the absence of light and shade, and its general monotony
are apt to weary.

But the formal garden, whilst the chief feature at Drummond
Castle, is not the only one. The fme yews planted in 1703 are
now enormous specimens with trunks 8 to 10 feet in circumference,
and both conifers and ** hardwoods " grow finely here. Wherever
one goes in Perthshire one hears about the great storm of
November 17th, 1893. Patriarchal trees that had withstood the
gales of centuries succumbed that night and whole plantations
were levelled as if the trees had been so many nine-pins.
Evidences of this terrible storm are to be seen even now in many
parts of the country — ^uprooted tree stumps, decaying prostrate
trunks, and bare hillsides. At Drummond a noble Abies pectinata
was blown down, but the stump, 3 or 4 feet high, still stands
where it grew. It shows that the tree was 210 years old and that
its trunk was 6 feet 6 inches in diameter ; it contained 1,010 cubic
feet of timber. This must have been nearly, if not quite, the
largest common Silver Fir in Britain of which there is any record.
An enormous Beech near by was seriously injured by the same
gale ; the trunk of this tree girths 19 feet 5 inches at its narrowest.
Many other trees are in good condition here, but are not so notable
as those seen elsewhere and mentioned in other parts of these


This place is about 4 miles out of Crieff and is situated in an
undulating well-wooded park. The planting of the coniferous
trees was done mainly about 40 years ago, and the growth being
particularly good some fine specimens are now to be seen. Taking
first the Silver Firs : Abies nordmanniana is 63 feet high ; A.
concolor^ 65 feet high and 5 feet in girth (a big specimen) ;
A. cephalonica^ 75 feet high ; A. grandis^ 90 feet high and 10 feet
in girth ; these splendid trees were all in perfect health and
shape. A good specimen of A. pectinata girthed 15 feet 9 inches.
The most interesting Spruce was Picea orientalis^ 63 feet high.
The Tsugas, too, were admirable : Tsuga mertensiana^ 84 feet
high ; T. pattoniana^ 40 feet, and its glaucous variety (jT.
hookeriana) 30 feet high. Of the Pines I was most struck by
Pintis Cembra^ 63 feet high and 5 feet 7 inches in girth. A tree
of Larix leptolepis was interesting as showing the rate of growth
of this tree in Scotland ; it was planted 23 years ago and is now
42 feet high. The Irish Juniper (J. communis var. fastigicUa)
makes here a rigid column 20 feet high and 3 feet through.
These figures show that, although the dimensions of some of these
trees are exceeded elsewhere, the general level of excellence is
exceptionally high*

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Ochtertyre is situated about 2^ miles out of CriefE in a large,
picturesquely hilly park, from which fine views of the surround-
ing country can be obtained. The garden has long been famous
for its conifers, and probably no locality, even in Scotland, is
better adapted to the cultiyation of a large number of evergreen
trees and shrubs. Much of the present attraction that Ochter-
tyre has for tree-lovers is due to the late Mr. Oeo. Croucher,
who was gardener there for 45 years under Sir Patrick Keith
Murray and hlb &ther. He planted most or all of the rarer trees.

A feature of special interest is the number of garden varieties
of conifers. Of the Dbuglas Fir, for instance, there is the finest
specimen in the country of the variety Stairii ; it is 39 feet high,
well furnished, and of a pale greenish yellow which is not only
distinct, but ornamental. Of the Golden Douglas Fir, a rare
variety, there is an admirable tree 40 feet high, and the very
glaucous variety is represented by a specimen of the same size in
perfect health and colour. The Golden Scots Pine, Pitvus
sylvestris var. aurea^ is here a big bush 16 feet high and as much
in diameter ; this variety has the curious habit of assuming its
highest colour in winter, turning greener as summer approaches.
The glaucous variety of Picea Engelmannii is 25 feet high, and the
golden variety of Oupressus pisi/era (commonly known as
Betiniapora plumosa aurea) is 18 feet high, 15 feet in diameter,
and in excellent colour.

Turning to the species themselves, Picea ajanenais impressed
one by its magnificent health and the vivid blue-white colouring
of the lower surface of its leaves, which is not surpassed, I think,
by that of any other plant in cultivation; one specimen was,
approximately, 45 feet high. Saocegothea conspicuaj a curious
conifer with some afi&nity to the Yew, introduced from Chili
in 1847, is now very rarely met with ; it is, however, in fine
condition at Ochtertyre, a plant being 12 feet high and 8 feet
through. The Silver Firs have the usual rude vigour of these trees
in Pc^hshire, a specimen of Abies cephcUanica being unusually
fine. I was unable to take its height, but its trunk was 8 feet in
girth. Then A. magnijica I saw 70 feet high and finer than
elsewhere. This species is much less common than its ally,
A. nobiliSj one of tiie most frequent of purely ornamental conifers
in Scothmd. At one time these two species were confused, but
seen in the adult stage they are very distinct, A. magnifica being
denser in habit and much more slender and tapering in form.
Picea Marinda had a trunk 8 feet 8 inches in girth and was
66 feet high, and of the common Spruce I saw a tree 120 feet high.

It is not only the conifers that thrive so well at Ochtertyre, some
of the ordinary evergreens are very good also. A specimen of
Portugal Laurel, for instance, was 30 feet high and 50 feet through ;
Hex crenatOj 7 feet high ; Rhododendron dauricum^ 8 feet hi^h ;
PierxB floribtrnda^ splendid bushes, 10 feet through.

MOHZIB Oastlb.

This place, which is about three miles out of OriefE, I visited
in a persistent downpour of rain. Although it has not much of

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nnnsnal interest to arborienlturiste, it is worth visiting for the
sake of its three enormous Larches. These are planted together
in a row, and are said to be of the same age as the more famous .
trees at Dunkeld, and to have been planted a few days earlier.
The largest of them I made to be 108 feet high and 17 feet
6 inches in girth ; it is, therefore, about equal to the greater of
the Dunkeld Larches. Of other trees I noted Populus deUoidea^
120 feet high, and the common Birch, 84 feet high. New to me
as a hedge plant was the Douglas Fir ; it answered the purpose,
however, very well, being dense and well furnished.

Dalkbith Palacb.

The gardens of Dalkeith have long been known as among the
leading ones of the United Kingdom. Managed by a succession
of famous gardeners, they have constituted a school of horti*
culture from which many noted men have been sent out. One
reason of this is that the place is what may be tei*med an *^ all-
round " one, where neither the kitchen garden, the flower garden,
nor the hothouses absorb more than their due share of the atten-
tion of the staff, but all are good. For this reason the trees and
shrubs, though they constitute a very interesting collection, do
not predominate as they do in other famous places I visited.
The climate is considerably drier than that of Perthshire, con-
sequently the growth of many conifers, more especially Firs and
Spruces, is not so luxuriant as it is there. Still, I found the
Himalayan Juniperus recurvUj a fine bush 14 feet high and
through, and there are three fine old Cedars, one of which girths
13 feet 9 inches. Ginkgo hiloha is represented by one of the
fine specimens of this country, 50 feet high and very healthy, as
are Abies Veitchii^ 20 feet high, and Picea pung&fhSy 18 feet

Many years ago the varieties of the Scotch Rose (JR. spinoais-'
aitna) were very popular in gardens. Most of them are now
almost lost to cultivation, and it was, therefore, a pleasant surprise
to find a collection here of about ninety varieties got together by
a former Duke of Buccleuch in the early part of the nineteenth
century and still carefully guarded.

Among the trees, mention should be made of a very fine weep-
ing Ash, 50 feet high ; Rex dipyrena^20 feet high ; and a remarkable
old specimen of Laburnum, low, and spreading in habit, and
covering a piece of ground 60 feet across. To one whose lot is
cast in the south one of the notable differences in the ordinary
vegetation of Scotland from that of the south of England is the
predominance of the Scotch or Wych Elm over the common
Ulmus campestris. In the south the Wych Elm is comparatively
rare. Here at Dalkeith is the noblest specimen I have ever seen ;
it is 125 feet high, with a clean trunk girthing 13 feet 9 inches at
4 feet from the ground.


The garden of Sir Archibald Buchan-Hepbum at Smeaton in
Haddingtonshire is more to the eastern side of Scotland than any
other I visited. The grbwi^ of -the trees and shrubs, however,

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appeared to me to be quite as luxuriant a& in Perthshire, the
proximity of the North Sea and the Firth of Forth, I suppose,
accounting for this. The conifers were especially good, some of
them better than I saw elsewhere. Cupressus macrocarpaf 72 feet
high and 7 feet 6 inches in girth, wsis finer on the whole than any
other I met with, though one on Sir Herbert^ Maxwell's estate
almost ri-^s it. Sequoia giganteaj said to have been received
from Kew as a small plant soon after the species was introduced,
is now 90 feet high and girths 13 feet & inches. Its ally, S. sem-
pennrensy was 66 feet high and 9 feet 3 inches in girth, and
therefore about the same size as our biggest Kew specimen.
Tsuga canadensis has the big bushy head characteristic of the
tree in Scotland, 40 feet through. Abies nobilis is represented by
a noble specimen approximately 100 feet high, with a trunk 8 feet
10 inches in girth. Picea Morinda was 72 feet high and 7 feet

9 inches in girth. P. sitchensis^ of which I saw elsewhere such
large trees, is here almost as fine as anywhere — 90 feet high and

10 feet 4 inches in girth ; as an ornamental tree, however, it has
one frequent defect, the centre of the tree being filled with dead
branches and twigs which the outer fringe of living growth is not
dense enough to hide. Other trees finely represented were Pinus
excelsaj P. insignis^ Douglas Fir, Abies Pinsapoy and A. grandiSj
all girthing about 8 feet. A good specimen of the cut-leaved Oak,
Queens pedunculata var. heierophylla^ was 54 feet high. Of
big shrubs, I noted NeiUia opuli/oliay 30 feet through, and Spiraea
discolor^ 20 feet high.


Monreith is situated near the end of the promontory in Wig-
townshire that juts out towards the Isle of Man, between Luce
Bay and Wigtown Bay. Being almost on the extreme south-west
of Scotland, with water on three sides, the climate is necessarily
mild and moist, and suited to many forms of tree and shrub
growth. How rapidly some of these grow will be seen from the
following notes. Monreith is the home of Sir Herbert Maxwell,
who, among his many interests, regards forestry, I believe, as not
the least.

P%nt48 insigniSy planted in the winter of 1883-4, is now 65 feet
high, it« growth clean and erect, and that of a single year some-
times over 4 feet in length. P. monticola^ planted in 1875, is 63 feet
high and 4 feet 5 inches in girth. C^pressus macrocarpay planted
less than thirty years ago, is 60 f^et high, with a trunk 7 feet
5 inches in girth — a model of health and vigour. These three trees
are perhaps the most notable examples of rapid growth, but other
evidences of the generous climate are to be seen in the fine trees
of Thuya giganteay Juniperus virginiana^ Cupressus nootkaten-
iiSy C. sempervirensy sjidAMes nobilis. In some plantations of
Soots Pines and Larches made by Sir Herbert a few years ago it
was interesting to note that a few specimens of the Japanese
Picea ajanensis were making the best headway, the '^ leads" of
some this season being already over 2 feet long. Abies nordman-
nianay although it evidently grew well in its early days, has
proved a failure owing to the attacks of a scale insect and of a
lungoid pest — Peridermium elatinum — ^which causes curious
gouty, banrel-shaped protuberances on the l^ranches.

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There is a charming old-fashioned garden attached to the house
where are growing some striking shrubs. I noted Rhododendron
harhatum^ Ghionanthua virginica^ 10 feet high and as much
through, and Olearia Haastii, 9 feet high and 15 feet through.
Lilium giganteum is perfectly at home here ; one spike I saw
carried twenty flowers.

Castlb Kbnnbdt.

Castle Kennedy is close to Loch Ryan, in Wigtownshire, and a
long way to the south-west of Perthshire. The climate, whilst
equally moist, is considerably warmer, and a different class
of trees and shrubs is growing here. Escallonias, for example,
especially E. macrantha^ thrive as well as they do in Cornwall,
and are evidently held in about the same esteem as Laurels in less
&youred places. Callistemons were flowering freely, and Euca*
lyptua Olobulu8 was 35 feet high. Olearia macrodonta^ which I
saw so fine at Inverewe, in Ross-shire, was here equally good.
The prevailing type of Rhododendron is Himalayan, either the
pure species (especially R. arboreum^ R. Thomeoni^ and R. canu
panukUum) or hybrids in which their "blood" predominates.
A further evidence of the character of the climate was afforded
by Richardia aethiopica growing in an open pond, and flowering

I should think Castle Kennedy is one of the best watered inland
demesnes in Britain. The gardens are situated chiefly on a neck
of land between two lochs known as " Black " and " White "
respectively, and there are several ponds and minor pieces of
water besides. From a landscape point of view, one of the
remarkable features of the place is the amount of terracing that
has been done. Many of the natural mounds and hollows have
been squared and trimmed, the slopes made into terraces, and the
ponds rounded. There are also formal elevated mounds from
which good views of the gardens and lochs are to be seen. This
kind of landscape art was more to the taste of a bygone time
than it is to that of the present day. When newly done, its aspect
must have been crude and hard, but the softening hand of time
has done much to ameliorate its hard lines, and where an arboreal
vegetation does not grow, a thick, well-kept turf covers it all. We
may say of this phase of Castle Kennedy, what applies equally
well to the formal garden at Drummond, and to the topiary work
of Levens : one may not care to copy it, but it is in its way
unique, and one would be sorry were it to be destroyed.

Here, as in so many Scottish gardens, the conifers are the chief
objects of interest. AratAcaria imbricata is very fine, and pro-
duces cones regularly ; there is a striking avenue of large
specimens, one of which (it may not have been the largest) had a
trunk 7 feet in girth. Equally striking to me, and less bizarre in
its effect, was an avenue of Cupresatts macrocarpa ; one of the
tallest was 60 feet high ; another, branching low, was 9 feet
8 inches in girth at two feet from the ground. I saw many excel-
lent specimens of various Silver Firs : Abies webbiana^ girthing
6 feet, with its naturally sown seedlings sprin^ng up around ;
A. nordmannianay also self-sown ; A. cephalontca^ 63 feet high
and 9^ feet in girth ; the rare Himalayan 4. PindroWy 60. feet

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high and' 4 feet 5 inches in girih ; the still rarer A. religiosct, from
Mexico (the only specimen I saw in Scotland), - 40 feet high;
Picea politay 20 feet high, well-famished and well-formed ; and
Cryptomeria japonica^ 50 feet high, with the nnusnal girth of
6 feet 3 inches.

The Holm Oak is not so fine individually here as it is at Kew,
bnt a grove of forty of them gave one an idea of th6 "Ilex**
woods of Southern Europe. I have already alluded to the Rhodo-
dendrons, but all the ericaceous plants are remarl^bly well-grown.
Pieris floribunda was 10 feet high, the scarce P. mariana^ 7 feet
high and through, Kalmia angt^ti/oUa^ 6 feet high, Gassandras,
4 feet high, and many more equally notable.

W. J. B.


C. B. Glarkb.— Mr. Gharles Baron Glarke, M.A., F.R.S., eldest
son of the late Mr. Turner Poulter Glarke, J. P., of Andover, Hamp-
shire, who died on August 25th, 1906, had been for many years
intimately associated with the Herbarium at Kew, where he was
employed, as an Indian of&cer on special duty, from March, 1879,
till April, 1883, in assisting Sir Joseph Hooker to prepare the
flora of British India. When he retired from the service of
the Government of India, in June, 1887, he settled at Kew in
order to be near the Herbarium, in which he has been a volunteer
for the past 19 years, associating himself in the most whole-
hearted manner with the interests of the establishment and tiie
furtherance of its work. By the members of the stalf, whom he
treated as friends and colleagues, and by visitors to the Herbarium
of every nationality, his death will be felt as a personal loss. The
extreme unselfishness and unMling kindness with which, some-
times it is to be feared at the expense of his own special studies,
he placed at the disposal of other workers his extensive knowledge
of the flora of India generally and his minute acquaintance
with certain natural families, particularly the Cyperaceaey with
regard to which he was the recognised authority, can never be

After having been at King's College School, London, Mr. Glarke
proceeded to Cambridge, where he was a member of Trinity
College and afterwards of Queen's. When he graduated in 1856
he was bracketed Third Wrangler ; in the following year he was
elected a Fellow of Queen's College. In 1858 he was called to
the Bar at Lincoln's Inn and appointed Mathematical Lecturer of
his college. He was thus occupied till 1865, and in 1866 he left
for India to join the Educational Department in Bengal, where he
served as one of the staff of the Presidency College, Calcutta, and
afterwards as an Inspector of Schools. From 1869 till 1871 he
acted as Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden at Shibpur,
near Calcutta, afterwards reverting to the Educational Department,
to the first grade in which he was promoted in March, 1876. In
1877 he returned to Europe on two years' furlough. In 1879, as
already stated, he was placed, when his leave expired, on special
duty in England, Returning to India in 1883, he was, in

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Decfembet*, 18844 appointed offlciatihg Director of PuBllo luBtroo-
lion in Bengal. In March, 1885, he was transferred as Inspector
of Schools to the province of Assam^ where he served till his
retirement at the age of 55 in 1887. ^

Mr. Clarke early developed an inclination towards field-botany.
While at Cambridge he paid several visits to the north of
England, some to Scotland and to Switzerland, and one, in 1862,
to Madeira. During most of these excursions, as his private
collections show, he collected plants largely, but his principal
field was North Hampshire, his own country. Before leaving for
India he had prepared a list of the plants of his birthplace,
Andover, which he printed in Calcutta in 1866. As an Inspector
of Schools he had ample opportunities during his official tours
for studying the vegetation of the plains of Bengal. He supple-
mented these by vacation journeys to other parts of India. His
temporary connection with the Royal Botanic Garden at Calcutta
enabled him to study the material in the Herbarium attached to
that institution, but the pressure of official and administrative
duties left him less time for sustained botanical work than he
would have wished, and he occasionally complained that he was
able to do less real botanical work during a year of this superin-
tendentship than he could accomplish in a month in his travelling
appointment. His herbarium work during this period did, how-
ever, lay the foundation for at least two of his published works,
those on the Indian Cyrtandraceae and on the Indian Gom-
melynaceas^ published in 1874. At this time too he worked very
thoroughly through the Indian Urticaceae. It may serve a
useful purpose if a brief epitome of Mr. Clarke's various Indian
journeys be given here.

Mr. Clarke was at first appointed to the Eastern Bengal School
division, where the only practical mode of conveyance is by boat.
During the wanderings of two and a half years he made
extensive collections, which reached more than 7,000 numbers.
At this time he appears to have paid particular attention to the
Commelynaceae on which he made critical observations. Early in
1868 he lost the whole of his collections from Eastern Bengal
owing to the wreck of his boat. Not at all discouraged, in May of
that year he was again collecting in Sylhet, and in September he
was able to pay a visit to the Madhopur jungles in Western
Mymensingh, an interesting tract where low hills, densely covered
with a forest unlike that of the adjacent plain, crop up through

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