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THE LAW AND PRACTICE

WITH REGARD TO

HOUSING IN ENGLAND AND WALES



PUBLISHED BY THE JOINT COMMITTEE OF
HENRY FROWDE, HODDER AND STOUGHTON
17 WARWICK SQUARE, NEWGATE STREET
LONDON, E.C.4



I



THE

LAW AND PRACTICE

WITH REGARD TO

HOUSING IN ENGLAND
AND WALES



BY

SIR KINGSLEY WOOD, M.P.

SOLICITOR OF THE SUPREME COURT



WITH A PREFACE BY

RT. HON. CHRISTOPHER ADDISON, M.D., M.P.

MINISTER OF HEALTH



LONDON
HENRY FROWDE HODDER k STOUGHTON
Oxford University Press Warwick Square, E.G.

1921



-^3 Wt,



PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN

BY HAZELIi, WATSON AND VINET, LD.,

LONDON AND AYLESBURY.



All Eights Reserved



PREFACE

The National Housing Problem is to-day in a
most acute form, and it will long continue to
occupy the attention of our citizens. When
sufficient houses have been built to make up the
grave War shortage, we have still to take up the
equally important task of clearing the slums and
the insanitary areas, which are so wasteful and so
detrimental both to the physical and commercial
interests of the Country.

In this book controversial topics have been
avoided, and it may be that, on such a matter
as the method that has been adopted to deal with
our housing situation, a true verdict can only
be given by our succeeding generation. Suffice
it to say that nearly every Country has had to
deal with a similar situation and has been driven
to State intervention. So far as our own pro-
gress is concerned, it is at the present time in
advance of that attained by any other Nation.

There are many Acts on the Statute Book
concerning Housing, and a clear and concise
explanation of legislation, such as is afforded by
this work, will be of great value to the thousands
of Housing administrators and workers which the
Country possesses, and to whom it owes so much.

It would obviously be impossible for me to
express agreement with all the opinions —legal



VI PREFACE

or otherwise — which this book contains, but it
certainly comprises a comprehensive and careful
collection of all that is necessary for a proper
examination and understanding of this important
subject, and I heartily commend it.

Christopher Addison.

Ministry of Health
January 1921



AUTHOR'S NOTE

Much of the matter for this volume was prepared over
twelve months ago, and one of the difficulties of its produc-
tion has been that of frequent revision in consequence of
legislative and other changes. For a time publication
was withheld in order to incorporate changes proposed
to be effected by the Ministry of Health (Miscellaneous
Provisions) Bill, which Bill was rejected by the House of
Lords in December last. One of the chief objects of the
housing provisions of that Bill was the extension, by twelve
months, of the period during which the State subsidy
was payable to private persons building houses — for the
conditions see page 114 — and subsequently to its rejec-
tion the Government gave a promise that such extension
would be the subject of further legislation at an early
date. But this volume has been so long promised, so long
in hand and in type, that it has not been thought proper
to delay its appearance until that legislation was effected.

The subject dealt with in this volume is a very com-
prehensive one, and I feel I cannot have avoided errors
and omissions, I shall welcome corrections.

I have been assisted by the works of eminent legal
authorities who have contributed to this subject prior
to 1919, and the various official publications of the Health
Ministry.

I desire also to express my warmest thanks to my
friend JVIr. T. A. Rushton for much valuable assistance.

KiNGSLEY Wood.

15, Walbrook,

London, E.G. 4
January 1921



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I



Introduction



CHAPTER II

The Powers and Duties of Local Authorities :
The Provision of Houses for the Working
Classes . . . . . . .11

CHAPTER III

The Powers and Duties of Local Authorities :

Unfit Houses and Unhealthy Areas . 34

CHAPTER IV

The Powers and Duties of County Councils
(including Regulations, and Sections 12,
20 AND 22 of the Land Settlement (Facil-
ities) Act, 1919 ...... 67

CHAPTER V
Town Planning . . . . . .88

CHAPTER VI

The Work of Public Utility Societies and

Housing Trusts ..... 94



X CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER VII

The Housing (Additional Powers) Act, 1919 . 105

CHAPTER VIII
The Position of the Private Builder .

ACTS
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1890 .
Working Classes Dwellings Act, 1890 .
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1894 .
Small Dwellings Acquisition Act, 1899 .
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1900 .
Housing of the Working Classes Act, 1903 .
Housing, Town Planning, etc.. Act, 1909
Housing Act, 1914 ......

Housing (No. 2) Act, 1914 ....

Housing, Town Planning, etc.. Act, 1919
Housing (Additional Powers) Act, 1919
Public Works Loans Act, 1920 (Section 5)
Unemployment (Relief Works) Act, 1920

APPENDIX I

Acquisition of Land (including the Acquisition
OF Land (Assessment op Compensation) Act,
1919 ; Rules thereunder ; G.H.M. Nos. 6
AND 11, and Regulations).

APPENDIX II

Provision of Houses (Regulations, Orders,

ETC.) ........

APPENDIX III
Documents mainly relating to Improvement
(Part I) and Reconstruction (Part II)
Schemes for Unhealthy Areas and Houses 57



CONTENTS XI

PAGE

APPENDIX IV
Other Parts I and II Documents . . .601

APPENDIX V

Sundry Documents ..... 645

APPENDIX VI

Public Utility Societies (Regulations, etc.) . 650

APPENDIX VII
Additional Powers Act Documents . . 684

APPENDIX VIII

Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest

(Restrictions) Act, 1920 . . . .710

Index ........ 739



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

i 31st December 1920

I

Acts
Date. Title.

53 & 54 Vict. c. 70 18 Aug. 1890 Housing of the Working Classes Act,

1890.
63 & 54 Vict c 16 25 July 1890 Working Class Dwellings Act, 1890.
57 & 58 Vict c. 55 25 Aug. 1894 Housing of the Working Classes Act,

1894.
6'> & 63 Vict c 44 9 Aug. 1899 SmaU Dwellings Acquisition Act, 1899.
63 & 64 Vict. c. 59 8 Aug. 1900 Housing of the Working Classes

Act, 1900.

3 Edw 7 c 39 14 Aug. 1903 Housing of the Working Classes

Act, 1903.
9 Edw 7. c. 44 3 Dec. 1909 Housing, Town Planning, &c.,Act,1909.

4 & 5 Geo 5. c. 31 10 Aug. 1914 The Housing Act, 1914.

4 & 5 Geo 5. c. 52 10 Aug. 1914 The Housing Act (No. 2), 1914.
9 & 10 Geo. 5. c. 35 31 July 1919 Housing, Town Planning, &c.,Act,1919.
9 & 10 Geo. 5. c. 99 23 Dec. 1919 Housing (Additional Powers) Act, 1919.
9 & 10 Geo. 5. c. 57 19 Aug. 1919 Acquisition of Land (Assessment of

Compensation) Act, 1919.

9 & 10 Geo. 5. c. 59 19 Aug. 1919 Land Settlement (Facilities) Act, 1919

(see section 22 as to appropriation
of land).

10 & 11 Geo. 5. c. 17 2 July 1920 Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest

(Restrictions) Act, 1920.
10 & 11 Geo 5 c. 61 23 Dec. 1920 Public Works Loans Act, 1920 (s. 5.).
10 & 11 Geo 5 c. 57 3 Dec. 1920 Unemployment (Relief Works) Act,

1920.

Statutory Rules and Obders, «fec.

S.R.&O.NO. SU. Bate. ™e.

2 54 930 11 Jan. 1910 Forms for use in connection witn

sections 15, 17 and 18 of the Housing
Town Planning, &c.. Act, 1909
(repealed except as to forms under
section 15, by S.R. & O., 1919,
No. 1424).



¥



XIV



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS



S.E. & O. No. *^i"H7

Order No. Date.

801 56,475 29 July 1910

65,763 2 Sept. 1910

919 55,578 2 Sept. 1910

66,916 19 Nov. 1910

1175 65,408 29 Aug. 1919

1556 65,605 23 Oct. 1919



167



6 Feb. 1920



336 65,815 5 Mar. 1920

1465 66,495 12 Aug. 1920

1424 65,480 10 Oct. 1919

1423 65,473 10 Oct. 1919
2128 12 Nov. 1920

Treasury Minute 1 Nov. 1920

2047 65,736 31 Dec. 1919

56 65,788 22 Jan. 1920

57 65,789 22 Jan. 1920

1428 65,242 6 Oct. 1919
107 65,704 28 Jan. 1920

134 65,798 30 Jan. 1920

1429 65,243 6 Oct. 1919

135 65,796 30 Jan. 1920
683 4 May 1920



Title.
The County Medical Officers of Health

(Duties) Order, 1910.
Regulations as to land in neighbour-
hood of Royal Palaces and Parks.
Housing (Inspection of District) Regu-
lations, 1910.
Forms under Part I of the Housing of

the Working Classes Act, 1890.
The Housing Acts (Compulsory Pur-
chase) Regtdations, 1919 (amended
by order 65,605).
The Housing Acts (Compulsory Pur-
chase) Amendments Regulations,
1919.
The Housing Acts (Compulsory Pur-
chase) Amendments Regulations,
1920.
The County Councils (Assisted Schemes
for the Housing of Employees)
Regidations, 1920.
The Housing (Loans by Coimty

Councils) Order, 1920.
The Housing Acts (Forms of Orders

and Notices) Order, 1919.
The Housing Acts (Appeal Procedure)

Rules, 1919,
The Ministry of Health (Temporary
Relaxation of Building Byelaws)
Regulations, 1920.
Rates of Interest on Local Loans.
The Local Authorities (Assisted Hous-
ing Schemes) Regulations, 1919.
The Housing (Regulation of Building)

Order, 1920.
The Regulation of Building (Appeal

Procedure) Rules, 1920.
The Public Utihty Societies (Financial

Assistance) Regulations, 1919.
The Public Utility Societies (Sale of

Houses) Regulations, 1920.
The Public Utility Societies (Financial

Assistance) Regulations, 1920.
Housing Trusts (Financial Assistance)

Regulations, 1919.
Housing Trusts (Financial Assistance)

Regulations, 1920.
The Housing Accounts Order (Societies
and Trusts), 1920.



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS XV

S. K. &0. Ministrr

No. Order Ko. Date. Title.

1836 2 Dec. 1919 The Acquisition of Land (Assessment

of Compensation) Rules, 1919.

285 24 Feb. 1920 The Acquisition of Land (Assessment

of Compensation) Fees Rules, 1920.

690 5 April 1920 The Acquisition of Land (Assessment

of Compensation) Fees (No. 2) Rules,
1920.

197 65,811 25 Feb. 1920 The Housing (Local Bonds) Regula-

tions, 1920.

487 66,165 31 Mar. 1920 The Housing Accounts Order (Local

Authorities), 1920.

560 66,017 12 AprU 1920 The Prohibition of Demolition (Appeal

Procedure) Rxiles, 1920.



MiSCEIiLANEOtTS PaPEES, ManuAXS, ForMS, &C,

No. Date. Title,

First issued 19 July 1919 Housing, a fortnightly journal issued by the

Ministry.
Feb. 1920 Housing by Public UtiUty Societies : The

Government proposals (re-issue).

(D, 107) Sept. 1919 Assisted Scheme (Pubhc Utility Society)

Statement of Annual Income and Ex-
penditure.

(D. 106) Assisted Scheme (Local Authority) State-

ment of Annual Income and Expenditure.
17 April 1914 Draft Regulations as to imdergromid

rooms as sleeping places.
April 1920 Draft ModelBy-laws,SeriesXIIIfe(section26

of the Housing, Town Planning, &c., Act,
1920).

(D. 70) Procedure to be adopted : submission of

house tender to Ministry.

(D. 76) Procedure to be adopted : submission of

street and sewerage tender.

(O. 37) (8654) Aug. 1919 Housing, Town Planning, &c.. Act, 1919

(brief explanatory statement of Act).
Sept. 1919 Housing, Powers and Duties of Local

Authorities (full explanatory statement of
Act).
8 April 1919 Manual on the preparation of State-aided
Housing Schemes (including Forms D.48
(site proposals) ; D.49 (proposals for
general lay-out, &c.) ; D.50 (application
for approval) ; D.51 (estimate of street
and sewerage works) ; D.52 (statement of
estimated annvial receipts and expendi-
ture), &c.



XVI LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

No. Date; Title.

(S.O.P. 384) Sept. 1919 Manual on the Conversion of Houses into

Flats for the Working Classes (including
D.81 (a), (ft) and (c) (schedules) ; D.94
(application by owner) ; D.95 (documents
to be forwarded, &c.) ; D.96 (application
for acquisition) ; D.97 (statement of
estimated annual receipts and expendi-
ture), &c., &e., &c.

Dec. 1919 Manual on Unfit Houses and Unhealthy

Areas, Vol. I (including Housing (In-
spection of District) Regulations, 1910 ;
Form of Application by owner for loan ;
Documents to be forwarded, &c., &c.)

Jan. 1920 Manual on Unfit Houses and Unhealthy

Areas, Vol. II (Legal Powers, &c.).

June 1920 Type, plans and elevations of cottages

designed by the Ministry in connection
with State- Aided Housing Schemes.

Nov. 1919 Report prepared in the Intelligence De-

partment of the Local Government
Board on the Housing Problem in Ger-
many.

Jan. 1920 Memorandum setting out the main pro-

visions of the Housing (Additional
Powers) Act, 1919. (Memo. 8/D.)

Jan. 1920 Memorandum as to conditions governing

Grants made to private persons or bodies
of persons constructing houses under the
Housing (Additional Powers) Act, 1919.

Mar. 1920 Memo. 109. — Notes on Special Points in

connection with the keeping of Assisted
Housing Accounts by Local Authorities.

Sept. 1920 Memorandum setting out the Increases

made in the Grants to private persons
constructing houses under the Housing
(Additional Powers) Act, 1919. (D. 194,
Revised).

July 1920 Summary of the Principal Provisions of

the Increase of Rent and Mortgage In-
terest (Restrictions) Act, 1920.

Sept. 1920 Pamphlet. — How to get a House of Your Own.

Sept. 1920 Particulars of Systems of House Con-

struction Approved up to April 1920.
(D. 89) July 1919 Form of Survey of Housing Needs.

(D. 82) Aug. 1919 Standard Specification for Cottages.

(D. 91) Sept. 1919 Standard Specification for Roads and

Sewers.
Bills of quantities and estimates for houses
of different tj'pes, sizes and aspects.



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS



XVU



Date. Title.

Mar. 1920 Standard Specifications for Cottages of

Timber Construction.

Mar. 1920 IModel Form of Agreement for Purchase by

a Local Authority of Working Class
Dwellings under Section 12 (3) of the
Housing Act, 1919.

May 1920 Model Forms of Tender and Contract,

Contract No. 1 (D88 A), revised May
1920.

June 1920 Specifications for Cement Concrete Build-

ings approved by the Standardisation
and Construction Committee of the
Ministrv of Health.



Circulars to Local Authorities, &c.



No. Date.

2 May 1919
11 June 1919

13 June 1919

17 29 July 1919

8 25 Aug. 1919

14 30 Aug. 1919

6 7 Oct. 1919
26 11 Oct. 1919
33 31 Oct. 1919

40 3 Dec. 1919
39 21 Nov. 1919
42 Mar. 1920



Subject.
Land for Housing Schemes.
Delegation of Work to Committee: Quantities and

Materials.
Land for Housing Schemes.
Conversion of Houses into Flats.
Accompanying Form of Survey (Explanation of 1919

Act).
County Medical Officers of Health, Assistance by

(to County Councils).
Explanatory leaflet to County Councils, &c.
Accompanying Appeal Rules, &c.
Accompanying Compulsory Purchase Amendment

Regulations, 1919.
Co-option of Women on Housing Committees.
Provision of Houses, with Enclosures A. & B.
V/ith Housing Accomits Order (Local Authorities),

1920, and an explanatory Memorandum.



No.


Date.


Form No.


1


18 July 1919


D. 80


2


Aug. 1919


D. 85



Aug. 1919
Sept. 1919



General Housing Memor.vnda



Subject.

Procedure in submission of housing schemes.

Expenditure of local authorities in con-
nection with the preparation and execu-
tion of Housing Schemes by their own
staff.

Standard Specification for Cottage.

Fees payable to architects and quantity
surveyors, &c.



D. 90
D. 92



No.


Date.


Form No.


5


15 Sept. 1919


D.


93


6


15 Sept. 1919


D.


98


7


15 Sept. 1919


D.


99


8


Oct. 1919


D.


103


9


Oct. 1919


D.


104


9a


Jan. 1920


D.


1048


10


Sept. 1919


D.


105


11


Nov. 1919


D.


109


12


Oct. 1919


D.


111


13


Oct. 1919


D.


115


14


Oct. 1919


D.


121


15


25 Nov. 1919


D.


124


16


Feb. 1920






17


16 Dec. 1919


D.


131



XVUl LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

' Subject.

The provision of temporary housing accom-
modation by the use of army huts or
State-owned hostels.

Compulsory Acquisition of Land for Housing
(see p. 515).

Standard Specification for Roads and Sewers.

Financial Assistance to Local Authorities.

Financial Assistance to Public Utility
Societies and Housing Trusts.

To replace General Housing Memorandum,
No. 9.

Model Form of Contract

Compulsory Purchase (see p. 519).

Relaxation of Building Bylaws.

Expenditure of Local Authorities.

Building Materials to private persons.

Quantity Surveyors.

Enclosing Model Form of Agreement
imders. 12 (3)/19.

Expenditure of Local Authorities in respect
of Administrative work in connection
with the erection of houses under
Assisted Housing Schemes.

18 16 Dec. 1919 D. 132 Assisted Housing Schemes.

19 20 Jan. 1920 D. 134 With Orders, 65,788, 65,789 (Regulation of

Building, and Appeals).

20 20 Jan. 1920 D. 137 Re Grants under section 1, Additional

Powers Act, 1919.

21 Feb. 1920 Enclosing copies of the Housing (Local

Bonds) Regulations, 1920, and outhning
procedure of Local Authorities thereunder.

22 Feb. 1920 Setting out the means by which Production

Committees of Local Authorities can
overcome difficulties arising out of the
shortage of labour and materials and
delays in transport.

23 Mar. 1920 Applications for payments on account of

Exchequer Subsidy for the year ending
March 31, 1920.

24 Mar. 1920 Enclosing Standard Specification for

Cottages of Timber Construction.

25 IMar, 1920 Ministry of Healtli decisions in regard to

points raised in connection with the con-
ditions governing the payment of Grants
to private persons constructing houses
under the Housing (Additional Powers)
Act, 1919.

26 April 1920 Purchase of certain building materials

independently of the Director of Building
Materials Suppljr.



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS XIX

No. Date. Form No. Subject.

27 May 1920 Sale of Houses built by Local Authorities.

28 May 1920 Enclosing copies of revised model fonn of

contract, No. 1, prepared for use of
Local Authorities, &c.

29 May 1920 Increase of Grants to private persons under

the Housing (Additional Powers) Act,
1919.

30 June 1920 Enclosing Standard Specifications for,

Cement Concrete Building.

31 July 1920 Revision of Scales of Fees payable to

Architects and Quantity Surveyors in
connection with State-aided Housing
Schemes^

32 June 1920 Payment of Exchequer Subsidy in respect

of Local Authorities Assisted Housing
Schemes.

33 Sept. 1920 Conditions to be observed in drawing up

schemes for the Sale of Houses included
in Assisted Schemes on the Plan of
Payment by Instalments.
36 Sept. 1920 Loans to Local Authorities from Proceeds

of Sales of National Savings Certificates.

Fire Insurance of Houses included in Local
Authorities Assisted Housing Schemes.

State-aided Hoxising Schemes : Preparation
and Submission of Final Accoimts and
Contractors' Statements.

Smoke Abatement.

Grants to Private Builders ; Issue of " A "
Certificates to be discontinued.

Command Papers

Title.
1918 Building Construction : Report of Committee
(Tudor Walters').
8998 9 Jan. 1918 First Report of Committee on the Acquisition
and Valuation of Land for Public Purposes.
Second Report of Committee on the Acquisition

and Valuation of Land for Public Purposes.
Third Report of Committee (Mines and Minerals).
Fourth Report of Committee (Transfer of Land

in England and Wales).
Position of the Building Industry after the War
(Building Materials Supply Committee).
Cd. 9087 Housing : Memorandum by the Advisory Panel

on the Emergency Problem (3d.).
Cd. 9179 Building Construction Contracts (Colwyn Com-

mittee).
Cd. 916G May 1918 Women's Housing Sub-Committee First Interim

Report (Id.).



Oct.


1920


Oct.


1920


Oct.


1920


Dec.


1920


No.


Date,


9191


24 Oct.



Cd. 9229


29 Nov. 1918


Cmd. 156




Cmd. 424


6 Nov. 1919


Cd. 9197


4 Nov. 1918



XX



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS





No.


Date.


Cd.


9232


17 Jan. 1919


Cd.


9213


13 Nov. 1918


Cd.


9214


13 Nov. 1918


Cd.


9223


29 Oct. 1918


Cd.


9238


5 Feb. 1919


Cd.


9235




Cmd.


89


24 Mar. 1919


Cmd.


128


28 April 1919


(H.C.


957)


April 1919


Cmd.


542




Cmd.


124


28 April 1919


Cmd.


125


28 April 1919


Cmd.


126


28 April 1919


Cmd.


127


28 April 1919


Cmd.


42G


Nov. 1919


Cmd.


444


27 Nov. 1919


Cmd.


453




Cd.


9157


Nov. 1918


Cmd.


413




Cmd


509




Cmd.


599


Mar. 1920



Cmd. (ill
Cmd. G58



Mar. 1920
April 1920
June 1920



Title.

Women's Housing Sub-Committee Final Report
{•3d.).

Building Bylaws : Report of Local Govern-
ment Board Committee on

Building Bylaws : Minutes of Evidence, Appen-
dices and Index.

Financial Assistance Committee : Interim Re-
port on Public Utility Societies (2d.).

Financial Assistance Committee : Final Report
(3d.).

Report of Committee on Increase of Rent, &c.,
Legislation.

Financial Assistance to Public Utility Societies
and Housing Trusts.

Financial Assistance to Public Utility Societies
and Housing Trusts.

Housing by Public Utility Societies and Housing
Trusts.

Housing Schemes submitted to the Ministry of
Health (the most recent return of a series).

Statutory Enactments proposed to be extended
&c., by the Housing, Town Planning, &c.,
Bill, 1919.

Estimate of probable Expenditure.

Statement showing existing procedure, &c., and
effect of Bill.

Financial Assistance to Local Authorities.

New Methods of Construction.

Interim Report of Treasury Committee on
Housing Finance.

Housing (Additional Powers) Bill, 1919. Esti-
mate of probable Expenditure, Conditions
Governing Grants to Private Builders.

Forty-seventh Annual Report of Local Govern-
ment Board, 1917-18.

Forty-eighth Annual Report of Local Govern-
ment Board, 1918-19.

Changes in Prices of Building Materials (London).

Statement showing the names of donors of sites
which have been approved by the Ministry of
Health for the erection of houses for the
Working Classes.

List of Changes in the Prices of the Principal
Building Materials.

Report of the Committee on the Increase of Rent
and Mortgage Interest (War Restrictions) Acts.

Minutes of Evidence of the Committee on the
Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest (War
Restrictions) Acts.



LIST OF OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS XXI

No. Date. Title.

June 1920 Interim Report of the Committee appointed by

the Minister of Health to consider and advise
on the principle to be followed in dealing with
Unhealthy Areas.

H.C.B. 215 Aug. 1920 Ministry of Health (Miscellaneous Provisions)

Bill, 1920.

Cmd. 898 Aug. 1920 Memorandum on the Ministry of Health (Mis-

cellaneous Provisions) Bill, 1920.

Cmd. 917 Sept. 1919 First Annual Report of the Ministry of Health,

1919-20. Part II. Housing and Town
Planning.

Cmd. 979 Sept. 1920 Housing Schemes submitted to the Ministry

of Health by Local Authorities and Public
Utility Societies up to August 28, 1920.

Reconstruction Pboblems

Pamphlets on —

(2) Housing in England and Wales.
(4) Housing in Scotland.
(25) Town Planning.



LAW AND PRACTICE WITH

REGARD TO HOUSING IN

ENGLAND AND WALES



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The legislation relating to housing is voluminous and
almost chaotic. Besides the Housing Acts, 1890 to 1919,
as defined by section 40 of the Housing, Town Planning,
&c., Act, 1919, there are seven Acts printed or referred
to in this volume which closely affect housing (see the
table of contents), and there are references therein to
many other Acts which deal with aspects of the problem
or some of the questions arising out of it.

This voluminous legislation will perhaps appal the
layman, but, though there is ample need for the promised
consolidation, the legislation is not quite so difficult as
it would appear. It falls readily under certain headings,
and, once these are grasped, the subject is much clearer.
These headings are : — ,

Unhealthy Areas (Part I)
Unhealthy Dwelling Houses (Part II)
Housing of the Working Classes (Part III)
Town Planning.
The principal housing Act (1890) is divided into
Parts I, II, III . . . and these terms are in common
use, often as abbreviations, e.g. " a Part III scheme."

Parts I and II are dealt with fully in Chapter III, and
Part III in Chapter II ; and it is not necessary to refer
1



2 .\ : LA'Vr ;ATT-P' '.ERAC'l^ICi: WITH REGARD TO HOUSING

further to them here than to say that while the provision
of houses (Part III) is the problem of the moment, the
removal of unhealthy housing conditions (Parts I and II)
was the problem for many years previously, and may be
the problem for many years after the present shortage
of houses disappears, though the provision of new houses
of the type approved under the Housing, Town Planning,
&c., Act, 1919, should materially lessen the future
difficulties — as it is designed to do. Town planning is



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