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Sessile spikelets lanceolate or ovate- or obovate-lanceolate ;
back flat : —

Lowest pedicel of raceme scarcely stouter than the
upper : —

All the spikelets awnless • ... 3. (7. Nardus.
Sessile spikelets awned : —

Panicle erect, dense, often interrupted, with
rather conspicuous, frequently purplish-brown to
blackish spathes . ... L C. confer ti/lorus,
PatLidle loose, with slender, long, flexuous, often
drooping branches and comparatively inconspicuous
spathes, the whole panicle often greyish ....

5. C.Jlexuosus.

Lowest pedicel of racemes much swollen ; panicles

erect, narrow, often, interrupted, the divisions short,

dense ; spathes and racemes short, the white hairs of the

joints and panicles often very conspicuously contrasting

with the pale brown spikelets .... 6. (7. colorcUus,

Sessile spikelets linear to lanceolate-linear, awnless ; back

distinctly concave in the lower part ; panicle usually

loose ; branches slender, the ultimate branchlets more or

less nodding ; spathes long and narrow ; hairs of joints and

pedicels rather spreading 7. 0. citraiiis.

Perennials, sometimes flowering the first year (or sometimes
annuals ?) ; innovations mixed (extravaginal and intravaginal),
forming fascicles from a short collar or very short, slender,
oblique rhizome ; old culms naked at the base or with the
withered remains of the basal leaf -sheaths ; blades flat,
5-30 mm. wide, ronnded to subcoi*date and stem-clasping at the
base, of a soft texture, with smooth edges (at least In the lower
part) ; the first (outer) glume of thje sessile spikelet with a narrow
groove from the middle downwards corresponding to a keel inside
(Series liusae) :—

Culms in loose, rather scanty fascicles, erect and simple or
nearly so, usually tall and robust; basal sheaths soon
withering; blades 10-30 mm. wide (rarely under 10 mm.),
somewhat fat, rich green, at least above ; panicles 10-30 cm.
long, rather loose, turning reddish (often very bright) when

mature r 8. C Martini.

Culms in somewhat loose, often copious fascicles, erect or
geniculately ascending, very slender, frequently branched,
the branches often in fascicles from the knees of the culms ;
sheaths soon withering ; blades 2-6 mm. wide, thin, glaucous ;
panicles usually loose, 10-20 cm. long, glaucous or straw-
colour when mature 9. C. caesius.



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Culms in compact fascicles, erect, simple, wiry ; basal sheaths
more persistent than in the two preceding species ; blades
6-10 mm, wide, somewhat firm, rich green above, glancescent
below, often snffused with purple near the base and along
the edges ; panicle stiff, dense, 6-10 cm. long ; spathes more
herbaceous than in the other species, often with rudimentary
blades, purplish-brown with yellowish scarious edges ; spike-
lets usually green in the lower, purple in the ui)per part . .

10. G. polyneuros.

Vbtivbria. — Racemes panicled, peduncled, very slender, many-
jointed, in copious whorls on the nodes of an often long rhachis ;
joints and pedicels filiform, glabrous or nearly so ; spikelets
laterally or donudly slightly compressed: the sessile all alike,
awned or awnless ; first (outer) glume muricate or smooth.

Innovations forming dense, compressed bunches of leaves
with equitant sheaths and keeled, fat (almost spongy) blades
which are more or less V-shaped in cross section ; spikelets
muticous, muricate ........ 11. F. gtzanioides.

Andropogon Sect. Amphilophis.— Racemes fascicled or
panicled, peduncled, slender, few- to many-jointed; joints and
pedicels linear, fiat, usually translucent between the thickened
edges ; all the sessile spikelets alike, dorsally compressed, awned.

Innovations forming dense bunches of leaves with com-
pressed, smooth sheaths and flat, bright green, somewhat
strongly-nerved leaves, 4-8 mm. wide; racemes densely
fascicled, often very numerous, 2-5-5 cm. long, flexuous,
purplish, silky ; sessile spikelets villous below the middle
with a silky callus 12. A. odoratus.

1. CSymbopogon Schoenanthus, Spreng. Pug. vol. ii. (1815), p. 15,
non Schult. — Transferred from Andropogon {A. Schoenanthus^ L.).

Descriptions.— Hackel, Androp. p. 598 (under Andropogon
laniger\ and Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vol. vii., p. 203 (under
A. Iwarancusa^ subsp. laniger) ; for the anatomy of the leaves,
Duval-Jouve in Ann. Sc. Nat., s^r. vi., vol. i., p. 355, tab. 18, fig. 2
(under -4. lanigerum)^ and Hoehnel in Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien,
vol. Ixxxix., part i. (1884), pp. 6-15, with tab. (under A. Schoenr-
anthus).

Illustration.— Hooker's Icon. Plant., tab. 1871 (under
A. laniger^ from a specimen from Jedda, Arabia, distributed as
Cymhopogon circinnatus) ;— not very characteristic.

Synonyms.

Cymhopogon arabicus^ Nees ex Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. vol. i.
(1855), p. 387. — Quoted as a synonym under Andropogon
circinncUus.

C. Arriani, Aitch. Cat. Punj. PI. (1869), p. 174.— Transferred
from Andropogon {A. Arianty Edgew.).

C. circinnatvsy Hochst. in Schimp. PI. Arab., ed. 2 (1844),
no. 789 (name only). — Quoted as a synonym by Hackel under
A. laniger.

Andropogon Schoenanthus, L. Spec. Plant., ed. 1 (1753), p. 1046.
—Based on ^Schoenanthi Herha ' oflBcinarum.



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A. hicomisy Porek. Fl. A^ypt. Arab. (1763), p. 173, non L. .
— From specimens collected by the author in the Hedjas.

A. lanigeTy Desf . Fl. Atl. vol. ii. (1800), p. 379. — From specimens
collected by the author at Qafsa, Tunis.

A. Olivieriy Boiss. Diagn. PL Or. ser. i. fasc. v. (1844), p. 76.
— From specimens collected by Aucher in Mesopotamia, no. 2955.

A. circinnatuSy Hochst. et Steud. Herb. Un. It., no. 789 (name
only); Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. vol. i. (1855), p. 387.— From speci-
mens collected by Schimper near Jedda.

A. Arrianiy Edgew. in Joum. Linn. Soc. vol. vi. (1862), p. 208.
— From specimens collected by the author in the Panjab.

A. Iwarancusay subsp. laniger^ Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vol. vii.,
p. 203.

Oymnanthelia lanigera, Anderss. in Schweinf. Beitr. Fl.
Aethiop. (1867), p. 310 (name only). — Quoted as a synonym by
Hackel under A. laniger.

Distribution. — From Morocco to the Panjab and Ladak.
The area is broken up into a number of sometimes very distant
sub-areas : (a) North Africa from south-west Morocco along the
southern edge of the Atlas to Tunis; (b) Arabia, south of 18° N. ;
(c) western and south-western outskirts of the Persian highlands
from 36° N. to Daleki (29° N.) on the Persian Gulf ; (d) Kerman,
up to 2000 m. or higher ; (e) from south-west Afghanistan and
north-west Baluchistan to the Panjab and the Sikh States, and in
the Indus valley up to 2000 m. or higher. The eastern limit is
ill-defined, as here the areas of C. Schoenanthtis and C. Jwarancusa
overlap, and numerous transition forms occur. In the Panjab it
is common in some of the desert tracts from Karachi to Peshawur
and Ludhiana, growing on rocks, in sand or in hard, loamy soil.

Herbarium Specimens examined.— Sind : Without precise
locality, StockSy 816, 690. Waziristan : Duthie's collector^ 15,721,
15,738 ; Dera Ismail KheLiiy Herb. DuthiSy 7224. PANJAB : Kuram
Valley, Shalian plains, 1500 m., Aiichisoriy 6 ; Para Chenar,
Duthie^s collecioVy 14,800 ; Salt Range, Bhirpur, Aitchisoriy 59 ;
Loodiana, Edgeivorth ; Sikh States, Balawali, Edgeworth.
Chitral : Dir, Herh. Duthiey 6762 ; Warai, 1350 m., Herb.
Duthiey 17,609 ; Moikandi, 1740 m., Herb. Duthiey 16,763.
Kashmir : Province of Kashmir, Ramu, 1800 m., C. B. ClarkSy
28,501 ; Gilgit, Astor Valley, 1800 m., Duthiey 12,301 ; Doyan,
2130 m., Otles ; Gilgit River, 1380 m., Giles ; Chalt, Winterbottom ;
Niltar VaUey, near Nomal, 1500-1800 m., Duthie, 12,335 ;
Baltistan, near Scardu, Thomson ; Duthiey 12,045.

Oil. — (Camel-grass oil). — Production very limited and local in
the Panjab, mostly for medical purposes. Yield about 1 per cent, of
the dry grass as sold in bazaars (Dymock). Composition unknown.
Specific gravity 0905 at 29*5° (Dymock), 0-915 at 15° (Schimmel
& Co.) ; angle of rotation, ap - 4*" (Dymock), + 34"* 38' (Schimmel h
Co.). Distills between 170-250°.

Vernacular Names. — Arabic: Izkhir (the grass as sold in
the bazaars) ; M^areb (Cairo, Schweinfurth) ; M'h§,h (Hedjas,
Forskal). Persian: Gor-giyah (Wild Ass grass; Ulfaz Udwiyah,
1450). Hindustani : Khavi (Edgeworth, 1840) ; Ghatyari (Baden
Powell).



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354

. 2. Cymbopogon Jwaranensa, Hchult. Mant. ii. (1824), p. 458.
TraDBferred from Andropogon {A. Jwarancusay Jones). — Based
on Blane's paper on the ^Nardas Indica or Spikenard' in
Phil. Trans., vol. Ixxx. (1790), p. 284, and on the accompanying
fignre (tab. 16) : the first technical description was by Roxburgh,
Fl. Ind. (ed. Carey & Wall.), vol. i. (1820), p. 279, who spelt
^* Iwara^icusa^^ instead of ^* JwaraficusaJ*^ Original in Herb.
Smith, at the Linnean Society, London.

Descriptions. — Trinius, Spec. Gram. Ic, text accompanying
tab. 326 ; Hackel, Androp., p. 599 (var. genuinua) ; Hook, f., Fl.
Brit. Ind., vol. vii. p. 203 {A. Iwarancusa ** proper").

Illustkations.— Blane I.e. ; Trinius, I.e. ; Duthie, Fodd. Grass.
N. India, tab. 23 (under A, laniger^ a form approaching A. Sclio^
iianthxAs).

Synonyms.

Andropogon Jtvarancusay Jones, in Asiat Research, vol. iv.
X1795), p. 109 (name and reference to Blane).

A. lanigeVy Duthie, Fodd. Grass. N. India, t. 23.

DlSTRlBl^TiON.— Outer hillzone of the United Provinces,
Eumaon, Garhwal (up to 3000 m. or over) and westwards as far
as Peshawur ; mainly in the neighbourhood of watercourses.

Hbrbarium Spboimbns bxaminbd.— Panjab : Rawul Pindi,
Altchisony 97, 562; Jhelum, Stewart^ 157; Lahore, Thomson;
Firuzpur, Griffith, distr. no. 6770 ; Spiti, Lance, 295. KASHMIR :
Baltistan, between Ehalse and Nurla, among rocks close to
the river, Thomson; near Leh, 3000 m., Thomson. Unitbd
Provincbs : without precise locality, RoyU ; bed of Jumna,
Falconer; Hurdwar, Boyd; between Agra and Saharanpur,
" radice odoratissima,*' Jacquemont, 352. Garhwal ; Tonse valley
very common, Jacqtiemont 398; 900-1200 m., thithie, 15,579,
14,499 ; without precise locality, Stewarfy 404. Kumaon ; Almora,
1500 m., Strachey A Winterhottom, 5 ; TJwmson. Oudh ; North
Oudh, Thompson ; Rapti Valley, Bkine. NEPAL : without precise
locality, Wallich. Bbngal : Dinajepur Di&tr., Eantanagar,
Hamilton,

Oil. — ^Unknown. The grass is very probably used along with
C, Schoenanthus.

Vernacular Names. — Sanskrit: Jwar^nkusa (t.c., fever-
restrainer). Bengali : Karankusa (Roxburgh, 1814 ; Dutt).
Hindustani : Ehavi (see A. Schoenanthus). For further verna-
culars see Duthie, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind., p. 36.

3. Cymbopogon Nardus, Rendle, in Cat. Welw. Afr. PL vol. ii.
(1899), p. 155. — Transferred from Afidropogon (A. Nardus, L.).

Descriptions.— Hackel, Androp. pp. 601-602 (subep-flr^nwinw),
and Hook. f. in Trimen, Fl. CeyL, vol. v., p. 242.

Illustrations.— None.

Synonyms.

Andropogon Nardus, L. Spec. Plant, ed, 1 (1753), p. 1046.
Based on Hermann^s specimen of ' Pengriman.'— Original at the
BritiBb Museum.



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355

DiSTBIBUTlON. — Only known in cultivation : Ceylon, parti-
cularly in the South ; Malayan Peninsula ; Java.

Hbrbarium Spboimbns examined. — Ceylon : without
precise locality, Macra-e; Walker; ThwaiteSy 2733: Watwalla,
near (Jalle, cultivated, Thwaites, Nov. 1858 (Herb. Pharm. Soc.) ;
Galle, cultivated as "Old Citronella grass" (Winter's grass), and
other specimens as " New Citronella grass (Lanu Batu)," comm.
Breitenstein ; Bundara walla, Jowitt, 2383-2386, 2388, 2389.
Penang : Batu Feringi, cultivated (?), Curtis, 91. Java :
Buitenzorg, cultivated, Treub. JAMAICA : Hope (Jardens, culti-
vated, Harris.

Oil. — (Oleum Citronellae ; Citronella oil). — Production in
Ceylon (1905), 1,282,471 lbs. (Tropic. Agricult., Aug. 1905) from
40,000-50,000 acres ; in the Malay Peninsula (1903) about or under
30,000 lbs. from about 2000 acres (Gildemeister and Hoffmann).
Yield in per cent, of the dry or fresh grass unknown ; per acre
about 352-440 oz. in the summer, 110-220 oz. in the winter. Com-
position : (a) Maha Pangiri, Citronellal 50'45-55*34 per cent.,
Geraniol 38-15-31-87 per cent.. Methyl Eugenol 0*78-0-84 per cent. ;
(J)) Lenubatu Pangiri, Citronellal 28*2 per cent., Geraniol 32*9 per
cent.. Methyl Eugenol 8*0 per cent. Specific gravity : (a) Maha
Pangiri 0-886-0-900 ; (6) Lenubatu PangiH 0-900-0-920. Angle
of rotation : (a) Maha Pangiri, a^ = —0*34 to —3'' ; (b) Lenubatu
Pangiri, a© = -5° to —21°.

YbbnaculAB names. — Singhalese : Pftnagiri mana ; Maha
Panagiri mana (the original variety, also known as Winter's or Old
Citronella grass) ; Lenubatu Panagiri mana (the new variety. New
Citronella grass). English : Citronella grass.

4. Cymbopogon confertifloruB, Stapf.— Transferred from Andro-
pogon {A. confertifloruSj Steud.).

Descriptions.— Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. vol. i. (1855) p. 384 ;
Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind., vol. vii., p. 206 (under A. Nardus, var.
nilagiricus).

Illustration.— None.

Synonyms.

Andropogon conferiiflorus, Steud. Syn. PL Glum., vol. i. (1855),
p. 384.— Based on Hohenacker, PI. Ind. Or. (M. Nilagiri), no. 932,
distributed as A. nilagiricuSy Hochst.

A. nilagiricuSj Hochst. in Hohenacker, PI. Ind. Or. (M. Nilagiri)
(1851), no. 932.— Name only, on the distribution label ; quoted as
a synonym by Hackel, Androp. (1889), p. 604.

A. nardoideSy a major^ Hochst. ex Steud., I.e. — Quoted as
a synonym by Steudel, I.e.

A. Nardv^y var. nilagiricuSj Hack. Androp. (1889), p. 604. —
Based on Hohenacker, no. 932.

Distribution. — ^Nilgiris, Anamallai and Palni Hills ; Ceylon,
chiefly in the * patanas ' up to 1500 m.

Herbarium Specimens examined.— Madras Presidency:
Nilgiri Hills, Schmidt ; Hohenacker, 932 ; Thomson ; Madras



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3^6

doll. 20, 36, Ghimble; Goimbatore District, Anamallai Hills,
Beddome (Brit. Mus.) ; Madura District, Palni Hills, Nadawattam ;
Barber, 2642, 2643. Cbylon : Bundarawatta, Jountt, 2382, 2387,
2390, 2391 ; without precise locality, Oardner, 1037 ; MaxweU.

Oil. — Not produced commercially ; 'good' according to Willis,
but the yield is small. Properties unknown.

Vernacular names.— 6'tn^atew : Mana. Toda (Nilgiris) :
Bflmbe (Hohenacker).

5. Cymbopogon flezuoBUS, Stapf.— Transferred from Andropogon
(4. fiexuosvA, Nees ex Steud.).

Descriptions.— Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. vol. i. (1855), p. 388 ;
Hack. Androp., p. 603 (under A. Nardus, var. flexuosu^) ; Hook. f.
Fl. Brit Ind., vol. vii. p. 207 (under A. NarduSy yst. Jlejmosus).

Illustrations.— Rheede, Hort. Malab. vol. xii. tab. 57 (Kodi-
puUu) ; Bentley and Trimen, Med. PL tab. 297 (under A. Nardus).

Synonyms.

Andropogon flexuoausy Nees in Wight, Cat. (1833), p. 100 (name
only); Steud. Syn. PL Glum., vol. i. (1855), p. 388.— Based on
Wight, No. 1704 (171a of Wight's own herbarium).

A. NarduSy Ydx. flexuosuSy Hack., Androp. (1889), p. 603.

Distribution. — Tinnivelli District and Travancore.

Herbarium Specimens examined.— Travancore : "abun-
dant on the plains," Waring (Herb. Hanbury) : Cochin, Barber,
2934. Madras Presidency : Madura District, Palni Hills, at 1200
m., Beddome (Brit. Mus.) ; Naduwattam, Barber, 2695 ; Tinnivelli
Distr., Courtallum, Klein. (A specimen of Klein's is in Wight's
herbarium, placed with Wight, 1704, distributed as " Andropogon
\Cymb.) /lexuosus, N.E." They are so much alike that it seems
probable the distributed specimens were made up from Klein's
collection). A specimen of this flowered at Kew last year.
Another cultivated specimen, grown in the A. H. Gardens at
Madras is in the herbarium of the India Museum, Calcutta.

Oil. — (Malabar or Cochin Lemon-grass oil). — Export from the
Malabar Coast (1896-97), 270,000 kilos = 595,080 lbs. (Gildemeister
and Hoffmann). Yield in per cent, of the dry or fresh grass un-
known. Composition: Mainly citral (70-75 per cent.); specific
gravity: 0*899-^903. Angle of rotation uncertain. Readily
soluble in alcohol, even in dilute alcohol.

Vbrnaoular NAMBS.— ifotoyaKm (?) : Kodi-pullu (Rheede,
1703; can this be meant for the Ganarese Kadi pillu = sour
grass?) or Pullu (grass; Bourdillon); Tamil: Shukkunari pillu
(Courtallam, Herb. Wight ; literally ginger-grass ; Ainslie, 1813).

6. Cymbopogon coloratos, Stapf. — Transferred from Andropogon
{A. coloratuSy Nees).

Dbsoriptions.— P. 321 of this paper ; Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind.,
vol. vii., p. 206 (under A. Nardus, var. coloraius).



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357

Illustration.— None.

Synonyms.

Andropogon coloratuSf Nees, in Wight, Cat. (18H3) no. 1703
(name only).

A, NarduSj var. coloratus^ Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vol. vii.,
p. 206.

Distribution. — From the Tinnivelli District to the Ana-
mallai Hills and throughout the Oarnatic.

Hbrbarium Spbcimbns bxaminbd.— Madras Prbsidbnot :
Tinnivelli Distr., Courtallum, Thomson (Herb. Hanbury) ; Man-
dunthorai Ghaut, Barber Coll., 2765, 2769; Koilpatti, Barber
Coll., 3437 ; Madura District, Palni Hills, 300-600 m.. Barton
Wright in Barber's Coll. ; Beddome (Brit. Mus.) ; Coimbatore
District, Anamallai, Poonachi Ghaut, Barber Coll., 3582, 3752 ;
Trichinopoli Distr., Trichinopoli, Griffith ; North Arcott Dis-
trict, Beddome (Brit. Mus.) ; Cuddapa District, Beddome (Brit.
Mus.) ; without precise locality : " Sent from Fort St. George "
(Madras), BtUkley^ierh. Du Bois) ; Klein^ 9 July, 1808 (a specimen
of Klein's is in Wight's Herbarium, placed with Wight, 1703,
distributed as ^^ Andropogon (Cymb.) coloratuSy N.E.," and it is
possible that the specimens distributed by Wight as 1703 were
taken from Klein's material) ; Wight, 3087, 3094 ; Wight, 1700c
and 1700d (the latter diseased) ; Heyr^ in Herb. Wallich, 8794,
B,D.

OrL. — ^Unknown. The grass is possibly one of the Memon-
grasses * of the Malabar District.

Vernacular nambs.— jTamtY : Manjen pillu (Bulkley, 1703) ;
Manakru pillu (Klein, 1794) ; Senga manu mala pillu (Griffith) ;
Sengana pillu (Herb. Barber).

7. Oymbopogon citratus, Stapf. — Transferred from Andropogon
(A. citratus, DC. ; Nees).

Descriptions. — Rumphius, Herb. Amboin., vol. v., p. 181
(under Schoenanthum amboinicum) ; Nees in Allgem. Gartenzeit.
vol. iii. (1835), p. 266 ; also my remarks on pp. 332, 333.

Illustrations.— Rumphius, I.e., tab. 72 ; and the plate accom«
panying this paper, presented by the Bentham Trustees.

Synonyms.

Andropogon Schoenanthus^ L., Syst. ed. x. (1759), p. 1304, not
of Spec. Plant. ; Roxburgh, Fl. Ind., ed. Carey & Wall. (1820),
vol. i., p. 278. — Original from Roxburgh's garden at the British
Museum.

A. citrcUiM, DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813), p. 78 (only very
imperfectly described) ; Nees, in Allgem. Gartenzeit., vol. iii.
(1835), p. 266 (full description). — Based on specimens cultivated
in various European gardens as A. citratus or A. dtriodorus^ or
* Lemon-grass,' in the earlier part of the last century. A specimen
of this * Lemon-grass ' from limbert's garden (not later than 1810)
ia at the British Museum,



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358

(TA. citriodorum (sic), Desf. in Tabl. ^cole Bot,, ed. 2 (1815),
p. 15. — Quoted as a synonym under A. Nardus,

A, Boxbiirghii, Nees, in Wight, Catal. (1833), no. 1699 (name
only) ; Steud. Syn. PI. Glum., vol. i. (1855), p. 395.

A. ceri/eruSy Hack, in Mart. Fl. Bras., vol. ii., part iii. (1883),
p. 281. — From specimens cultivated near Rio Janeiro, and distri-
buted by Glaziou, 4296.

A, Nardus^ var. ceriferuSy Hack. Androp. (1889) 605. — A.
ceriferuB reduced to a variety of A. Nardus.
. Schoenanthum. amboinicumy Rumph. Herb. Amboin. vol. v.
p. 181, t. 72.

Distribution. — Only known in the cultivated state. Most
tropical countries.

Herbarium Specimens examined.— Madras Presidency :
South Coromandel, Rattier ; Circars, Samulcotta, Hort, Dr. Rox-
burgh (Brit Mus.). Ceylon : I'hwaites (Herb. Hanbury). Tknas-
SERIM : Without precise locality, Hel/er, 934 ; Mergui, Oriffithy 303
of Herb. Wight, Distrib. no. 6762 (Wight's specimens distributed
as 1699 are evidently from Griffith's collection). Java : De Vry
(Herb. Hanbury) ; Buitenzorg, comm. Tretib, BORNEO : Labuan,
Burbidge. Hong Kong : Hancey 255 (Brit. Mus.). Fiji : Uvea,
Ordffe (?) (Herb. Hanbury). MAURITIUS : Bqfer; BotUon (Herb.
Hanbury). MADAGASCAR : Central Madagascar, Baroriy 2737.
Portuguese West Africa : Mossamedes, Welwitsch (Brit.
Mus.) ; Loanda, Welwitsch (Brit. Mus.). West Indies : S. Vincent,
Guilding (Brit. Mus.) ; Jamaica, Bertero(Reth. Turin), N. Wilso/i
(Herb. Hanbury) ; Portorico, Maricao, SinteniSy 222.

OlL.^Oleum Sereh, 0. Andropogonis citrati, Lemon-grass oil,
Essence de Verveine des Indes). — Export from Ceylon (1883),
about 1500 lbs. ; from the Straits Settlements, 2000-3000 lbs.
(Qildemeister & Hoffmann). Yield from the fresh grass
(Brazilian), 0'24-0-4 per cent., according to season. Composition,
similar to that of Malabar-grass oil ((7. fleruosus). Citral content,
77 per cent. Specific gravity, 0*895 ; angle of rotation, qd = 0° 8'.
Solubility in alcohol very much less than that of Malabar-grass oil.

Vernacular Names.— TamiV.- Vasana-pillu (S. Brov^rne, 1696;
literally ' perfume grass ') ; Karpura pillu (Watt, 1869 ; literally
* camphor-grass'). Telu^gu : Vasana gaddi (Stolz, 1881) ; Chippa
gaddi (Elliot, 1859) ; Nimma gaddi (Elliot, 1859). Malay alim :
Vasanap-puUu (Mooden Sheriff, 1869). Canarese : Vasane-hullu
(Mooden Sheriff, 1869) ; Kavanie huUu (Stolz, 1881) ; Majjige
hullu (Stolz, 1881). Mahrati : Oleu cha and Hirva cha (Watt,
1889 ; both literally 'green' or 'greenish tea'). Dukni: Naring ke
bas ka ghans (Ainslie, 1813 ; literally * orange-grass '). Oujerati :
Lili cha (\N'att, 1889 ; literally * green tea'). Burmese: Sa-ba-lin
(Mason, I860). Chinese: Mao-hsiang (Loureiro, 179i) ; literally
'fragrant Mao'). Malay: Sereh (De Jager). Tagalog (Philip-
pines) : Taiiglad (Nieremberg, 16:^5). Poi^tu^uese: Herba cheirosa
(Bottler), Capim de Cheiro (Peckoit). Spanish : Orama de limon
and Limoncillo (Grosourdy, 1864). French : Citronelle ; Verveine
des Indes. English ; Lemon-grass.



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38«

8. Oymbopogon Martini, Stapf.— Transferred from Andropogon
(A. Martiniy Koxb.).

Descriptions.— Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. ed. Carey & Wall., vol. i.
(1820), p. 280; Trinius, in Mem. Ac. P^tersb. ser. 6, vol. ii., p. 284,
and Spec. Gram. Ic, the text accompanying tab. 327 (under A.
pachnodes); Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vol. vii., p. 204 (under
A. Schoenanthi^y var. Martini).

Illustrations.— Trinius, Spec. Gram. Ic, tab. 327 Tunder
A. pachnodes) ; Royle, Illustr. Bot. Himal. tab. 280 (under
A. Calamus aromaticus) ; Duthie, Fodd. Grass. N. Ind.,
tab. 26 (under A. SchoenanthtiSy L.).

Synonyms.

Cymbopogon MartiniantiSy Schult. Mant. ii. (1824), p. 459. —
Transferred from Andropogon (A. Martini, Roxb.).

Andropogon Martini, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Carey A Wall., vol. i.
(1820), p. 280. — Based on specimens " raised from seeds collected
by General Martin in the Balaghat." — Original at the British
Museum.

A. pcu'hnodes, Trin. in Mem. Ac. Petersb. s6r. 6, vol. ii. (1833),
p. 284, and Spec. Gram. Ic. (1836), tab. 327.

A. Calamus aromaticus, Royle, Essay Antiq. Hind. Med. (1837),
p. 33 (name only) ; Illustr. Bot. Himal. (1840), tab. 280.— Intended
for the Rusa grass.

A. nardoidesy a, Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr. (1841), p. 116.

A. Schoenanthus Flttck. and Hanb., Pharmacogr. (1874), p. 660,
non L. — Intended for the Rusa grass. ,

A. Schoenanthus, var. genuinus, Hack. Androp. (1889), p. 609
(partly).— 5«? p. 304.

A. Schoenanthus, var. Martini, Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind., vol. vii.
(1897), p. 204, excluding certain synonyms which refer to African
plants. — Intended to cover A. Martini, Roxb.

Distribution.- From the Rajmahal Hills in Bengal to the
Afghan frontier and from the sub-tropical zone of the Himalaya
to about 12® N., excluding the desert region of the Panjab and
the greater part of the northern Carnatic. The south-eastern and
southern limit does not seem to be well defined, as the area there
overlaps that of the closely allied (7. caesius.

Hbrbauium Specimens examined.— Panjab : Hazara, Black
Mountains, Susal Pass, Duthie, 7585 (a)* ; between Dhamtaur and
Mansera, 600 m.. Falconer's coll. (Z). Fatehabad (Peshawur
District ?), Falconer's coll. (i), Beas— Chenab Doab, Thomson (a).
Chamba, Manjir, Lace, 1291 (/), (Herb. India Mus.). Kangra, l:etween
Nurpur and Kotla, 600 m.. Watt, 15,216 (i). His^ar, Coldstream



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