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ancients. In 17'J5 Jones* disposed of that theory, and also
established the specific name by which it is now generally known,
except in so far as it is always spelt erroneously " ItvarancusaJ^
The first letter of the name as nsed by Jones is distinctly J, not
I. The substitntion of I for J has altogether obscored the
derivation of the name, which is from Jward (fever) and ankosd
(the hook nsed by the elephant driver to restrain his elephant),
hence " fever-restrainer " as Blane and, more recently, Maddent
have correctly rendered it. The grass was subsequently found by
Dr. Boyd near Hurdwar, and as his specimens were distributed with
Wallich's plants, it has become fairly well known. Its further
history is of little interest, and may be gathered from the synonymy
given on p. 354. In the Panjab it is known under the same name
as G. Schoenanthus, viz., Khavi^X and is probably also used for
the same purposes. Its affinity with (7. Schoenanthvs is, indeed,
very great, and the two are, as Hackel has already pointed out, not
always distinguishable with certainty. The area of (7. Jwarancusa
extends from the outer hillzone of the United Provinces into
Kumaon and Garhwal, and westwards as far as Kashmir and the
north-eastern Panjab. At high altitudes, as in Kumaon and Spiti,
or in the dryer parts of the Panjab, it becomes dwarfed and narrow-
leafed and forms a ** transition state" to G. Schoenanthus. The
latter is a characteristic desert plant, able to exist with a minimum
supply of water. On the other hand, G. Jwarancusa is dependent
on an, at least temporarily, abundant supply of water, and prefers
the neighbourhood of rivers, or actually grows in the beds of
torrents. It is not impossible that the distinguishing characters
of C. Jwarancusa as compared with C. Schoenanthus^ that is the
robust state, the long, flat and relatively broad leaves, and the
more composite panicles, are mainly due to edaphic influences.

3. Cymbopogon Nardus, Rendle.

{Andropogon Nardus, L.)
Citronella Grass.

Foundation of the Species and Early History.—
If the history of Linnaeus's Andropogon Schoenanthus is bewil-
dering, that of his A. Nardus, the other aromatic Andropogon
known to him, is perfectly clear. In this case Linnaeus has been
quite consistent, and his references, with the exception of those to
Mattioli and Bauhin, are unobjectionable. Moreover, there is still
at the British Museum, in excellent preservation, Hermann's
specimen of * Pengriman ' on which the species finally rests.

Paul Hermann, chief medical officer in the Dutch East India
Company's service, resided at Colombo between 1672 and 1677,
and all his collections were made in the neighbourhood of that
town. This fixes safficiently the origin of the specimen which, in

♦ Jones in Asiat Researoh. vol. iv. (1796), p. 109.

t Madden in Trans. Edinb. Hot Soc., vol. v. (1857), p. 138. Madden has |rfven
here also another version, viz., Jtoarandsaka (fever destroyer),

♦ Baden Powell, Punjab Prod. (1868), p. 383,



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315

his posthumons * Museum Zeylanicnm • (p. 26), published by
Sherard in 1726, is referred to as : ^^Pengriman Arundo Zeylanica
farcta odore et sapore calami aromatici.^^ Pengriman evidently
stands for ^^Pefigiri mana'* (i,e.<, sour mana), the name by which
the grass is still known in Ceylon. Nicolaus Grimm,* a con-
temporary of Hermann, also a medical man, and also for a
considerable time resident at Colombo, calls it ** Arundo indica
odorata^^^ and says of it : " Its lower part is like that of cane and
the upper like a grass. The root is rather hard, splits like wood,
and is very fragrant; it resembles somewhat Calamus^ and is
divided into joints of equal length and nodes. It grows rather
copiously near the town of Colombo. . . By distillation a fine
oil is prepared from it, which in small doses contains all the
virtues of the plant, comforting the stomach and aiding the
digestion when it is disturbed by cold, slimy or foetid humours.
It is the best remedy in cases of obstructed menses, and
accelerates them. A watery infusion has the same power. The
plant is very good for cold and hot baths in beri-beri and in the
diseases mentioned above." Hermann's specimen agrees absolutely .
with the ordinary Citronella grass as it is at present cultivated in
South Ceylon, and there is no donbt in my mind that the grass
was already in cultivation in his time, so that Grimm's note as
to the grass growing copiously near Colombo would refer to
plantations of the grass.

Linnaeus, like other writers before him, was inclined to find
the " Nardus Indica " of the ancients in some reed-like grass, and
thinking that Hermann's Pengriman might be it, called it
Andropogon Nardus. In connection with this, it may be of
interest to point out that Camus and Penzig f oundf, in the so-called
Este Herbarium at Modena, which was formed between 1565 and
1598, a portion of a shoot of C, Nardus under the name of
" Spigo Nardo." Others saw in it the old Calamus aromaticvSy
and it may actually have been offered, under that or a similar name,
in European drug-shops. Thus, for instance, there is attached to
Hermann's specimen in the British Museum the note — in whose
hand I do not know — " Calamus odoratus ojfficinarum,^^

Confusion wcth Lemon Grass.— The Citronella grass early
shared the fate of the other aromatic Andropogoneae by becoming
almost hopelessly confused. It was AinslieJ who first (1813)
suggested that it was identical with the 'Ginger grass' of
Courtallam (C. flexuosus) and the cultivated 'Lemon grass'
((7. citratus\ and it seems to have been known for a long time
by the latter name ; but as ' Lemon grass ' was very generally
put down as * Andropogon Schoenanihus,^ Citronella was also
frequently referred to by that name, chiefly by pharmacists and
chemists. Then, the French name for ' Lemon grass ' being .
* citronelle,' the latter term also found its way into English
literature, originally as a synonym of * Lemon grass ' in the wider
sense, and later on more especially of the * Ceylon lemon grass,'
I — -^ — ____— ^ —

♦ Grimm, Labor. Ceyl., p. 120, ex Bnrmann, Thes. ZeyL (1736), p. 35.
t Camas and Penzig in Atte Soc. Natur., Modena, Mem. ser. iii., vol. iv. (1885),
p. 33 (of reprint).
t AinsUe, Mnt. Ifed. (1813), pp. 115 and 128«

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316

that is, 0. Nardus, Pereira* (1850) seems to have been the
first to use the term ^citronelle oil' as equivalent to 'lemon
grass oil.'

CiTRONBLLA. OiL AND Plaktations.— J. Bell,t in his notes
on the London International Exhibition of 1851, mentions '' oil of
citronelle, or oil of lemon grass." He says it is imported from
India, ''and is the produce of a grass, known to botanists as
Andropogon citrcUum and by some persons considered to be
identical with Andropogon Schoenanthusy In the Ceylon cata-
logue of the Paris Exhibition of 1855, p. 17, we find two distinct
oils : (1) Lemon-grass oil, from ' A. Schoenanthi^y and
(2) " Citronella oil ; citron oil ; perfumery," and against the latter
there is in the Kew copy an entry in Alex. Smith's handwriting :
"Citronella oil, Andropogon." W. S. Piesse, in his "Art of
Perfumery " (1855), p. 31, also refers to * CitroneUa^^ saying :
" Under this name there is an oil in the market, chiefly derived
from Ceylon and the East Indies ; its true origin we are unable to
decide. In odour it somewhat resembles citron fruit, but is very
inferior. Probably it is procured from one of the grasses of the
Andropogon genus." Gladstone^ (1872) and C. R. A. WrightS (1874)
were the first to examine, under the name of ' Citronella/ the oil
of 0. NarduSj as is evident from their descriptions of the oil, but
both referred it to ' Andropogon Schoenanthus.* Even as late as
1880, it was confused with G.Jiexuosvs and G, citratus by Bentley
and Trimen,|| who figured a specimen of the toxjaieiV dA Aridropogon
Nardus. In 1883 'Citronella' was at last clearly confined to
Andropogon Nardus by Watt,T who gives the average exportation
of citronella from Colombo as amounting to about 40,000 lbs. ; the
exact return for 1864 was 622,000 ounces. In 1872 the export
had risen to almost 100,000 lbs. (1,595,257 ounces), in 1887 to
551,706 lbs., and in 1899 to 1 ,478,756 lbs. Since then it has fallen to
1,282,471 lbs. in 1905. The area under cultivation is at present
estimated at.between 40,000 and 50,000 acres, and is almost entirely
confined to the Southern Province, mainly between the Gin Ganga
in the north-west and the Walawi Ganga in the east.

Outside Ceylon A. Nardus has been in cultivation for some
time in Penang, whence Citronella oil is mentioned as early as
1872 by Gladstone,** and in the Straits Settlements and Java.
When it was introduced into the Malay Peninsula and Java is
uncertain, but it cannot have been very long ago. McNair, in his
book, " Perak and' the Malays " (1878), p. 73, speaks of " the
flourishing growth of citronelle and lemon grass, from which
essential oils are extracted," as worth mentioning ; but in 1886,
Cantleytt complains of the insufficient attention which the
cultivation of these two grasses receives in the Straits, and in 1900
the total area of citronella estates in the peninsula was estimated
at only 2,000 acres at the highest.JJ In Java it is mentioned by

♦ Pereira, Elem. Mat. Med., ed. 3 (1850), p. 1027.

t Pharm. Joum. k Trans., vol. xi. (1852), pp. 18 and 19.

X Gladstone in Jonm. Chem. Soc, vol. xxv. (1872), p. 1.

§ 0. E. A. Wrigrht, in Year Book of Pharm. (1874), p. 631.

jl Bentley and Trimen, Med. PL tab. 297.

^ Diet. Eoon. Prod. India, voL i., part iv., p. 6.

♦• Gladstone, Pharm. Joom., ser. 3, vol. it (1872), p. 746.

tt Straits Settl., Bep. Forest Dept. (1886), p. 15.

1^ Gildemeistor ana Hoffmann, Vol. Oils (J1900), ^. 29^^



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Romburgh* in 1892 as *Roempoet sereh wangi* under A. Iwarati'
cusOy and is stated to have been introduced into the * Gultuurtuin *
in 1891. He drew the attention of Schimmel & Go. to the oil
prepared from the Javanese crop ; this reference eventually led to
the establishment of citronella distilleries in Java. According to
Giidemeister and Hoffmann,t both the Malay Peninsula and the
Java grass represent the * Maha Pengiri ' variety. Quite recently
experiments in growing Gitronella grass have been made in the
West Indies.

Varibtibs op Gitronblla Grass.— Two kinds of Gitronella
grass^ have recently been distinguished by the growers : * Maha
Pengiri' (the Great Pengiri), and *Lenabatu or Lana Batu
Pengiri,' or briefly, * Lenabatu.' The former is also known as * Old
Gitronella Grass,' or * Winter's Grass,' because it is now almost
exclusively grown by Messrs. Winter & Son ; the other is spoken of
as ' New Gitronella Grass." Specimens of both varieties received at
Eew from Galle, so far as they go, do not show any morphological
differences. I must, however, add that the inflorescences of both are
very defective, and one is distinctly diseased, so that no complete
comparison is possible. The Old Gitronella Grass is described§ as
a suiface feeder which soon grows out of the ground and gets
exhausted, dying off after 10 or 15 years of cultivation ; and it ^' has
somewhat broad leaves, and the bushes formed are larger than the
second " (i.^., Lenabatu). It yields a finer oil, but the necessity
of frequent replanting has led to its being more and more
replaced by the Lenabatu variety. The chemical differences of
the oils derived from the two varieties are mainly in the propor-
tional amount of citronellal and geraniol, Maha Pengiri containing
50*45 per cent, of citronellal and 38*15 per cent, of geraniol, and
Lenabatu 28*2 per cent, and 32*9 per cent, respectively.

Origin op Gitronblla Grass.— (7. Nardus in its typical
form — ^Uiat is, the form represented by Hermann's specimen — is
only known in the cultivated state. It is an awnless grass, the
valve or flowering glome of the hermaphrodite spikelet being
eitiier entire or more or less bifid, with a minute point or a very
fine and short bristle from the sinas. The flowers are usually
apparently normal, but do not seem to set freely, and in some
cases all the spikelets are male or otherwise imperfectly developed,
or they are infested with Ustilago. On the whole, the repro-
ductive system seems to be debilitated. This is the case with all
the specimens I have seen, irrespective of their origin, and is
evidently the result of the treatment the grass has experienced
from the grower, in whose interest it is that they should not
flower, as, according to Giidemeister and Hoffmann,t ^*' otherwise
the tufts become too dense, become yellow within, and spoil," Still
a certain amount is allowed to seed for renewing the plantations,
the usual mode of propagation being apparently by dividing the
bushes. The reduction or suppression of the awn is no doubt in
correlation with the partial sterility of the cultivated (7. NardtMj

* Rombaigh, Plantentain de Bnitenz., 1817-92 (1892), p. 388.
t Gildeme&ter and Hoffmann, Vol. Oils (1900), p. 291.

t Winter in Ghiemist and Druggist, lii. (1897), p. 646 ; Giidemeister and
Hoffmann, YoL Oils (1900), p. 291.
I Tropic. Agrionlt, toL xvL (1897), p. 269, and voL xvii. (1B98), p. 794.



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the wild ancestor of which we have to seek among the awned
forms. It haa very generally been assumed that the CitroneJla
grass is a descendant of the wild *Msna' grass of the Ceylon
Patanas, but it is unfortunate that there is no specimen
at Kew which is definitely stated to have been collected
in the wild state. Sir Joseph Hooker, however, who had the
grasses of the Peradeniya herbarium at his disposal when working
out the Gramineae for Trimen's 'Handbook- of the Flora of
Ceylon,' says* that there were three specimens of the wild Mana
in that collection from Galle, Maoya, aad Peradeniya, and they were
all Hackel's Andropogon NardiMy var. nilagiricus. Willis also
states that the Mdna of the Patanas is distinct from the cultivated
Citronella grass, but does not say how it differs. Now there is at Kew
a suite of excellent specimens of the cultivated awnless C.Nardus
from Mr. Jowitt's estate at Bundarawalla, and, sent with them at
the same time and from the same locality, and numbered
concurrently with the first, is another set which is undoubtedly
^Andropogon Nardus, var. nilagiricus.* Whether they grew
wild on the estate or were in cultivation is not stated. A careful
comparison of both sets has convinced me that this ^ Andropogon
Nardus, var. nilagiricus* is, as Sir Joseph Hooker has stated,
actually the mother plant of the Pengiri Mana or Citronella grass.
I shall treat of the wild ^ Mana ' in the next section. Here
I would only add a few words concerning the Maha Pengiri
and Lenabatu Pengiri. Gildemeister and Hoffmannf state, on
Mr. Winter's authority, that the Maha Pengiri came from Malacca.
As the Citronella grass is a comparatively recent introduction to
the Malay Peninsula, and certainly does not occur there in the
wild state, this can only mean that it has, possibly as an
improved race, been reintroduced into Ceylon from Malacca ; but
as the Maha Pengiri is at the same time put down as the old or
original Citronella grass of Ceylon, it is more probable that the
statement is due to some mistake. As to the Lenabatu variety we
have more precise information. It originated about 1885 near
Matura,^ in South Ceylon, presumably in a plantation, and in a
short time almost entirely replaced the old grass on account of its
being so much hardier. Mells§ says of it, '*it is in general
appearance very like the Mana grass found on patanas up country."
Not having seen normal inflorescences of Lenabatu, I am unable
to say whether it actually comes nearer to the wild Mana than to
the Maha Pengiri.

4. Cymbopogon confertifloros, Skip/.

{Andropogon confertifiorus^ Steud.)
Mana (Sing.).

In the preceding section I mentioned ^Andropogon Nardus^
var. nilagiricus^ Hack.' as presumably the mother-plant of the
Citronella grass. It inhabits an area extending from the Nilgiris
to Ceylon. Such specimens of it as have been collected or observed

• Part v., p. 243.

t Gildemeiflter and Hoffmann, VoL Oils (1900), p. 291.

:;: Tropia Agricult, vol. xvii. (1898), p. 794.

g Mells in Tropia A^oult., voL xvi. (1897), p. 269..



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319

in Ceylon have generally been put down as Andropogon NarduSj
whilst from the north of the area it first became known throngh
Hohenacker's collection as ^Andropogon nilagiricus^ Hochst'
This name has remained, however, a 'nomen nudum,' for when
Steudel* described the grass from Hohenacker's specimens
in 1855, he called it Andropogon confertijlorus. On the other
hand, Hackelf in his monograph of the Andropogoneae, has
revived the name * nilagiricus^^ but merely as that of a variety of
Andropogon Nardus.

Compared with Citronella grass, this differs in the normally
developed (therefore on the whole "fuller") and awned spikelets.
It is a coarse, erect grass with long, tufted, rather broad and
internally reddish, persistent sheaths, very long stiff blades,
erect, dense, though often interrupted, panicles, brownish or
sometimes purplish-brown sheaths which are as long as the
racemes and rather conspicuous, and pale or dark, closely-set
spikelets. Nothing is known of the conditions under which it
occurs in the Nilgiris, Anamallai and Palni Hills ; but in
Ceylon we know it to be one of the most conspicuous elements of
the vegetation of the patanas ; here, according to Pearson,J it " is
found abundantly from 5,000 feet downwards, and frequently
forms a belt at the edge of the patana parallel with the forest
boundary ; it attains a height of five feet or more. In strong sun-
shine it emits a sickening and almost overpowering odour of
Citronella oil." Tennent, in " Ceylon " (vol. i., p. 25), also mentions
the oppressive perfume of the grass, which he calls "lemon-grass
(Andropogon Schoenanihicsy^ and adds that the odour makes it
" distasteful to cattle, which will only crop the delicate braird that
springs after the surface has been annually burnt by the
Kandyans.*' According to Willis, it yields a good oil, but in small
quantities, and there is no evidence that it is used commercially.
The Singalese name is "Mftnft," whilst Hohenacker gives "Bambe"
as the Nilgiri vernacular. He also observes, on the label, that it is
used for thatching.

5. Oymbopogon fleznosos, Stapf.

{Andropogon Jlexuosusy Nees ex Steud.)

Malabar or Cochin Grass.

Early History and Foundation of thb Spboibs.—
Rheede,§ in his Hortus Malabaricus, figured and described under
the name ^ Kodi-pullu^ a grass of which he says that it has
aromatic leaves, and that a drink is made of its roots to stop
salivation in certain fevers. Lamarck) referred it under y to
•* Andropogon SchoenwithtM- \ but-most botanists ignored it or
quoted it without any further remark under ' Andropogon Schoen-
anthus^ or ^Andropogon Iwarancuaa.^ Yet the plate is a
very faithful representation of a grass evidently very conmion

• Steudel, Syn. PI. Glum., vol i. (1855), p. 385.

t Hackel, Androp. in DC. Monogr. Phaner., vol. vi. (1889), p. 604.

i Peanon, in Joum. Lhin. Soc., vol. xxxiy. (1899), p. 326.

5 Rheede, Hort. Malab., vol. xiL (1703), p. 107, t. 57.

U Lamarck, EnoyoL, yol. i. (1783), p. 375.



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m

throughout Travancore and the adjoining district of Tinnivelli.
Rottler knew it and put it down, though with some doubt, as
Androjjogon Nardus, which it resembles very much indeed.
Ainslie* (1813) mentions it as * Sukkanaroo-pilloo ' and * Ginger-
grass ' (the exact equivalent of the Tamil name), and says of it :
" This is a variety of the grass which is well known in lower India
by the name of the lemon-grass ; it differs, however, from it in
this respect, that on being chewed, it has a strong flavor of ginger.
It is very common on the Courtallam Hills in the Tinnivelli
District, where the natives consider an infusion of it as stomachic
and febrifuge," and later on (1826)t he adds : " the natives
occasionally prepare with it an essential oil." This, I believe, is
the first record of oil being prepared from Malabar grass. Klein
collected the grass in 1818 on the same hills, and his specimens,
which are also marked ' Stickunari pillu, Tam. ; GHnger-grass^
Ang. ; Andropogon Nardus (?),' leave no doubt as to its identity
with the plant from which the Travancore or Cochin lemon-grass
oil is produced. Wight subsequently distributed specimens of the
same grass as ^And?*opogon flexuosxis^ N.E.' It was not, however,
described until 1855, when SteudelJ published a description
retaining for it Nees' name ; but not much notice was taken of
Steudel's species which, if mentioned at all, was usually cited as a
synonym of Andropogon Nardus^ as for instance by Bentley and
Trimen,§ who moreover figured it as Andropogon Nardus. In
1889, Hackelll distinguished it as a variety of the typical Andro-
pogon Nardus (Citronella grass), and the same place was given to
it by Hooker in the Flora of British India,ir but neither author
connected it with the Lemon-grass oil of Travancore, which very
generally was treated simply as " Lemon-grass oil."

Morphologically, C. Jlexuosus differs from the other species of
the Nardus series by its large, loose, greyish or slate-coloured
panicles, the branches of which are particularly slender, long,
llexuous and often drooping, and by the less conspicuous spathes
and the smaller, usually very slender and acute spik^lets. The
basal leaf-sheaths are rather narrower than those of 0. Nardus
and C confertiflorus and are not reddish within.

Malabar Grass Oil.— When the Malabar Grass-oil— this name,
which is used in Barber's collection, is preferable to the name
Travancore Lemon-grass oil — was first exported, I do not know
precisely ; but the " lemon-grass oil " mentioned by Pereira (1850)
as imported into England from Cochin was very likely the oil of
G. /lexuosu^y and not of C. dtratus. In 1859, Major Heber Drury,
writing to D. Hanbury and referring to a specimen of O.
flexiwsus,^* which he had sent him, says : " From this species
(and from this only) Lemon-grass oil is distilled in Travancore."

* Ainslie, Mat Med. (1813), pp. 115 and 116..

t Ainslie, Mat. Med., vol. ii. (1826), p. 50.

t Steudel, Syn. PI. Glum., vol. i. (1855), p. 388.

§ Bentley and Trimen, Medio. PL (1880), tab. 297.

II Haokel, Androp. in DC. Monogr. Phaner., vol. vi. (1889), p. 603.

^ Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind., vol. vii. (1897), p. 207.

** Drury did not, however, use that name. In 1868, in his Useful Plants of
India, he inoludes the Travancore grass in Andropogon cUratus, and six years
later, in his Handbook of the Indian Flora, vol. iii., p. 640, in Andropogon
Sohoenanthui.



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Pour years later Hanbury received the same plant from
E. G. Waring, with this note: "Andropogon (?) which yields
the Lemon-grass of Travancore— abundant on the plains — is not
cultivated/' The statement in the Pharmacographia Indica, vol. iii.
(1893), p. 565, that the oil is distilled in Travancore from
Anjengo northwards, and that the grass is burnt at the end of
the dry weather, no doubt also refers to C. Jlexuosus^ and not to
O. citrcUus^ as the authors of that work believe. It is probably
due to this confusion that Qildemeister and Hoffmann say, quoting
Dymock, Warden, and Hooper as their authorities, that ** the grass
is cultivated on a large scale only on the Malabar coast in Travan-
core, on the western slope of the mountains, north of Anjengo."
Mr. T. P. Bourdillon writes quite recently from Quilon that only
within the last year or two extensive areas have been planted up
with the Malabar grass. As the Travancore grass oil is not, in
commerce, specifically distinguished from the oil of C. citratus^
both being sold as 'lemon-grass oil,' it would be interesting
to know how far the analyses of Memon-grass oil' refer to the
one or the other. Certain discrepancies in the results obtained
by chemists may have their origin in the indiscriminate use of
the term.

Assuming that the whole of the Memon-grass oil' exported
from the Malabar Coast is referable to G. JUxuosus^ the figures
for the export of that oil were, for 1896-97, 270,000 kilos, or
595,080 lbs.

6. Oymbopogon coloratns, Stapf .

(Andropogan coloratus^ Nees, ms.)

Under the name of * Andrqpoaon coloratiM^ N.E.,' Wight
distributed a grass (numbered 1703) which although similar to
C. flexuo8t$8 differs from it distinctly in its much smaller stature,



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