Phillip Parker King.

Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia Performed between the years 1818 and 1822 — Volume 2 online

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hands these pages are likely to fall. It will be sufficient to premise,
that two of the principal objects of geological inquiry, are, to
determine, first, the nature of the MATERIALS of which the earth is
composed; and, secondly, the relative ORDER in which these materials are
disposed with respect to each other.

1. Specimens of rocks ought not, in general, to be taken from loose
pieces, but from large masses in their native place, or which have
recently fallen from their natural situation.

2. The specimens should consist of the stone unchanged by exposure to the
elements, which sometimes alter the characters to a considerable distance
from the surface. Petrifactions, however, are often best distinguishable
in masses somewhat decomposed; and are thus even rendered visible, in
many cases, where no trace of any organized body can be discerned in the
recent fracture.

3. The specimens ought not to be too small. A convenient size is about
three inches square, and about three-quarters of an inch, or less, in
thickness.

4. It seldom happens that large masses, even of the same kind of rock,
are uniform throughout any considerable space; so that the general
character is collected, by geologists who examine rocks in their native
places, from the average of an extensive surface: a collection ought
therefore to furnish specimens of the most characteristic varieties; and
THE MOST SPLENDID SPECIMENS ARE, IN GENERAL, NOT THE MOST INSTRUCTIVE.
Where several specimens are taken in the same place, a series of numbers
should be added to the note of their locality.

5. One of the most advantageous situations for obtaining specimens, and
examining the relations of rocks, is in the sections afforded by cliffs
on the seashore; especially after recent falls of large masses. It
commonly happens that the beds thus exposed are more or less inclined;
and in this case, if any of them be inaccessible at a particular point,
the decline of the strata will frequently enable the collector to supply
himself with the specimens he wishes for, within a short distance. Thus,
in Sketch 4, which may be supposed to represent a cliff of considerable
height, the observer being situated at a, the beds b, c, d, though
inaccessible at that place, may be examined with ease and security, where
they successively come down to the shore, at b prime, c prime, and d
prime.

6. To examine the interior of an unknown country, more skill and practice
are required: the rocks being generally concealed by the soil,
accumulations of sand, gravel, etc., and by the vegetation of the
surface. But the strata are commonly disclosed in the sides of ravines,
in the beds of rivers and mountain-streams; and these, especially where
they cross the direction of the strata, and be made, by careful
examination, to afford instructive sections.

7. Among the distinctive circumstances of the strata, the remains of
organized bodies, shells, corals, and other zoophytes, the bones and
teeth of animals, fossil wood, and the impressions of vegetable stems,
roots, or leaves, etc., are of the greatest importance; affording
generally the most marked characters of the strata in which they occur.
These should, therefore, be particularly sought after, and their relative
abundance or rarity in different situations noticed. The petrified bodies
should, if possible, be kept united with portions of the rock or matrix
in which they are found; and where they are numerous, in sand, clay, or
any moist or friable matrix, it is in general better to retain a large
portion of the whole mass, to be examined afterwards, than to attempt
their separation at the time of collecting.

8. The loose materials which are found above the solid rocks, in the form
of gravel, silt, rolled pebbles, etc., should be carefully distinguished
from the solid strata upon which they repose. And the more ancient of
these loose materials, found on the sides or summits of hills, etc.,
should be distinguished from the recent mud, sand, and gravel, brought
down by land-floods, or rivers. The bones and teeth of animals are not
unfrequently found in gravel of the former description; and the
collection of these remains from distant quarters of the globe, is an
object of the greatest interest to geology.

9. Besides a note of the locality, there ought, if possible, to accompany
every specimen, a short notice of its geological circumstances; as:

Whether it be found in large shapeless masses, or in strata?

If in strata, what are the thickness, inclination to the horizon, and
direction with respect to the compass, of the beds? [If these cannot be
measured, an estimate should always be recorded, while the objects are in
view.] Are they uniform in dip and direction? curved, or contorted?
continuous, or interrupted by fissures or veins?

Is the whole cliff, or mass of strata in sight, of uniform composition?
or does it consist of different kinds of stone?

If the strata be different, what is the order in which they are placed
above each other successively?

10. A label, distinctly written, should accompany every specimen, stating
its native place, its relative situation, etc., etc. And these labels
should be connected with the specimens immediately, on the spot where
they are found. This injunction may appear to be superfluous; but so much
valuable information has been lost to geology from the neglect of it,
that every observer of experience will acknowledge its necessity; and it
is, perhaps, in practice one of the most difficult to adhere to.

11. A sketch of a coast or cliff, however slight, frequently conveys more
information respecting the disposition and relations of rocks, than the
longest memorandum. If numbers, denoting the situation of the specimens
collected, be marked upon such sketches, much time may be saved at the
moment of collecting. But in all such cases, the memorandum should be
looked over soon afterwards, and labels distinctly explaining their
situation, etc., be attached to the specimens themselves.

12. The specimens should be so packed, that the surfaces may be defended
from exposure to air, moisture, and friction: for which purpose, if
strong paper cannot be obtained, dry moss, or straw, or leaves, may be
used with advantage. Where paper is used for wrapping the specimens, they
are best secured by fastening the envelope with sealing-wax.

Lastly, The collector must not be discouraged, nor be prevented from
collecting, by finding that the place which he may chance to visit in a
remote situation, has not a striking appearance, or the rocks within his
view a very interesting character; since it frequently, and even
commonly, happens, that facts and specimens, in themselves of very little
importance, become valuable by subsequent comparison; so that scarcely
any observation, if recorded with accuracy, will be thrown away.

...

The Instruments required by the geological traveller will vary, according
to the acquirements and specific objects of the individual. The most
essential are:

The Hammer (Sketch 5); which, for general purposes, may be of the form
here represented:

The head should be of steel well tempered, about 4 inches from the face
to the edge, and 1 1/4 inch square in the middle; the face flat, and
square, or nearly so; the edge placed in the direction of the handle. The
orifice for the insertion of the handle oval, a very little wider on the
outer side than within; its diameters, about 1 inch vertically, and 0.7
across; the centre somewhat more than 1 1/2 inch from the face. The
handle should be of ash, or other tough wood; not less than 16 inches
long; fitting tight into the head at its insertion, without a shoulder;
and increasing a little in size towards the end remote from the head, to
prevent its slipping. It should be fixed in the head by means of a thin,
barbed iron wedge.

For trimming specimens, smaller hammers may be employed (Sketch 6): The
form of the head, recommended for this purpose by Dr. MacCulloch,* is
rectangular. The dimensions of the face may be 1 inch by 3/4; the height
2 1/4.

(*Footnote. On the forms of Mineralogical Hammers, Quarterly Journal
Royal Institution volume 11 1821 page 1 etc.)

It will be expedient to have always some hammers, of different sizes, in
reserve.

A small miner's pick is useful for cutting out, and splitting portions of
slaty rocks; or for obtaining specimens of clays, etc.

A small stone-cutter's chisel. A chisel with a handle, of the form here
represented, will often save the hand of an inexpert collector, and
better enable him to direct his blow.

For packing the specimens. A stock of strong paper. Sealing-wax.
Writing-paper, cut into labels. Thick gum-water, to cement the labels to
the specimens.

For the Conveyance of specimens. A large bag of leather, with straps for
the shoulders. Strong canvas bags, of smaller size, are very convenient
for subdivision and arrangement. For the protection of crystals, or
delicate petrifactions, etc., wool or cotton are necessary; and small
wooden boxes (like those used for holding wafers) are sometimes required.
For distant carriage, strong wooden boxes, casks, or baskets.

The following are either essential, or useful in various degrees, for
obtaining and recording observations.

Pocket Memorandum-Books, of sufficient size to admit sketches.
A Pocket Compass.
A Measuring-Tape, of fifty feet, or more.
A Telescope.
A Camera Lucida.
A Box of Colours.

The best maps should always be sought for: And, the true economy to the
traveller being that which saves time, it is best to mark, or even colour
the map, in the field. Notes inserted on imperfect maps, or deduced
afterwards from memoranda, are less authentic; and the process is
frequently neglected.

PORTABLE-BAROMETERS, with detached thermometers, are desirable; and the
best instruments are ultimately the cheapest. But, unfortunately,
barometers of every construction are very easily damaged or deranged. The
accurate determination of heights, however, though very interesting to
physical geography, is comparatively of little importance to the
geologist.

If the collector be a surveyor, he will know best to what purpose a
Pocket Sextant, or small Theodolite, is applicable: the measurement of
distances, of heights, and of the inclination of strata, etc.

...

CONTENTS OF APPENDIX C.

GENERAL SKETCH OF THE COAST.

GEOLOGICAL REMARKS.
1. List of Rocks.
2. Rocks identical with those of Europe.
3. Aspect of the Shores.
4. Information wanting respecting Diluvial deposits: no Specimens of
Limestone: no Volcanoes.
5. Recent calcareous breccia.
6. Range of the Coastlines.

DETAILED LIST OF SPECIMENS.

...

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COLLECTING GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS.

...


APPENDIX D.

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE LANGUAGES OF THE NATIVES, WITH SOME GENERAL
REMARKS.

COLUMN 1: ENGLISH WORD.
COLUMN 2: CALEDON BAY, GULF OF CARPENTARIA. FROM CAPTAIN FLINDERS.
COLUMN 3: ENDEAVOUR RIVER, NORTH-EAST COAST. PARTLY FROM CAPTAIN COOK AND
MR. FORSTER.
COLUMN 4: KING GEORGE THE THIRD'S SOUND, SOUTH-WEST COAST.
COLUMN 5: PORT JACKSON.
COLUMN 6: BURRAH BURRAH TRIBE. FROM MR. SCOTT.
COLUMN 7: LIMESTONE CREEK. FROM MR. OXLEY.
COLUMN 8: PORT MACQUARIE. FROM MR. HUNTER.
COLUMN 9: MACQUARIE HARBOUR, VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.

Eye : Ma-il : Me-ul : Me-al : Mi, or Me, Mego : Miki-laja : Milla : Me'-e
: Nam'-mur-uck.

Nose : Ur-ro, or Hurro : Emer-da, or Poteer, Bon-joo (Cook) : Tarmul,
Moil (Flinders) : Nogro : - : Mor-ro : Na'-ag : Me-oun.

Lips : Ta-a : Yem-be (Cook) : Tar : Willing : - : - : - : -.

Teeth : Lir-ra : Mol-ear : Orlock : Era, or Da-ra : Yerrah : Er-ra :
Te'-lah : Kouk.

Tongue : Mat-ta : Unjar : Darlin, or Thalil : Tal-lang : - : - : Mal'-way
: Mim.

Cheeks : Tac-cal : - : Ny-a-luck : Yarrin : - : - : - : -.

Chin : Na-ing : - : - : Wal-lo : - : - : - : -.

Ears : Pon-doo-roo, or Po-door-roo : Mil-kah, Melea (Cook) : Duong :
Co-roo, Goray, or Benne : Binning-huiy : Wha-da :Mo'-ko : Goun-reek.

Hair of the head : Marra : Morye : Ka-at : Kewarra, Dewarra, or Gewarroo
: Mundar : Bulla-ye-ga : Wo'l-lack : Pipe, or Bipipe.

Neck : Mo-i-ang : Doom-boo, Forster : - : Ganga, Cadlear, or Cadleang : -
: Oro- : - : Treek, or Lan-gar-ree.

Breast : Gum-mur : Coy-or (Forster) : - : Nabung : - : Be-ning : Nam-bang
: -.

Belly : Goor-ro : Melmal (Forster) : Cop-bull, or Kopul : Barrong, or
Bende : Binda : Bur-bing : War'rah : -.

Arm : Wan-na, or War-na : Aco, or Acol : Wor-nuck : Tarrang : - : Bar-gar
: Co-pah : Yir-ra-wig.

Hand : Gong : - : - : Tam-mir-ra : Morrewalla : - : - : -.

Fingers : Mingel : Mun-gal-bah : Mai (singular), Maih (plural) :
Ber-ril-le : Maranga : Nar-ra : Mah-tra : War-ra-nook.

Elbow : Le-kal, or Le-kan : Ye-er-we : - : O-nur : - : - : - :
Nam-me-rick.

Posteriors : Lam-me : Booca (Forster) : Wa'l-la-kah : Bo-ong, or Bayley :
- : - : - : -.

Leg : Bacca : Peegoorga (Forster) : - : Dar-ra : - : - : Woo'lo-loo : -.

Foot : Locko, or Nocka : Edamal (feet) : Ja-an, or Bangul : Manoe : Janna
: Dhee-nany : - : -.

Toe : Mangel-locko : Eb-e-rah : Kea (singular) Kean (plural) : - : - : -
: Teel-nah : Pe-une.

Sun : Laran-gai, or Car-ran-ghie : Gallan (Forster) : Djaat : Goona,
Coing, or Con-do-in : Bun-nail, or Mo-mat : - : Too-nigh, or Win-gin : -.

Water : Lucka, or Lucko : Poorai (Forster) : - : Ba-doo : Ajung- : - :
Bah-do : -.

Stone : Punda : Wal-bah : - : Keba : Wy-juck : - : - : -.

Kangaroo : Loi-tyo : Men-u-ah, Kan-goo-roo (Cook) : Beango : Tungo,
Patagorang, Bag-gar-ray, Wal-li-bah, Wal-lar-roo, Bou-rou, Barro-melon,
Betong, Wy-rung, Pademalion : - : - : Womboy, Pool-cot (tame), Mah-koke
(the Pademalion of Port Jackson) : Raguar.

Throwing-stick : Kail lepo : Melpairo, or Melpier (Forster) : Me-a-ra :
Wo-me-rah : - : - : - : -.

Nipples (of a man) : - : Coy-o-ber-rah, Cayo (Cook) : Be-ep : Mou-tral :
- : - : - : Nerrinook.

Dog : - : Cotta, or Kota : Tiara : Teingo, Dingo, Worregal : Med-di-gen,
War-ri-gal : - : - : -.

Nails : - : Kolke : Pera : Currungal, or Car-rung-un : - : - : - : -.

Beard : - : Wol-lar : Nyanuck : Chinis, or Wallo : - : Anany : - :
Ru-ing.

Mouth : - : - : Tatah : Karga : - : Chuang : Wel'-leck : -.

Fire : - : - : - : Gwee-yong, or Too-yong : Canby : Warrenur : Cor-yal :
Lope.

Membrum virile : - : - : Yaw-de-wit : - : - : - : Cool-kah : Lune.

Head : - : Wageegee (Forster) : - : Cob-bra : Ulangar, or Nattang :
Cah-brah : - : -.

The preceding brief collection, of words used by the natives in various
parts of the Coasts of Australia and Van Diemen's Land, has been inserted
to show the great dissimilarity that exists in the languages of the
several tribes: and it may be remarked, that of thirty-three objects, one
only, the Eye, is expressed by nearly the same term at each place. In
this list, it is true, there is a striking resemblance between the terms
used to signify the hair at Port Jackson, namely, dewarra, or kewarra, or
gewarroo, and those which denote the same thing in the language of some
of the islands of the Eastern Seas; such, for instance, as arouroo or
hooroo-hooroo of the Society Islands; lo-ooroo of the Friendly Islands;
hooroo of New Zealand; and, perhaps, oouho of the Marquesas:* but at New
Caledonia, which is situated between these places and Port Jackson, the
same thing is expressed by poon, a sound totally distinct. And to render
the anomaly still more decisive, it is only necessary to remark, that,
within two hundred miles of Port Jackson, the natives of three tribes,
Port Macquarie. Burrah-Burrah, and Limestone Creek, signify the hair, by
the words wollack, mundar, and bulla-ye-ga.

(*Footnote. Forster Observations page 283.)

The aboriginal connexion of Australia with other lands must be proved, as
far as language is concerned, by a general resemblance of the words, and
not merely by a few examples of coincidence, which can only be considered
as accidental: and as our knowledge of the Australian languages, except
in the vicinity of Port Jackson, does not yet exceed thirty or forty
words, no comparison, derived from such limited information, can be
employed with any certainty to determine the question. The connexion must
be sought for, probably, where the continent, at its north-eastern
extremity, most nearly approaches other lands; but even then the chain
will remain imperfect until New Guinea and its neighbouring islands are
explored, and correct and extensive vocabularies of their languages
obtained. Forster,* who has paid considerable attention to this subject,
and whose opinions are the more valuable from their being the result of
personal observation, seems to be convinced that the New Hollanders are
not an original race, but have derived their origin from New Guinea. It
is therefore to be hoped, that this subject will not be forgotten by our
trans-Atlantic and Australian colonists; more particularly by those of
the new settlement on the north coast at Melville Island, who, from their
vicinity to New Guinea, have the best opportunities of throwing light
upon the question.

(*Footnote. Ibid.)

...

SITUATIONS OF THE PLACES MENTIONED IN THE PRECEDING LIST WITH RESPECT TO
PORT JACKSON.

King George the Third's Sound is on the South-west Coast, 1660 miles from
Port Jackson.

Caledon Bay is near the north-west extremity of the Gulf of Carpentaria,
1500 miles from Port Jackson.

Endeavour River, in latitude about 15 degrees South, is on the North-east
Coast, about 1180 miles from Port Jackson.

Burrah-Burrah, about 90 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.

Limestone Creek, about 140 miles in the interior, west of Port Jackson.

Port Macquarie, on the East Coast, 168 miles north of Port Jackson.

Macquarie Harbour, on the West Coast of Van Diemen's Land.

Bruny Island, at the south-east extremity of Van Diemen's Land.



END OF VOLUME 2.








Online LibraryPhillip Parker KingNarrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia Performed between the years 1818 and 1822 — Volume 2 → online text (page 40 of 40)