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former type was referred to as "he," the
latter was called " she."

In mediaeval and modern times a further
step in wisdom was achieved. It having
been observed that all nations, whether
bellicose or peaceful, are apt to be more
or less capricious and unfaithful in their
international dealings and diplomacy, it
was agreed by tacit and almost universal
assent to ascribe to every nation alike a
feminine massed soul or consciousness.

And so it is that, even to this day, to
think of a nation is to conjure the image
of a woman. But we who are thinkers
should do wrong to remain under the gov-
ernment of a mental habit so carelessly
formed, so unphilosophically contracted.
It needs no argument, it needs scarce a
moment's thought, to teach us that the
preponderating soul characteristics of all
nations are not necessarily feminine. We

34



require merely to raise the question to per-
ceive and comprehend the truth which it
enfolds. Many nations may have the one
dominating sex; but it is possible that
some, or one, may have another. It is
possible, also, that the soul sex of a
nation may by time and circumstances be
changed.



35



xn

HOW may the soul sex of a nation be
determined? It may be determined by
examining the conduct of the nation hi
peace and hi war and by contrasting its
conduct with the conventional standards
of individual rectitude, and with the
conduct of other nations.



XIII

GERMANY claims to be the most virile
nation in the world, and I am unaware
that any other nation, or any living occi-
dental philosopher, has seriously ventured
to dispute her arrogant assertion of un-
rivaled and incomparable masculinity.
Nevertheless, the claim of Germany is
demonstrably without foundation. First,
examine her in peace. For several decades
Germany prepared with tireless industry
for war. Why? She desired to expand.
Her millions needed room, she says, "a
place in the sun": they were "choking
down." In short Germany aspired to make
room for herself by annexing forcibly the
territory and possessions of her neighbors.
Hence her unparalleled military and naval
growth. It had, this growth, an immoral

37



object conquest, that is, plunder. The
men of Germany worked and toiled for
years with this ambition hi then* minds.
Did they labor for themselves? Did
they covet Naboth's vineyard for their
own exclusive and particular enjoyment?
Impossible! When one man decides to
steal, it is rarely for his own advantage.
Usually he is driven to his crime by the
desire to please and to enrich a woman.

When many men decide to steal, it is
never for then* personal advantage, but
always for the State, /. e. y for the wives and
daughters and sweethearts of the thieves.
And the women of a robber nation, if
they countenance their men's ambition, are
the responsible and real culprits: for the
women of a nation are the nurses and the
tutors of the men. Do not tell me that
the men of Germany secretly originated and
conceived, and then for thirty years success-
fully concealed from their women the
monstrous resolution to subjugate and
expropriate their European neighbors.
38



Let us be honest and not raise false issues.
Guibert expressed a half truth when he
said: "Les homines font les loisi les
femmes font les moeurs" If the men
of Germany adopted the ambition of con-
quest, it was not merely because they
knew their women would not reject the
fruits of conquest, rather it was because
they knew then* women coveted the fruits
of conquest. Women, however, neither
plan nor execute. They inspire. But which
is more culpable, the hand that reaches
forth to steal the purse, or the brain that
moves the hand? And which is more culp-
able, the man who steals, or the woman who
inspires the man to steal? An honest man is
one whose wife is either an unusually con-
tented and unenvious woman, or a woman
whose power of spiritual influence is of in-
sufficient force to prevail over her husband's
native sense of justice. An honest nation
is one whose female citizens are not of
stronger soul fiber than its male citizens.
When the female soul collectively pre-
39



dominates, the nation is potentially dis-
honest. The female soul is an envious and
grasping spirit. It respects no rights which
cannot be enforced or longer than they
are enforced. It submits to superior
strength, but it scorns the compulsion of
ethical restraints. It will get always that
which it wants if it can, and by any means
it can.



40



XIV

THE social condition of Germany supplies
further proof that the nation is under
feminine dominion. The women of
Germany have never as a race shown
themselves solicitous of political enfran-
chisement. It is because their power of
government through sex is complete
enough to satisfy their instinct to excel
and to enslave. The men of Germany
are peculiarly uxorious. They treat their
women as subordinates, as playthings and
house fraus, rarely as equals and partners,
never as superiors. But the women are con-
tent. Women do not rebel against mascu-
line ill-usage which assumes the form of an
apparent sexual tyranny. Well they know
who are real tyrants in the eternal processes
of conjugation. The woman with a lusty
mate is ever a proud animal ; an animal not

41



in the very least degree inclined to alter the
established order in the quest of illusory
intellectual advantages. The women of
Germany willingly concede the power of
lawmaking to their men. They make the
morals on which the laws are founded
in the home, and in the home the men of
Germany only seem to be lords. Actually
they are pampered helots: beasts that
are fed and flattered into an unconscious
acquiescence with the fact that they are
slaves of sex.



42



XV



IT is not without significance that Turkey
is Germany's ally in the war. Turkey has
but one conspicuous national institution
the seraglio. Every male Turk hopes to
have many wives. The sensual male is the
predestined servant of femininity. The
soul of Turkey is depraved and essentially
effeminate. It abandonedly worships the
generative principle.



43



XVI

I WAS in Berlin when the German Chan-
cellor made his famous speech in the
Reichstag admitting that Germany had
done wrong to invade Belgium, but
pleading, for excuse, necessity; and ending
with the defiant proclamation "We must
hack our way through ! " Thus does the
typical primitive woman always forgive
herself for breaking an inconvenient law
and then, in the very act of sympathizing
with those she injures, fling herself to
the furthest extreme of uncompromising
criminality: "We must hack our way
through ! " Who is more merciless than
the wife intent upon adultery? But she
always pretends to pity the husband she
dishonors, and often she interrupts the
kisses of her paramour to weep for the home
she has defamed. There is this essential

44



difference between the male and female
criminal, that the masculine malefactor
is never so completely lacking in the sense
of humor and of dignity as to parade a
hypocritical compassion for his victim:
but the female wrongdoer invariably acts
like that. When the Chancellor's speech
was published, all Berlin rocked with grief
for Belgium and madly cheered the Prussian
soldiers on their way to complete the
devastation of that small unhappy State.
In that whirlwind of emotion, the soul of
Germany shook off its trappings and stared
at the horizon, the eyes dropping tears, the
mouth breathing flames. I saw the face
of a woman, the face of a Medusa.



45



xvn

WHILE it suits a woman to observe a law,
or to respect a convention, there is nobody
more scrupulous in complying with the
obligations thereby imposed, and nobody
more indignant and virtuously outraged
to witness breaches by others. But when
it suits a woman to offend the code herself,
she forthwith discovers that the said law
or convention merely postulated a counsel
of perfection impossible for fallible human
nature to follow faithfully. She is invari-
ably astounded when called to a reckoning
for her sin, and she never fails to over-
whelm with reproaches those who venture
to reprove her and to accuse them of
hypocrisy. It suited Germany to respect

46



for half a century the treaty which guaran-
teed the inviolable neutrality of Belgium:
and during all that time no other signa-
tory Power upheld the law with a sterner
or more exalted affectation of fidelity.
But as soon as Germany saw a profit in
breaking the agreement, she did not hesitate
an instant to be faithless. England called
her to account and for a moment Germany
was dumb, stricken with amazement. When
she found her voice again, she poured
forth a torrent of reproaches. "What!"
said the Chancellor to England. " Just for
a scrap of paper you will make war on
us? " And all Germany shrieked invective,
praying Almighty God to hate and punish
the English for their perfidy and damnable
hypocrisy. Germany's astonishment was
perfectly genuine: her indignation was
transparently sincere. The female soul
of the nation could not understand the
nature of the crime it had committed:
could not believe it had committed more
than a venial sin. It had acted sui generis

47



just as a woman always acts when in a
difficulty. And just as a woman always
feels outraged when threatened with punish-
ment by a man whatever she has done to
deserve it the female soul of Germany
felt outraged and aghast when masculine
England menaced her with chastisement.



48



XVIII

THE male soul, like the female soul, is
compact with faults and virtues. Its faults
are distinguished in kind, as well as in
degree, from the faults peculiar to the female
soul. The male soul is apt to be cruel, but
it is incapable of spite. It can hate even
unto death, but it is always willing to raise
a fallen enemy. It can willfully destroy,
but it cannot deliberately torture. It loves
justice, and except when influenced by pas-
sion, it voluntarily serves the ends of justice.
The female soul neither loves nor hates
justice, and the only cause it serves with
spontaneity is that of generation. The
typical woman loves herself above the
world until she has a child. She then
transfers the larger part of her devotion
to her offspring, whose interests she will
prosecute at any cost, to the interests of all
4 49



other persons if she can, careless of moral
sanction or ethical restraints. The national
soul of Germany reveals its ruling feminine
characteristic most clearly when contrasted
with the national soul of England. That
of England is conspicuously distinguished
by its respectful consideration for the
conventional rights of smaller independent
States, and by a sentimental readiness to
elevate the status of, and to concede
autonomous powers to, subject peoples.
The masculine soul is tolerant, sentimental,
and somewhat indolent. The female soul
is impatient, cupidinous, and energetically
bent on exploitation. Germany has always
ruled, as with a rod of iron, the peoples
she has subjugated: and freedom of action
in her colonies is a thing unknown. She
built up her mighty strength with no desire
to achieve moral greatness, but simply
to destroy the privileges and to annex
compulsorily the property of her weaker
neighbors. The present war was sensibly
precipitated by England's magnanimous

50



grant of self-government to the Boers in
South Africa. From the outset, Germany
regarded that wonderful experiment with
emotions of profound concern, and she
watched its progress towards success with
an ever-growing consternation. With all
her heart she resented the new Ethic that
she saw in process of establishment, for
it seemed to her to menace with obliteration
the essential raison d'etre of war. She felt
it incumbent on her at all hazards to shatter
the experiment before the world should
realize its inner meaning and its real
aims: last, perceiving its results consoli-
dated, the world should accept the new
Ethic and co-operate, under the spiritual
(and possibly the political) hegemony of
England, for its perpetuation and defense.
And herein is the reason why Germany,
as soon as war was declared, strove her
very utmost to promote a Boer rebellion
and to incite the Dutch peoples of South
Africa to prove themselves recreant to
their plighted word, and unworthy of the



gracious and genial treatment England had
accorded them. Only a female soul could
have conceived a policy at once so crafty
and so spiteful. Germany knows well that
the complete loss of South Africa could
not have impaired in the smallest degree
England's military and naval efficiency:
but she was also aware that such an event
would have humbled England's pride:
and she yearned to demonstrate that mag-
nanimity is an unprofitable course for any
nation to pursue in its dealings with alien
or conquered communities.



XIX

THE female soul is profoundly superstitious.
When all goes well it is content to worship
the unseen with formal genuflections: but
when beset by unaccustomed troubles, or
harassed by fear of pain, it instantly pro-
strates itself before a shrine, and screams
God to partner its affliction and to con-
found the physical agent of its threatening
grief. The enemy of every pious woman
is, in her opinion, the arch foe and anta-
gonist of God. Within a few hours of the
outbreak of the present war, the German
nation adopted a new National motto:
"Colt mit i/iis," and the Divine Essence
had become a personal Deity and the foster-
parent of the Kaiser. England and France
approached their altars too: but with less
cock-sureness. They asked Heaven to
judge, but they did not anticipate the

53



verdict. The women of England and France
may have been as silly as the women of
Germany, but if so, their behavior failed
substantially to affect the general attitude
of their nations towards Heaven. Their
attitude, indeed, remains to-day much as
it was before the war. England is perhaps
more reverent, and France more prayerful:
but the posture of both nations is masculine
and dignified. The position of Germany,
per contra, is that of an impassioned
pagan priestess urging on her servant-god
to reward her ministrations by super-
naturally augmenting the capacity of her
people to pillage, murder, and destroy.



54



XX



MEN and women are natural enemies. The
war between the sexes is unceasing. Nature
has entrusted to women the work of con-
tinuing the species and improving it. Men
are necessary factors in this work, but their
sexual functioning is only intermittently,
while woman's is continuously, operative.
To men, sex is a goad driving them
now towards, now from woman. Woman
cannot free herself from the government
of sex, and her slavery must be perpetual,
lest the purposes of nature be frustrated.
She is doomed to attempt the subjugation
of men as long as she is capable of bearing
children, for she needs both to be fertilized
and to be supported by man. Woman
succeeds, because a traitor sits in the citadel
of every man's heart. It is the instinct of
normal woman to make one man of per-
manent use to her her bonded servant.
It is the instinct of normal man to satisfy

55



the passion which draws him to one woman,
and to abandon the woman who provokes it
for another. Man was made by nature a
polygamist. The supreme demonstration
of woman's craft, and of the superiority
of instinct over reason, is that woman has
imposed monogamy upon the greater part
of the world. The battle lasted many ages.
Woman won it. The evolutionary develop-
ment of the human species is now pro-
ceeding along courses not originally
planned by nature, for all conventions
which restrict polygamy contradict the
simpler purposes of evolution. The new
order may develop modifications of type
and structure. It may expedite or retard
modifications that possibly had been
originally designed. (Query: The disap-
pearance of redundant toes the degenera-
tion of the vermiform appendix, etc.?)
Philosophers may speculate : science teems
with vague and wonderful ideas, but con-
trols its tongue. The human being of the
future may have two heads. Who can tell?
56



All social conventions are in favor of
women. All alike are fashioned to prevent
the abandonment of women, and for pro-
tracting the enjoyment by women of male
services. Women have become supreme
executors of the social law. Nature obliges
women to prey on men, and Nature has
fashioned men at once to resent and to
submit to female tyranny. Nature, there-
fore, has made man merciful and woman
pitiless. Man is the only sympathetic being.
Woman simulates sympathy, but does not
feel it. The supreme weakness of man as
woman's adversary consists in his higher
intelligence which recognizes that woman
is the bondslave of sex and prevents
him continuously resenting her continual
efforts to join him to her yoke. Because
of his comparative emancipation he pities
woman, and his compassion insures his
subjugation. The war between the sexes
is a blind war. The sexes are amative
enemies. They strive and struggle for
they know not what. The combat has

57



lasted since the beginning of the world.
It is marked with monuments of female
victories: and defeat is still the lot of
man. Of late, indeed, the fight is visibly
going, except hi democratic countries,
with increasing speed and thoroughness,
the woman's way. Education seems to
increase the sex power of the female, and
to undermine the capacity of male resist-
ance. Educated woman, however, is in-
clined, in proportion with the cultivation
of her intellect, to repudiate the duties and
obligations of maternity. Nature's revenge
is to implant in the heart of the female
rebel an insatiable craving for excitement:
hence her invasion of the sphere of politics
in all democratic countries, and her am-
bition to enlarge by brute force the material
possessions of countries whose autocratic
governmental systems impose immediately
unbreakable restraints on her explosive
energies. England remains to-day the most
virile state in Europe, with a predomin-
antly masculine soul, simply because the

58



women of England, during the past few
decades, have relaxed much of the fury of
their primeval sex warfare against their male
enemies, in order to chase the rainbows of
economical and political enfranchisement.
A secondary factor meriting attention,
consists in the numerical superiority of
Englishwomen. Whenever a monogamous
country has a large surplus of female
citizens, the unmarriageable proportion
necessarily adopts artificial standards of
conduct which often clash with the con-
ventions. The unnatural life and morals
of this section, inevitably infect and react
upon the body politic. The result is this
apparent paradox: The State which has
more women than men is always less
effeminate than the State having more men
than women. The administrative system
of England (which is radically democratic)
set the women of England chasing political
rainbows, first by liberalizing the education
of women, and secondly by permitting
the women of England to recognize the

59



feasibility of securing a toy which to see
was to covet : because it seemed to be their
right and it was, nevertheless, withheld
from them. Woman always prizes most
that which is withheld from her. The
women of England are bound to win their
will at last : but in the meantime they must
lose ground in the sex contest, and already
they have suffered the soul of the nation
to become vigorously masculine, magnani-
mous, and just. Per Contra, Germany
confronts us to-day the most conspicuously
woman-dominated State in Europe, simply
because her autocratic system of Govern-
ment has constrained her female population
to concentrate their attention on prose-
cuting the primeval sex war according to
primeval methods. The women of Ger-
many saw and envied the larger freedom
of the women of England, and they avenged
themselves according to their kind by forg-
ing fresh fetters on then- own male yoke-
fellows : that is to say, by stamping a deeper
female impress on the soul of Germany.
60



XXI

THE psychological genesis of the war
between Germany and Europe is sexual.
It is a war between the femininity of Ger-
many and the masculinity of her neighbors
especially the masculinity of England.
The female soul of Germany captured
the industrial efficiency of the nation,
cajoled the nation to adopt a criminal
ambition, and finally provoked the nation
to offend beyond forgiveness the entire
masculine world. The men of Germany
are not morally responsible for their terrible
behavior. They are rather to be pitied
than blamed, for their souls have been
hypnotized, and they are not free agents.
Without knowing it, they have been en-
chanted to betray their sex, and to fight
against their brother men of other nations
on the side, and at the behest, of a localized

61



section of their natural enemies the female
race. If they could be awakened suddenly
to a full perception of their degraded and
infamous estate, I believe that the men of
Germany, or at any rate a large propor-
tion, would demonstrate their horror and
remorse by forswearing concubinage for
the remainder of their lives. The penance
would be strictly appropriate, because it
would punish all who are most guilty of
forcing on humanity this fratricidal struggle.



62



xxn

IN a recent number of the Contemporary
Review, Professor L. T. Hobhouse wrote,
" As events came crowding on, I, for one,
saw and I am sure that countless others
had much the same experience that the
struggle was quite different from anything
I supposed, that essentially it was not a
fight between one country and another,
but a struggle for the elements of a free
and human civilization, as we understand
the terms. In such a struggle many things
may go under, but as long as we fight hi
this spirit we shall save our souls alive."
Professor Hobhouse was within reasonable
distance of apprehending the truth when
he penned the above quoted lines. Yet
it evaded him. The war is not merely "a
struggle for the elements of a free and
human civilization, " although that surface

63



issue is involved: it is essentially a contest
for supremacy between feminine and mas-
culine ideals. The feminine ideal reaches
towards material aggrandizement, and
sanctions the employment of all measures
capable of attaining the desired goal.
Germany has staked her all on force, hi
the present war: but that does not prove
her wedded exclusively to the doctrine of
Might, or that she believes Might makes
Right. She is using force because it seemed
the best available expedient to realize her
will: and had Craft appeared to her more
suitable, she would have chosen Craft.
The masculine ideal is by no means indif-
ferent to material success, but it reaches
also towards spiritual excellence, and it
visualizes standards of conduct for the
regulation of all human activities where-
from, even when fighting for existence,
masculine communities do not willingly
depart. The only way to confound and
shame a typical woman is to deprive her
of the prize which she has steeped her soul
64



in infamy to win. Allow her to retain it,
and she is self-satisfied and proud of her
success, because to a woman the end
always justifies the means. The typical
man, on the contrary, may be confounded,
even if in undisturbable possession of his
prize, by convicting his intelligence of
having violated honor in securing it.
English thought wrongs Germany in sup-
posing that Germany aspires to destroy
the elements of a free and human civiliza-
tion. Germany's crimes are sufficiently
detestable without inventing additions to
their number. The fact is, Germany is
firmly persuaded that the elements of her
civilization are more free and human than
any civilization that the world has seen:
and she believes that, if she succeeds in
her efforts to appropriate the wealth and
to destroy the independence of her neigh-
bors, her victims will be compensated
for all their sufferings by the benefits
her Kultvr and enlightened rule will
eventually confer upon them. Herein we

65



have feminine psychology depicted in
excelsis. The woman soul of Germany wants
something belonging to another. The
only perceptible method to secure it is by
force. She decides to use force, but seeing
clearly that her victim will be hurt and
tortured by her acts, her female soul is
disturbed and demands to be comforted.
Being a woman she is excessively vain.
Her ways, therefore, are in her opinion


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Online LibraryK'ung Yuan Ku'suhThe judgment of the Orient, some reflections on the great war → online text (page 2 of 3)