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the Bengal alluvium. In August, 1869, he paid his first visit to
Sikkim, but was too closely engaged on his work at the Cinchona
plantation to be able to do much collecting. In October, however,
he was able to make a rapid march from Darjeeling to the Yakla,
a pass near but somewhat to the south of the Chola. Duties
connected with the Cinchona Department took him to Southern
India in March, 1870, when he was able to make a considerable
collection in the Nilgiri Hills. In 1871 he was again in Sikkim
but with little time for collecting.

On reverting to his work as Inspector, we find that in
September, 1871, Mr. Clarke was botanising in Comilla, his field
numbers now exceeding 14,000; in February, 1872, he was
collecting in Barisal and the Eastern Sundribuns ; in April he was

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botanising in the Dacca district, and in December was investi-
gating the vegetation of Oachar. In February, 1873, he paid a
botanical visit to Chittagong ; Calcntta now became his head-
quarters, and in 1874 we find that he paid his first visit to Chntia
Nagpur,and that he spent six weeks in the Punjab Himalaya, mainly
at Dalhousie, whence he was able to make excursions at least one
of which was to an elevation of 10,000 feet. On his return to
Calcutta he paid a visit to the Western Sundribuns. In 1875
he was transferred to the Northern Division, with his head-
quarters at Darjeeling, but before leaving Calcutta we find that he
made a special study of the genus Leea* From Darjeeling he
made a botanical excursion along the Nepal frontier to Tonglo,
and as he had already been at the Chola to the east, in October,
1875, he visited Jongri, going by way of Pemionchi and Yoksun,
returning by Singalelah. Immediately on his return from Jongri
he paid a brief visit to British Bhutan east of the River Tista.
The next three months, from November, 1875, to February, 1876,
were spent touring in tiie plains of North Bengal. By this time
the Gyperaceae and Oramineae had become his favourite natural
orders. On returning to Darjeeling he had an opportunity of
paying a spring visit to the higher passes, going to Tumloong and
on to the Chola, crossing from there, keeping to the west side of
the ridge, the head of the Northern Yakla into the head of the
South Yakla, thence down to Dikeeling, thence across to Rhenok
in British Bhutan. Owing to the snow still lying deep on the
passes this journey, an official one, was not very productive as
regards high elevations ; rather lower down he was able to give
especial attention to the Rhododendrons. On June 19th, 1876, Mr.
Clarke started from Darjeeling on his longest and most arduous
journey. He had three and a half months at his disposal and
arranged to devote them to an examination of the fiora of
Kashmir. He entered that country by the ordinary high level
road from Bhimpur to Srinagar, then went north by the Woolar
Lake, straight across the Devil's plain to Iskardo. Crossing the
Indus he went from there north into the Karakoram Mountains
going as far as the great Bardomail glacier and getting well into
High Asia, crossing one pass at over 17,000 feet and on several
occasions reaching the highest limits of phanerogamic vegetation.
On his return journey, Mr. Clarke passed near Dras into the
Tilail valley, then crossed at right angles in succession the valleys
of the Sind, Liddar, Jhelum, Wardwan and Ravi rivers to
Amritsar. During the whole of this journey Mr. Clarke was,
almost for the first time in his life, more or less unwell. After
returning from this journey he spent the following cold weather
touring in the northern part of Bengal ; at the commencement of
the hot season of 1877 he left for England on long furlough ; he
paid a short visit to Italy on the way home. On reaching England
he settled down at Kew, his first attendance at the Herbarium there
was on June 9th, 1877. He made over the whole of his collections
to the Herbarium at Kew. This donation is referred to in the
Kew Report for 1877 in the following terms : —

•* The Indian Herbarium of Mr. C. B. Clarke, which is a most
"munificent addition to our already unrivalled collections
"illustrating the flora of our Indian Empire. This herbarium
" contains -25,000 numbers, representing about 5,000 species. It


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" was collected in the following provinces : — Plains of Bengal,
^^ Khasia, and Chittagong hills, Chota Nagpore, Dalhonsie and
'^ Chumba, Kashmir to the Earakornm, Nilgheries. It contains a
" lai^e number of field-notes, the exact locality and elevation of
^' every plant, and some roogh botanic analyses."

On returning to India — ^he reached Calcutta on 2nd April,
1883 — Mr. Clarke was appointed Inspector of Schools at the
Presidency with his headquarters at Calcutta. In the beginning
of October he left for Chutia Nagpur where he mstde a ten
weeks' march in the course of which he ascended Parasnath, and
was able to get as far as Sirguja, a native state in south-western
Chutia Nagpur, bordering on the upper Mahanaddi, where the
plateau reaches an elevation of from 2,000-4,000 feet. Early in
1881 he paid brief botanical visits to various parts of Central
Bengal, but his movements were hampered by his having to take
up the duties of Professor of Mathematics at the Presidency
College, Calcutta, owing to the death of the permanent incumbent.
He was in October able, however, to make a journey of 26 days'
duration in Lower Slkkim and in the Terai and the Duars, but
his College duties disappointed him of an opportunity that had
offered of accompanying a political mission which proceeded
through Northern Slkkim to tiie Tibet frontier. His transfer to
Assam in 1885, where as Inspector of Schools his headquarters were
at Shillong, afforded Mr. Clarke opportunities of adding con-
siderably to his collections from the Ehasia and Jaintea Hills.
Early in 1885 he was able to pay a visit to Upper Assam, reaching
Dibrugar and Sadiya, and getting as far as Namchung in the
Eastern Naga Hills at an elevation of 3,000 feet, by a route
parallel to Griffith's Namrup route. In August he was able to
pay a visit of 10 days' duration to the Kollong Rock and Nungklao,
a locality rendered classical by reason of the Investigations made
there by Hooker and Thomson. In September, 1885, he paid a
botanical visit to Cherrapungi, and on the last day of the month
he set out for the Angami Naga country. His route lay through
the Nambar Forest to Kohima. From Kohima he was able
to ascend Japvo, the highest peak, 9,890 feet elevation, of the
Bareil range. Thence he went to Manipur, an independent State
between Assam and Burma, returning to Shillong by way of
Silchar early in 1886. Almost immediately after his return he
set out on a three months' tour, mainly in Lower Assam, and was
able to make several subsequent collecting journeys before he
finally left Assam and India in 1887. The collections accumulated
during the second portion of his Indian service were presented
to Kew after his return to England.

It will be seen therefore, that during his service in the East
Mr. Clarke was able to obtain a personal knowledge of the
vegetation of India comparable in extent with that acquired by
Hamilton or Wallich or Hooker and second only to that attained
by Griffith.

Mr. Clarke was an admirable collector; his specimens are
rarely incomplete and are always carefully selected and pre-
pared. They are accompanied by clear and often full field-notes
always given on the actual field-ticket, sometimes accompanied by
rough analyses made at the time of collecting. Every gathering

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has a distinct number so that an erroneons citation is an impossi-
bility ; those who have travelled in his company tell us that the
collections of a particular day were invariably dealt with before
he retired to rest for the night, no matter how long the march may
have been or how arduous the conditions under which it was
made. Throughout his life he paid little attention to trees ; as a
collector of herbaceous plants and of shrubs he has perhaps never
been surpassed.

Prior to and during the period of his deputation in England
Mr. Clarke published a number of papers on botanical subjects in
the Journal of the Linnean Society and the Journal of Botany,
almost exclusively relating to Indian plants. Here, however, our
chief interest centres in what he prepared at and on behalf of Eew.
During the time he was on furlough in England (1877-79), and
during the subsequent period of his deputation (1879-83), he
elaborated the following natural families for the Flora of British
India : — In vol. ii. : Sascifragaceaey CrassuktceaSy Droseraceae^
Hamamelideaey Halorageae^ Comhreta^ceae, part of Myrta^ceae^
Melastoma/^eaey Lythraceae, Onagraceae^ SamycUzceae^ Ctumr-
bitaceae^ Begoniaceaey Datisceaej Cacteae, Ficoideae^ Umbelli/erae,
Araliczceae and Comaceae. In vol. iii. : Gaprifolia^^eaey Valeri-
aneaey Dipsaceae^ Stylideae, Ooodenovieasj Campanulaceae^
Va^ciniaceaey Ericaceae^ Monotropeae, EpacrideaSy Diapensiaceaey
Plumbagineae^ Myraineae, Sapotaceae^ Ebenaceae^ Styraceae^
Oleaceae and Sdlvadoraceae. In vol. iv. : Logania^ceae^ Oentian-
aceae^ Polemoniaceaey HydrophylUiceas^ Boragvieaey Convolvu-
laceaey Solanaceae^ LentibuUxrieae^ Oesneraceaej Bignoniaceaey
Pedalineae^ Acanthaceae and Verbenaceae.

He also prepared, largely at Eew, monographs of the Com-
melinaceae and of the Oyrtandreae^ published in 1881 and 1883
respectively, for De Candolle's Suites au Prodrome,

The group Olumaceae^ as numerous notes on specimens in
the Calcutta Herbarium show, appears to have early attracted
Mr. Clarke's attention ; as time went on this attention became
more particularly concentrated on the Oyperaceas.

He was not able to give much time to the study .of this family
while on duty at Kew between 1879 and 1883 till towards the close
of the period, when he published in the last-mentioned year, in the
Linnean Society's Journal, accounts of the Madagascar species of
Cyperus and of the genus Hemicarex and its allies. During the
last two months of his residence in England, advantage was taken
of his special knowledge in having the Indian species of the
genus Cyperus at Kew rearranged. When Mr. Clarke left for
India Sir Joseph Hooker requested him to publish the results of
this work so as to assist later on in the elaboration of the genus
for the Flora of British India. On reaching India Mr. Clarke
was able to consult and similarly rearrange the rich Indian
material of the genus in the Calcutta Herbarium ; thereafter, he
published a review of the Indian species of Cyperus in the
Journal of the Linnean Society for 1884.

On retiring from India Mr. Clarke gave the greater part of his
time to the further study of CyperaceaCj his object being to
complete a general monograph of this dif^cult family. As the

25984 2

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work progressed he became by degrees the recognised authority
on the subject, to whom botanists of every nationality sent their
collections from all parts of the world for identification. As a
consequence his monograph, which unfortunately has not yet
been published, received additions up to the time of his death.

His devotion to this family even after his retirement, when, at
the request of Sir J. D, Hooker and Sir W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, he
elaborated accounts of it for the Flora of British India —
published 1893-4 ; for the Flora (7apensw— published 1897-8 ;
for the Flora of Tropical Africa — published 1901-2 ; and for the
Index Florae Sinensis — published 1903-4, was by no means
exclusive ; he found time to prepare accounts of the natural
families Oesneraceae^ Acanthaceas and Commelynaceae^ both for
the Flora Gapensis and the Flora of Tropical Africa ; and for
the latter work accounts, not yet published, of the Amarantacea^
and the Chenopodia^ae, For the Flora of the Malayan
Peninsula he elaborated the QentiancLceae and the AcantJuiceae^
the latter not yet issued. He had also practically completed a
continuation of Lowe's Flora of Madeira ; he was engaged when
overtaken by his fatal illness in collecting materials for an
introductory memoir of the late Rev, R. T. Lowe.

His minute knowledge of the Cyperaceae was made the basis of
an important paper on biologic regions and tabulation areas,
published in the Philosophical Transactions in 1892, and was
applied to the further discrimination of sub-subareas in the
tabulation area of British India in another important paper
published in the Linnean Society's Journal in 1898.

Of Mr. Clarke's attainments in other directions and of his wide
knowledge of non-botanical subjects this is not the place to
speak. Lucid and incisive, his correspondence was to be
treasured. Courteous, unselfish and modest as he was versatile
and informed, his conversation had an indescribable charm. His
death leaves a blank in the Herbarium hardly to be tilled ; not
Kew alone, but systematic botany everywhere is the poorer for
this loss.

Below is given as complete a list as possible of Mr. Clarke's
contributions to botanical literature : —

List op Botanical Contributions by C. B. Clarke, M.A.,


A list of the Flowering Plants of Andover. Calcutta, 1866.
8vo. pp. 114. With map.

Commelynaceae et Cyrtandraceae bengalenses. Calcutta, 1874.
fol. pp. 139 + ii., tt. 93.

Compositae indicae descriptae et secus genera Benthamii
ordinatae. Calcutta, 1876. 8vo. pp. v. + xxiv. -f ^547 + xlv.

Roxburgh, Flora indica . . . reprinted literatim from
Carey's edition of 1832. Preface by C. B. Clarke. Calcutta,
1874. 8vo.

Commelinaceae in DC. Monogr. Phan, iii. 113-324, tt. 1-8.

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Cyrtandreae in DO. Monogr. Phan. v. pars 1, 1-303, tt. 1-32.
(1883.) F- , ,

Hooker, J. D., Flora of British India.

ii. 388-411. Saxifragaceae (1878).

Crassulaceae (1878).

Droseraceae (1878).

Hamamelideae (1878).

Halorageae (1878).

Combrebaceae (1878).

Myrtaceae (Barringtonleae) (1871)).

Melastomaceae (1879).

Lythraceae (1879).

Onagraceae (1879).

Samydaceae (1879).

Cucurbltaceae (1879).

Be^roniaceae (1879).

Datisceae (1879).

Cacteae (1879).

Ficoideae (1879).

Umbelliferae (1879).

Araliaceae (1879).

Comaceae (1879).

Caprifoliaceae (1880).

Valerianeae (1881).

Dipsaceae (1881).

Stylideae (1881).

Qoodenovieae (1881).

Campanulaceae (1881).

Vacciniaceae (1881-2).

Ericaceae (1882).

Monotropeae (1882).

Epacrideae (1882).

Diapensiaceae (1882).

Plumbagineae (1882).

Primulaceae (1882).

Myrsineae (1882).

Sapotaceae (1882).

Ebenaceae (1882).

Styraceae (1882).

Oleaceae (1882).

Salvadoraceae (1882).

Loganiaceae (1883).

Gentianaceae (1883).












ii. 635-650.

ii. 656-657.

ii. 657-658.

ii. 658-665.

ii. 665-720.

ii. 720-740.

ii. 740-748.

in. 1-17.

iii. 210-215.

iii. 215-219.

iii. 419-420.

iii. 420-421.

iii. 421-442.

iii. 442-455.

iii. 456-476.

iii. 476-477.

iii. 477.

iii. 478.

iiL 478-481.

iii. 482-506.









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iv. 133. Polemoiiiaceae(l883).

iv. 133-134. Hydrophyllaceae (1883).

iv. 134-179. Boragineae (1883).

iv. 179-228. Convolvulaceae (1883).

iv. 228-246. Solanaceae (1883).

iv. 328-336. Lentibularieae (1884).

iv. 336-375. Gesneraceae (1884).

iv. 376-386. Bignoniaceae (1884).

iv. 386-387. Pedalineae (1884).

iv. 387-558. Acanthaceae (1884-5).

iv. 560-604. Verbenaceae (1885).

vi. 585-748. Cyperaceae (1893-4).

Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W. T., Flora of Tropical Africa.

iv. Sect. ii. 499-512. Gesneraceae, by J. G. Baker and

C. B. Clarke (1906).
V. 1-262. Acanthaceae, by I. H. Burkill and C. B. Clarke

(pp. 44-261 by C. B. Clarke only) (1899-1900).

vui. 25-88. Commelinaceae (1901).
viii. 266-524. Cyperaceae (1901-02).
Thiselton-Dyer, Sir W. T., Flora Capensis.
V. 1-92. Acanthaceae (1901).
vii. 7-15. Commelinaceae (1897).
vii. 149-310. Cyperaceae (1898).
Philippine Acanthaceae. Department of the Interior. Bureau
of Government Laboratories. No. 35, 89-93 (1905).

Journal of Botany.

vl. 215-218. A list of Andover Plants (1868).

xix. 100-106, 135-142, 163-167, A Revision of the Indian

Species of Leea (1881).
xix. 193-202. Notes on Commelinaceae (1881).

XX. 369-370. Fertilization of Ophrys apifora (1882).
XXV. 267-271. Eleocharis. Species in Europa vigentes
recensuit C. B. Clarke (1887).

xxvi. 201-204. Root-Pressure (1888).

xxviii. 18-19. On Cyperus Jemenicus, Kottb, (1890).

xxix. 225-228. On Epilobium Duriaei, J. Oat/y a new (?)
English Plant (1891).

XXX. 155-158. Annals of the Royal Botanic Garden,
Calcutta (rev.) (1892).

XXX. 321-323. On Holoschoenus, Link (1892).

xxxi. 135-138. Collectors' Numbers (1893).

xxxi. 182-183. Abnormal Spring (1893).

xxxi. 211-212. Reminiscences of Alphonse De CandoUe

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xxxii. 116-120. Vesque's " Guttiferae '* (rev.) (1894).

xxxii. 345-317. Prain's " Memoirs " (rev.) (1894).

xxxiv. 224-226. New East African Cyperaceae (1896).

xxxiv. 415-417. List of British Cyperaceae (excluding
Carex) (1896).

XXXV. 71-73. Distribution of Three Sedges (1897).

xxxviii. 278. Impatiens glandulifera, Royle (1900).

Journ. Linn. Soc.

xi. 438-454. Oommelynaceae of Bengal (1870).

xiv. 8. Hydrotrophus, a new genus of Hydro-
charidaceae (1873).

xiv. 410. On Hieracium silhetense, DG. (1875).

xiv. 423-457. On Indian Gentianaceae (1875).

XV. 113. On Edgaria (1876).

XV. 116-159. Botanic Notes from Darjeeling to Tonglo
xvii. 159. Two kinds of Dimorphism in Rubiaceae

xvii. 310. On Gardenia turgida, Roxh. (1879)
xvii. 402. Ferns of North India (1879).
xviii. 114-132. On Indian Begonias (1880).
xviii. 468. Right- and Left-hand Contortion (1881).
xviii. 524. Dimorphism in Amebia and Macrotoniia
xix. 206. On Orchis incarnata, Linn. (1882).
xix. 289. On two Himalayan Ferns (1882).
XX. 279-296. Madagascar Species of Cyperus (1883)
xx:. 374-403. On Hemicarex, -B^^A., and its allies (1883).

xxi. 1-202, tt. 1-4. * On the Indian Species of Cyperus ;
with remarks on some others (1884).

xxi. 252-255. Notes on the Flora of Parasnath, North-
western Bengal (1884).

xxi. 384-391. Botanic Notes from Darjeeling to Tonglo
and Sundukphoo (1885).

xxii. 128-136. Botanical Observations made in a Jouraev
to the Naga Hills (1886).

xxiv. 407. On Panicum supervacuum, sp. nova (1888).

xxiv. 408-418. Supplementary Note on the Ferns of
Northern India, with J. G. Baker (1888).

XXV. 1-107, tt. 1-44. On the Plants of Kohima and
Muneypore (1889).

XXX. 299-315. On certain authentic Cyperaceae of Linnaeus
xxxiv. 1-146, t. 1 (map). On the Subsubareas of British
India, illustrated by the detailed distribution of
the Cyperaceae in that Empire (1898).

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xxxiv. 295-299. On Carex wahlenbergiana (1899).

XXXV. 40li-405. Note on Carex Tolmiei, Boott.

xxxvi. 202-319. Enumeration of all the Plants known
from China Proper, etc. Cyperaceae (190^-04).

xxxvii. 1-16. List of the Carices of Malaya (1904).
Proc. Linn. Soc.
(1880-82), 35. Species of Orchis exhibited.
(1894-95), 14-29. Presidential Address to the Linnean
Society. On the Soondreebnn of Bengal (1896).

(1895-96), 17-29. Presidential Address. Collectors' Numbers.

Observations on Sedges, etc. (1896).
Trans. Linn. Soc.
ser. 2, iii. 395-398. Determined the Cyperaceae of the Malay

Peninsula (1893).

ser. 2, iv. 244-246. Determined the Cyperaceae of the Flora
of Mt. Kinabalu (1894).

ser. 2, iv. 498. Determined the Commelynaceae of the
Matto Grosso Expedition (1895).

ser. 2, iv. 511-513. Determined the Cyperaceae of the Matto
Grosso Expedition (1895).

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., B, 1892, pp. 371-387, tt. 24 & 25. On
Biologic Regions and Tabulation Areas (1893).

Proc. Roy. Soc., Ixx. 496-498. Antarctic Origin of the Tribe
Schoenae (1902).

Engl. Bot. Jahrb.
XXX. Beibl. 68, 1-44. Cyperaceae (praeter Caricinas) chil-
enses (1901).

xxxiv. Beibl. 78, 1-6. Sodiro, Plantae ecuadorenses.
Cyperaceae (1904).

xxxviii. 131-136. Engler, Beitrage zur Flora von Afrika,
xxix. Cyperaceae africanae (1906).

Bot. Tidsskrif t.
xxiv. 23-38. Schmidt, Flora of Koh Chang. Cyperaceae

xxiv. 139-146. — Compositae, Umbelliferae (1902).
xxiv. 192-201. — ^Lythraceae, Melastomaceae, Scrophulariaceae,

Acantliaceae (1902).

xxvi. 323-328.— Verbenaceae, Labiatae (1904).
Bull. rHerb. Boiss.

iv. Append, iii. 28-33, 35-36. Schinz, Die Pflanzenwelt
Deutsch-Stldwest-Afrikas. Cyperaceae und Commelin-
aceae, bestimmt von C. B. Clarke (1896).
vi. Append, i. 19-24. Chodat, Plantae Hasslerianae.
Cyperaceae und Commelinaceae (1898).

vii. 892. Schinz, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Afrikanischen
Flora, xi. Cyperaceae, bestimmt von C. B. Clarke (1899} ;
continued in Mem. I'Herb. Boiss. n. 10, 25-27 (1900),
and 27-28. Commelinaceae (1900).

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ser. 2, iii. 663. — Cyperaceae. Cyperus Schlechteri, C. B.
Glarkey nov. spec. (1903).

ser. 2, iii. 938-1030. Chodat and Hassler, Plaatae Hass-
lerianae. Cyperaceae (1903).

ser. 2, iv. 995-996. Scliinz, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der
Afrikanischen Flora, xvi. Cyperaceae (1904).

Ber. 2, V. 712-719. Ostenfeld, A list of Plants collected in the
Raheng District, Upper Siam, by Mr. E. Lindhard,
[chiefly] determined by C. B. Clarke (L905).

ser. 2, vi. 709. Schinz, Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Afrikan-
ischen Flora, xix. Cyperaceae. Mariscus pseudo-vestitus,
G. B. Clarke, sp. nov, (1906).

Bull. Acad. Int. Qeogr. Bot.

xiv. 197-203. Cyperaceae (excl. Carices) japonicae et core-
anae a R. P. Urb. Faurie lectae quas determinavit
C. B. Clarke et edidit H. Leveille (1904).

xiv. 204-205. Cyperaceae (excl. Carices) a R. P. J. Cavalerie
in Provincia Kouy-Tcheou apud sinenses lectae quas det.
C. B. Clarke et ed. H. Leveille (1904).

Gard. Chrou. 1905, xxxviii. 162, f. 55. Schizandra Henryi,
Clarke (1905).

H. Marshall Ward.— Aft^r a long and trying illness Prof.
Marshall Ward, Sc.D., F,R.S., died on August 26th at the age of 52.
During the past 11 years he occupied the Chair of Botany at Cam-
bridge, and his death is a severe loss to the University and to
botanical science.

At the beginning of his scientific career in 1874 he attended
Prof. Huxley's lectures on Biology at South Kensington ; the next
year was spent at Owens College, and, in the following year,
having gained an entrance scholarship in Natural Science at
Christ's College, Cambridge, he continued his studies there,
obtaining first-class honours in the Natural Science Tripos in

Having completed his preliminary scientific education, he at
once devoted his energies to botanical research. He studied for a
time under Prof. Sachs at Wiirzburg, and in 1880 published an
important paper on the embryo-sac in Angiosperms. This piece of
work was carried out at Kew in the Jodrell laboratory, which had
been founded a few years previously for the purpose of affording
facilities for research on material supplied by Eew. This work on
the embryo-sac is thus one of the early contributions to the long
series of researches, which have since been carried out in this
laboratory, by a succession of botanists.

In 1880 Marshall Ward was sent by the Government to Ceylon
to study the cause of the coffee-leaf disease, and the results of his
investigations were published in Ceylon, and in a paper in the
Journal of the Linnean Society (1882) on the life-history of the
fungus causing this disease. In 1882 he became Assistant
Lecturer at Owens College (now the Victoria University) ; three

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years later he was appointed Professor of Botany in the Forestry
Department at Oooper^s Hill, and in 1895 was elected to the
Professorship at Cambridge.

The following are some of the distinctions conferred on him.
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1888, and was
chosen to read the Oroonian Lecture in 1890, the subject being
^'Some relations between host and parasite in certain epidemic
diseases of plants." In 1892 the University of Cambridge made
him a Doctor of Science, and in the following year the Royal
Society awarded him the Royal Medal for his researches into the
life-history of Fungi and Schizomycetes. He was president of the
botanical section of the British Association at Toronto in 1897,

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