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4 poll, longi, biflori. Bractect ovato-lanceolatae, acuminata,
|-1 poll. longfiB. Ovarium pedicellatum, 1 poll, longum, alis
tribus angustis instructum. Sepala oblonga, apiculata, 11-14 lin.
longa. Petala oblonga, sepalis subsequalia. Lahellum trilobum,
10-12 lin. longum, basi breviter unguiculatum, lobis lateralibus
erectis oblongis obtusis curvatis, lobo intermedio orbiculari-
elliptico, disco callo lato carnoso instructo. Golumna clavata,
8 lin. longa, angulaia, facie carinata ; alas angulatie minute


Flowered in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Qlasnevin, in June,
1896, having been received as Gola^ Jugostis, Lindl. The sepals
and petals are light green, the former unspotted and the latter
densely speckled with dark brown, and the lip yellowish white
with lines of minute light purple dots on the fleshy disc.

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^.M.. dal.


EWeller A Crahams LV« Lito. London.

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No. 2. 1906.


(With Plate.)

The discovery of two additional species of Hemileia has
rendered necessary a redescription of all known species included
in the genas> which up to the present have been very inadequately
deecril^ in systematic works, the uredo-spore phase alone being

It is somewhat remarkable that no attempt appears to have been
made by those engaged in studying the life-history of Hemileia
vastastriXy Berk, and Broom e, the cause of the much dreaded
coffee-leaf disease in Ceylon and elsewhere, to ascertain whether
or not an Aecidium condition existed ; the presence of both uredo-
and teleuto-spore stages strongly suggesting the probability of the
presence of such.

This probability receives further support from the fact that there
exist four species of Aecidium as yet not correlated with uredo- or
teleuto-spore stages, parasitic on the same or closely allied plants
as those on which the various species of Hemileia are parasitic,
and also occurring in the same countries as the latter. These
species are as follows : —

Aecidium Vangueric^, Cooke, on Vangueria in/austay
Burch, and* F. latifolia^ Sond., Natal. " Often on the same
plimt, sometimes on the same leaves as Hemileia Woodii^
K. k C." (Cooke, Grevillea, x. p. 124.)

Aecidium Pavettae^ Berk, and Broome, and A. Jlavidum^
Berk, and Broome, on Pavetta indica^ L. ; Ceylon.

Aecidium PlectroniaCf Cooke, on Plectronia Cueinzii, J. M.
Wood, Natal.

Should heteroecism be proved to exist in the genus, the fact
would be of value in any attempt to arrest the extension of para-
sitic species.

Two species, Hemileia vastatriXy Berk, and Broome, and
H. Woodiiy Ealchbr. and Cooke, are now known as parasites on

m5 WI99 4/06 DAB 29 24136 A

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Bpeoies of Goffea^ and as these species are shown to be parasitic on
several other mbiaceons plants belonging to different genera, which
have an extended geographical range, their distribation should
be carefully studied by those interested in the culture of coffee.
The establishment of a coffee plantation in a district where those
species of Hemileia capable of infecting coffee are present on
indigenous vegetation, would be tempting providence, and probably
result in disaster.

Hemileia vastatriXy Berk, and Broome, has not been collected
on Goffea arabica, L., nor on C. liherica^ Hiem, when growing
wild, but it is recorded as occurring on Goffea arabica^ L., var.
Stuhlmanniiy Warb., by Hennings,* who writes as follows : —

" Auch Hemileia vaatatrix ist jedenfalls in Afrika ursprtinglich
und von hier in die verschiedensten Tropenlftnder verschleppt
worden. Auf Blattern von Coffea arabica var. Stuhlmannii Warb.,
am Victoria Nyanza bei Bukoba von Dr. Stuhlmann im Mftrz
1897, gesammelt, wurde von Dr. Warburg gleichfalls dieser Pilz
beobeushtet, woraus mit Sicherheit hervorgeht, dass diese Kaffee-
blattkrankheit nicht erst durch von den EuropJlern eingefiihrte
Kaffeesaat nach Deutsch-Ost- Afrika gekommen ist."

It is not at all necessary to assume that the coffee disease has
been imported along with the coffee plant from one country to
another, taking into consideration the wide distribution of
different species of plants attacked by Hemileia vastairix, Berk^
and Broome, or H. Woodii^ Kalchbr. and Cooke, both of which
are capable of infecting species of Coffea.

Indigenous plants attacked by one or other of the above-men-
tioned species of Hemileia are distributed as follows : —

Ceylon, Plectronia campanulata^ Beddome, Goffea travan-
corensis^ Wight and Am.; Southern India, Goffea trtwan-
corensiSy Wight and Am. ; China, Gardenia jattminoides^
Ellis ; Java, Oardeniay two spp. undetermined ; Africa,
Goffea arabica^ L. var. Stuhlm/inniiy Warb., Graterisper-
mum laurinumy Benth., Vangtieria infauetay Burch.,
F. latifolia^ Sond., F. euonymoideSy Schweinf., F. mada-
gascarensiSy J. F. Gmel ; Queensland, Gardenia eduliSy F,
T. Muell.

The wide geographical range of the genus Hemileia is further
illustrated by the discovery of a species parasitic on an orchid —
Gattleya dowianay Batem., from Costa Rica. Repeated experi-
ments prove that the spores of this species will not inoculate the
coffee plant.

Preventive measures against Hemileia. — ^Until the life history
of the fungus is known preventive means can only be followed on
the rule-of -thumb system ; in other words the fungus cannot be
attacked at the most vulnerable point daring its development.

Marshall Ward has shown that the uredo-spores, when placed

on the surface of a coffee leaf, germinate, the germ- tube enters the

tissues of the leaf, and in about a fortnight's time the disease

» ■ ■

* geit. Trop. Landw. der Tropenpflanzer, No. 8, 1897, p. 192,

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appears. As to whether the secondary spores borne on the promy-
celinm of germinating teleutospores can directly inoculate a coffee
leaf is not known, probably not ; at least I have determined that
the secondary spores of Bemileia americana cannot inoculate the
host that produces uredospores. The question then arises,
which species of plant is inoculated by the secondary spores ?
Finally, does an Aecidium stage exist ? As already stated there is
evidence in favour of its existence ; again, if so, on what host-
plant does it occur ? All these doubtful points must be definitely
settled before we can hope to successfully combat and exterminate
the disease.

In the meantime, as usual in the Uredineae, the epidemic or
rapid spread of the disease is due to the uredospore stage of the
fungus. In places where the nature of the ground and other
circumstances admit of spraying, Bordeaux mixture is the most
effective fungicide to use. The mixture should be only half the
normal strength, otherwise the youngest foliage suffers.

A cyclone nozzle should be used as a very fine spray is necessary,
otherwise the mixture accumulates into minute drops, and rolls off
the smooth surface of the leaf. A quantity of blood serum dis-
solved and added to the fungicide causes it to adhere better to the
surface of the leaf.

Diseased &llen leaves should be collected and burned, otherwise
the teleutospores which mostly mature after the uredospores,
are dispersed far and wide on the dry leaves, and in due course
infect indigenous plants, the resulting crop of uredospores in turn
attacking the cultivated coffee.

The following note by Balansa,* a well known botanical collec-
tor, on a method of cultivating coffee which enabled it to resist ,
the disease, as practised in Tonkin, on the slopes of Mount Bavi,
near Tu-Phap, at an elevation of about 1,600 feet, is of interest.

" II y a quelques mois je vous a fait parvenir des feuilles de
cafeier attaquees par VHemileia, Vous en d6siriez de plus
<;aracteri8ee8. Les voici. VHemileia a d6j^ fait d'assez grands
ravages dans deux de nos champs d'essai, mais dans un troisiime
occupant un petit plateaux argileux, les caf6iers qui 6tai^nt
inf^ct^ du parasite quand je les ai trsuisplant^s, en sent, actuelle-
ment tout a fait debarrass^s. 11 faut vous dire qu'ils sent en plein
soleil, sans abri, et qu'ils out m^me un pen souffert des insolations.
Je compte beaucoup sur eux. Si mis esperances se realisent, il en
resulterait qu'on a bien tort dans certains pays, de planter les
caf6iers sous des arbres, c^est la plus s&r moyen de propager la

Hbmilbia, Berk, and Broome (emended).

I. (Aecidium stage). Unknown.

II. (Uredo stage). Forming effused pulverulent, orange patches
on the under surface of living leaves, or on young c^oots and
fruit ; uredospores grouped in small heads or clusters, produced at

■ III ■ , III, ii p .^i ft ww^i^^— i^yi^i^wp^^^w^^^-*— M*^— — ^

* C. Roumego^ Fung. SeL Exi., No. 4,500.

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the apex of fascicles of hyphsB emerging through the stomata,
renif orm or snbglobose, the whole or a portion only of the epispore
warted ; germ-pores 3-5.

IIL (Teleutospore stage). Teleutospores originating from the
centre of the heads of nredospores after the latter are fully
developed, unicellular, broadly ovate, umbonate ; germ-pore apical ;
promycelium simple, 3-4-septate, each septum producing a single
sporidium borne on a slender sterigma.

In some species the head of uredo- and teleutospores is sur-
rounded at the base by paraphyses.

Hemileiaj Berk, and Broome, Ghird. Chron., Nov. 6, 1869 ; Sacc.
BylL, vii., p. 585 (1888).

Hemileia is very closely allied to the genus Uromyces^ Link,
from which it differs mainly in the fertile hyphae emerging in
fascicles solely through the stomata to produce their spores on the
surface of the affected part of the host.

Hemileia vastatrlx, Berk, and Broome^ Qard. Chron., Nov. 6,
1869, p. 1157, 1 fig..

I. Unknown.

II. Hypophyllous ; commencing as small irregularly circular
patches ; if numerous, the patches during increase in size blend
together, and not unfirequently cover the greater portion of the
leaf ; nredospores produced in small heads, subrenif orm, tri-
angular in section, the free convex surface covered with small
warts, and bounded by a row of longer, crowded, spinose warts ;
the two lateral surfaces that are in contact with adjoining spores,
smooth, 30—40 x 28—30 fi ; pedicel slender, short ; germ-pores 8-5 ;
germ-tube elongated, with one or more vesiculose swellings,
irregularly branched.

III. Teleutospores occupying the centre of the heads of nredo-
spores, broadly depressed-ovate, umbonate ; epispore smooth, con-
tents orange, averaging 30 x 25 /i ; pedicel slender, short ; promy-
celium tube simple, 3-4-septate, each segment giving origin to a
single subglobose sporidium 8 — 10 /i diameter, borne at the apex of
a slender sterigma.

Hemileia vastatHxy Berk, and Broome, Linn. Soc. Joum. (Bot.)
XIV., 1875, p. 93 ; Sacc. Syll. n. 2102, p. 585 (1888).

Hemileia Canthii, Berk, and Broome, Linn. Soc. Joum. (Bot.)
XIV., 1875, p. 93 ; Sacc. Syll. n. 2104, p. 586 (1888).

The fungus is most abundant on the under surface of living
leaves, less frequently on young shoots or young fruit.

Ceylon. Goffea araUcay L. (cultivated) ; Plectronia campanu-
latay Beddome ; Goffea travancorensis^ Wight and Am.

India. Goffea arahicay L. (cultivated), Mysore ; Goffea travan-
coremiBy Wight and Am., Travancore.

China. Goffea arabiva,L.y and G. lihericay Hiern (cultivated) ;
Oardetiiajasminoides^ £llis»

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Goffea ardbicay L,, and C. Ubericaj Hiern

Philippinbs. Goffea arahicay L., and C. Uberica^ Hiern

Samoan Abohipblaoo. Goffea arabica^ L. (cultivated).

Fiji. Goffea arabicay L. (cultivated).

MAUBlTins. Goffea arabicay L. (cultivated).

Madagasoab. Goffea arabicay L. (cultivated).

Afbiga. Goffea ain,bicay L., Natal and German East Africa
(cultivated); Voffea arabicay L., var. Stuhlmanniiy Warb., near
nukoba, Victoria Nyanza ; Grate^Hspermum laurinumy Benth.,
Tropical Africa.

Somewhat variable in appearance on different hosts ; and although
the uredospores vary considerably within certain limits they
always retain the reniform shape, and warted convex portion
of the epispore surrounded by a row of longer spinulose warts.

Hemileia Woodii, Kalchbr. and Gookey Grevillea, Vol. IX., 1880,
p. 22.

I. Unknown.

II. Hypophyllous ; uredospores aggregated in small heads,
forming somewhat irregularly defined pulverulent orange patches
1-2 cm, across; spores broadly elliptical or subglobose, those
situated near the periphery of the head often show a slight con-
cavity on the surface in contact with other spores ; epispore
thicldy studded with small warts of uniform size; averaging
about 30 fjL diameter ; pedicel slender.

III. Teleutospores occupying the centre of the heads of uredo-
spores, almost or quite colourless, broadly ovate, umbonate;
epispore smooth, averaging 35 /a diameter; pedicel elongated,
rather stout, septate ; promycelium tube simple, 3-4-septate, each
segment producing a subglobose sporidium 8— 10 /a diameter, borne
at the apex of a slender sterigma. The head of spores is sur-
rounded by a varying number of slightly curved, smooth paraphyses,
which are more or less triangular in section.

Hemileia Woitdiiy Ealchbr. and Cooke, Sacc, Syll. Fung.,
Vol. VII., n. 2103, p. 586 (1888); Zeitschr. Trop. Landw. der
Tropenpfl., n. 8, 1897, p. 192.

Afbiga. Natal ; on living leayes of Vangueria in/auetay
Burch., F. UUifoliay Send., F. euonymoideSy Schweinf .

Near Bukoba, Eilimandscharo, on living leaves of Vangvsria
fnadagaecarensiSy J. F. Omel.

Lindi, German East Africa, on liTing leaves of Goffea IbOy

Java. On living leaves of various species of Oairkniay Buit*
lenaorg Botanic Garden.

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Queensland. On living leaves of Gardenia edulis^ F. v. Mnell.;
Gilbert River.

The paraphysea or cysts forming the outermost and basal
portion of the head of spores are very variable in number and
size, but can always be found, even when all the spores are
mature ; whereas in jBT. vastatrtx^ bodies similar in appearance,
and occupying a like position, are present when the head is
forming, but eventually develop into normal spores.

The teleutospores are more abundant in proportion to the uredo-
spores in the present species than they are in H. vastatrix,

Hemileia americanai Masses. Gard. Chron., 1905, p. 153, fig. 53.

I. Unknown.

II. Hypophyllous ; forming broadly effused pulveralent, deep
orange-coloured patches, often several centimetres in extent;
spores shortly stipitate, perfectly spherical ; epi spore bearing
small, i*ather sparselyscattered, round warts, 24 — 32 fi diameter ;
germ-pores two; germ-tubes cylindrical, bearing a few short

III. The teleutospores occupy the central portion of the heads
of uredospores, shortly stipitate, colourless, broadly obovate or
turbinate, often with a small, obtuse, apical umbo ; epispore
closely covered with minute warts, averaging 30 x 25 /i*.

Costa Rioa. On living leaves of Gatthya dowianay Batem.

Only a small patch of rust was present on one leaf when the
plant was received from Costa Rica, but this has continued to
increase in size, and the falling spores have also inoculated other

The spores germinate readily, usually within 24 hours in various
nutrient solutions, perhaps best in a very dilute decoction of
dung. The inflated portions of the germ-tube, so characteristic of
H. vastatria:^ have not been observed in the present species.
Toung leaves of Gattleya dowianay Batem., inoculated on the
under surface with uredospores, produced mature uredospores
13 days after inoculation. Hitherto no success has attended the
attempt to inoculate orchids belonging to other genera than
Gattleya^ neither has success attended the many attempts to
inoculate Gattleya leaves with secondary spores produced by
germinating teleutospores.

The mycelium is very abundant in the tissues ; haustoria are

Hemileia indioa, Massee.

I. Unknown.

II. Hypophyllous; forming scattered, circular, pulverulent
orange patches 3-5 mm. across ; spores orange ; epispore crowded
with minute warts, spherical, with a broad circular hilum or point
of attachment to the pedicel, averaging 25 a diameter ; pedicel
longer than the diameter of the spore, 10 /a thick, 34eptate
hyaline ; germination unknown.

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III. Telentospores occupying the central portion of the clufltere
of nredospores, broadly obovate to subglobose, hyaline ; epiepore
smooth, averaging 18 — 20 ft diameter ; germination unknown.

India. Belgaum, Bombay ; on living leaves of an undetermined
specieB of Macropanax {Major^Oen, Hobson).

The following bibliography, chronologically arranged, embraces
those contributions of primary importance relating to the^ genus
Hemileiaj and more especially from the standpoint of a destructive
parasitic disease : —

Berkeley^ M. J., Coflfee plant disease ; Gard. Chron., Nov. 6,

Gooke^ M. (7., Report on diseased Coflfee leaves; India —
Museum Report, 1876, p. 4 (descr. and fig.).

Ahhay^ i?., Observations on Hemileia vastatrix, the so-called
Coflfee disease ; Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) XVII., 1878, p. 172,
plates XIII.-XIV.

Morris^ D., Reports upon experiments connected with the
Coflfee leaf disease; Sessional Paper XII., 1879, Colombo.

The Campaign of 1879 against Coflfee leaf disease ; ^' Ceylon
Observer" Press, Colombo, 1879.

Ward^ H. Jf., Coflfee leaf disease; Sessional Paper, 1879,

Morris^ 2>., Note on the structure and habit of Hemileia
vastatrixy the Coflfee leaf disease of Ceylon and Southern
India ; Joum. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) XVII., 1880, p. 512.

Ward^ H. Jf., Coflfee leaf disease ; Sessional Papers, 1880,

1881, Colombo.

Dyer, W. T. ThissUon-y The Coflfee leaf disease of Ceylon ;
Quart. Journ. Micr. Science, N.S., XX., 1880, p. 119, plates

Wardy H. Jlf., On the morphology of Hemileia vastatrix.
Berk, and Br. ; Quart. Journ. Micr. Science, N.S., XXII.,

1882, p. 1, plates I.-III.

Coflfee leaf disease in Central Africa (Preventive Measures) ;
Kew Bulletin^ 1893, p. 361.

Hemileia vastatrix in German East Africa ; Kew Bulletin,
1894, p. 412.

Sadehecky Einige Beobachtungen und Bemerkungen Hber die
durch Hemileia vastatrix verursachte Blattfieckenkrank-
heit der KaflfeebSume ; Forstl. natum. Zeitschr., 1895,
p. 340.

HenningSy P., Eine neue Blattfleckenkrankheit (Hemileia
Woodii) auf dem Ibo-E[afifee in Deutsch-Ostafrika ; Zeitschr.
Trop. Landwirtschaft der Tropenpflanzer^ No. 8, 1897,
p. 192,

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Dbsobiption of thb Fiqubbs.

1. UredoBpores of Hemileia vastatrix^ Berk, and Broome, in
various positions ; x 400.

2. Uredospore of same, germinating ; x 400.

3. Teleutospore of same ; x 400.

4. Uredospores of Hemileia Woodii. Kalchbr. and Cooke ;
X 400.

5. Teleutospore of same ; x 400.

6. Teleutospore of same, germinating ; x 400.

6a. One of the paraphyses surrounding head of spores of same ;
X 400.

7. Patches of Hemileia americana^ Massee, on portion of a leaf
of Cattleya dowiaruiy Batem., nat. size.

8. Section through a leaf a above showing the mycelium emerg-
ing in a fascicle through a stoma, and bearing a head of uredo-
and teleutospores ; x 400.

9. Uredospores of same, one is germinating ; x 400.

10. Teleutospore of same ; x 400.

11. Intercellular mycelium of same ; x 1,000.

12. Uredospore of Hemileia indica^ Massee ; x 400.

Obo. Mabsbb.


The publication of this work has long been delayed by
unavoidable circumstances. It has now been issued as additional
Series V. of the Kew Bulletin (pp. 223, with a plate). The late
Director has contributed the following pre&ce : —

** * Kew, as it exists to-day, was formed by the fusion of two
distinct properties or domains, both Royal, but with entirely
different histories. They correspond roughly to the west and
east halves of the present gardens. The western half was known
as Richmond Gardens. The eastern half corresponds in great
part to the grounds of Kew House, and to this the name of Eew
Gardens was originally confined. The two properties were
separated by Love Lane, the ancient bridle road between Rich-
mond and Brentford Ferry.' {Kew Bulletin, 1891, p. 281.)

" Richmond Lodge or House had been granted in 1707 by Queen
Anne to the Duke of Ormonde. It was purchased from his
family by George II, when Prince of Wales. It was a favourite
residence of Queen Caroline, and was ultimately pulled down by
George III. about 1771,

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^^ Eew House had been the residence of Lord Oapel of Tewkes-
bury, a brother of the Earl of Essex. It was leased by Frederick,
Prince of Wales, and was the home of his widow, the Princess
Angnsta of Saxe-Gotha, till her death. In 1759 she commenced
the scientific history of Kew by establishing a Botanic or, as it was
then called, a Physic Garden. George III. acquired the property,
and in 1803 pulled down Kew House also. He obtained two Acts
of Parliament empowering him to close Love Lane, but this was
apparently not finally accomplished till 1802.

^' The area of the Gardens as they at present exist is something
under half a square mile. While the western half shows for the
most part little evidence of the soil having been ever disturbed by
cultivation, beyond being thickly planted with trees, this is not
the case with the eastern half, much of which has at one time or
another apparently been brought under the plough.

" In 1873 a member of the Kew staff (Curator from 1886 to
1901), Mr. George Nicholson, F.L.S., compiled a list of the native
(and a few naturalised) plants occurring spontaneously at Kew.
This was published in the Journal of Botany for 1875. Mr. R. I.
Lynch, Curator of the Botanic Garden, Cambridge^^ also formerly a
member of the Kew staff, materially contributed to its complete-
ness from his own observations, and the late Lord de Tabley,
better known to botanists as the Hon. John Leicester Warren,
was keenly interested in it.

" In the Kew Bulletin for 1897 (pp. 115-167) a first attempt was
made to catalogue the Mycologic Flora by Mr. G. Massee, F.L.S.,
a Principal Assistant in the Herbarium. The following passage is
quoted from the prefatory note : —

"*0f the Royal Gardens themselves some 100 acres is little
disturbed by any kind of cultivation, and it has certainly remained
so for at least a century and a half. Some portions may never
possibly have been subjected to cultivation at all. It is not sur-
prising therefore that in the background of horticultural treatment
there still subsists a wild fauna and fiora of no inconsiderable
dimensions. This, as opportunity offers, it is proposed to work
out and catalogue from time to time.*

"The Moss Flora wa« contributed to the Bulletin for 1899
(pp. 7-17) by Mr. E. S. Salmon, F.L.S.

"Meanwhile Mr. Nicholson had steadily devoted his leisure
hours to the comprehensive scheme contemplated in 1897. He
enlisted the assistance of a number of scientific friends, specialists
in various groups, to whom he communicated his enthusiasm for
the work and without whose efficient help it would, even in a
tentative form, have been impossible of achievement.

" I looked forward to this in Mr. Nicholson's hands with much
interest and satisfaction. Unhappily, the breakdown of his health
and his consequent retirement from the post of Curator in|190i
compelled him to abandon a labour to which he no longer felt
^qasd. As there was no immediate chance of anyone carrying} it
on with Mr. Nicholson's energy, I decided to publish the material
he' had accumulated as at any rate a starting point for further

Mise B

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research, t placed the papers in the hands of Mr. Pearson, M.A..9
F.L.S., who in the same year had been appointed an Assistant.
He succeeded in preparing them for, and partially seeing them
through the press when he in turn was obliged to abandon the
task owing to his leaving for Cape Colony in 1903 to take up his
duties as Professor of Botany in the South African College.
Failing other assistance, I found it impossible to carry it to
completion till I had myself been relieved of administrative

"^It appears to me that it is of considerable interest to show what
a vast number of forms of life of the most varied kind may exist
together on what is relatively a microscopic speck of the earth's

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