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in the early records, is the equivalent of the Massachusetts
(Eliot) touoh or {touwayauke, "old vacant abandoned land,"
Delaware, tauwatawik,''^a,n uninhabited tract," tamvatawique,
"in the wilderness." Eliot uses touoh or (touwa) -komuk for
"a wild place," — a wilderness, — a desert,— a solitary place,-a
forsaken place, — a wood country, — a forest, etc., etc. Komuk^
a place, denoting sometimes a house, — a place limited in
extent, — in contradistinction to auke^ — land or place, extend-
ed, not limited.

A parallel of this place name is found in Virginia and
corroborative evidence as to its meaning is found in connec-
tion with it, Dr. J. Hammond TrundjuU has shown that
the language of the Powhatan or Virginia Indians did not
differ from that of the tribes of Southern New England,
which includes Long Island, than each others dialect differed
from that of the Delaware or Lenape. The Virginia equiva
lent is frequently mentioned by Capt. John Smith, and it is
variously given by him and his associates as Orapacks^ Ora-
j)akes, Orapaks and Orohpikes. Eliot would have written it,
{)erhaps, Touohpeauke^ "the wild or solitary water place,"
pe-auke^'-'-a, water place." Long Island, — peage, as in 3Iassa-
peag^ Napeage^ etc. Sometimes, as in pmig dent)tes a pond.
Orapakes probably referred to the houses of the chief


Powhatan located at, or in a swamp, for Indian place names
are almost invariably descriptive of tlie locality to which
they were originally applied. Capt. J(^hn Smith writes: —
"About twenty-live miles lower on tlie north side of this
river (Damaunkee) is Werawocomoco (the chieftain's
house), where their great king (Powhatan) inhabited when
Captain Smith was delivered his prisoner;! yet there are not
past forty able men. But now he hath abandoned that and
liveth at Orapakes by Toughtanund in the wilderness."
Again; — "But he took so little pleasure in our near neigh-
borhood that were able to visit him against his will in six or
seven hours that he retired himself to a place in the deserts
at the top of the river Chickahamania between Toughtanund
and Powhatan," (the falls above Richmond.) And again: —
"He retired himselfe to Orapakes in the desert betwixt
Chickahamania and Toughtanund." This is where Smith
locates it on his map of Virginia. Toughtanund was the
southern branch of the Pamaunkee (York River). For he
says: — "Pamaunkee divideth itself into two gallant branches,
the south branch is Toughtanund, the north branch Mattapa-
nient" (now called Mattaponey). (Smitli's Works, Arber's
Reprint pp. 51, 80, 347, 375.) This locality has additional
interest from the fact that here were fought some of the
most severe battles of the wilderness. Grant in his Memoirs
says: — "Most of the country is covered with a dense forest
in places like the wilderness, and along the Chickahomony
almost impenetrable even for infantry except along the
roads." (Vol. 2 p. 180). After crossing the Pamaunkee
(really the Toughtanund of Smith), he says: — "The country
we were now in was a difficult one to move troops over. The
streams were numerous, deep and sluggish, sometimes
spreading out into swamps, grown up with impenetrable
growths of trees and underbrush. The banks were generally
low and marshy, making the streams difficult to approach
except there were roads and bridges." (Vol. 2 }>. 258).
Another description of this section is worth quoting, viz: —
"To the physical geographer the Chickahomony is interest-


iiig- from the fact tliat it is the noitheniiost h)calitj that
retains features, in the Hoi'a, whieh areeoininoii on the rivers
further south, in eouipany with the growth of the cohler cli-
mate. The cypress here protrudes its curious routs, and the
funeral moss trails from the trees. The beech sends its
horizontal branches over the darksome waters; the nia[)le so
brilliant in its autumn foliage, and the gum tree more gor-
geous still at the same season here keep company with the
southern interloper. Vines encumber the trees and harass-
ing band)00 thickets bar the way on the higher banks. The
columnar gum trees in most cases rise from an intertwining
assembly of arched and knotted roots, especially where they
are liable to be washed by the overflow of the streams.
Immense masses of debris washed down by the freshets lodge
against the standing timber and the stream is bridged in
hundreds of places by tlie trees which have lost their e(j[uilib-
rium from being undermined. The river contiguous to
Richmond is invariably spoken of as the Chickahomony
swamp ; and here in effect it is a swamp. The main stream,
with its coffee-colored water, is well defined, but in many
places for a quarter of a mile on both sides of it the ground
is a slimy ooze, affording a very unstable .footing. Where
this ooze exists, it is covered with a dense growth of water
plants, generally of the peculiar whitish green found in
plants little exposed to the light of the sun." (Pict. America
Vol. 1 p. 257.)

Capt. Smith, in iiis voyage of discovery up the Chickahom-
ony in the sunnner of 1608, mentions ancjther place, at the
marshes at the to[) of the river, twenty miles in the desert, a
vast and wild wilderness, where the river still ke[)t its de[)th
'but was much cumbered by trees.' Having been suiprised
l)y the Indians, and in endeavoring to escape he stepped into
a (juagmire, becoming disabled thereby. He was captured
and carried to their village of thirty or forty hunting houses,
built like arbors covered with mats, which they remove as
they please, as we do our tents. Prof. Arber calls this town
also Orapaks (p. 390), but Smith calls it Rassaweak or


Rasseiiciic. It was no doubt near tlie place afterwards called
Ora})akes, wliicli then had no existence as a village, for
Powhatan did iiot move there until January, 1609. The
next year, in a speech to the Paraannkies, Smith said: — "I
am not now at Rassa weak, half drowned with myre, where
you took me prisoner." (pp. 142, 549.)

Rassaw-eak, — or, — ac, 'miryland,' the e(]uivalcnt of the
Delaware assircu, 'mud,' assiskuvniii, 'miry,' iMassacliusetts
^pissaqwmit, 'mire,' with the locative termination — ack —
'land,' or 'place,' Narragaiisett hdssucki 'a marsh,' fiom the
same radicle. Tliis latter form being du[)licated on Long
Island in many cases as Hassock. (See Coast Survey

The initial letter It, as given to many Indian names of
})laces b}'^ the English was not sounded when spoken by the
Indians, according to Eliot, Heckewel'der and others, and
does not appear in their works, consequently it is intrusive
here. A name on Long Island that is a parallel of the
Virginia liussaweak is found in Rassdplagne., a peninsula
containing several line farms, on the northern part of Smith-
town. It terminates on the east near the entrance to Stony
Brook Harbor. It is mentioned almost at the beginning of
the settlement when, on November 10th, 1658, the Indians
convey land "lying between Setalk (Brookhaven) bounds
and Nissc({uo([ue River and a swamp called Rassajjeagne on
the west side." No date, but probably January, 1687, as it
is put on record among other entries of tliat year, the same
Andrew Gil))), of Brookhaven, petitions the Governor "for
two small Islajids of creeke hatch meadow on Rassapegne
Bay." As will be seen, the name belonged originally to the
swamp Rassapeagne, 'a miry water })lace.' This gave the
name to tlie Bay and afterwards to the whole neck of land.
There are other names in Virginia and on Long Island that
show correspondences, but we omit them for the reason that
they are not so closely identified with tlie adventures of the
heroic Capt. Jolni Smith. To him we accord all honor, for
without his noble work, as Prof. Arber writes: — "There
would have been no Plymouth Colony and [)ossibly no United



The Name Massachusetts. In llio Magazine of New
England History for January, 1891, p. 13, I find the state-
ment that the best authorities on the su])ject, say that the
name of "Massachusetts" means a liill in the form of an
arrow's head." Do the best authorities say so? I think not.
This (luestion lias been discussed at great length, and Dr. J.
Hammond Trumbull— who, without a doubt is the best an-
tliority— gives it true etymology in the Pi-oceedings of the
American Antiquarian Society for October, 1867, pp 79-H4.
The opinion therein suggested, that the termination or snfiix
set, had the signification of "towards," "near to" or "in the
vicinity of," he afterwards ac(!epts fully in his "Indian Names
in Conn." making the meaning "in the vicinity of the great
hills," or "the great hill country." This signification corre-
sponds to the place to which it was originally api)liod, as
given by an authority earler than Williams, Cotton or Rille,
and who was fully conversant with the locality— and prob-
ably more so than Capt. John Smith who hist notes tlu;
name. That one being William Wood of Sangus (Lynn),
from 1629 to 1633, who says:— "Three miles to the North of
this (Wessagustus) is Mount Walleston a very fertile soylc,
and a place very convenient for Farmers liouses, there being
groat store of plaine ground without trees. This place is
called Massachusetts lields Avhcrc the greatest Sagamoi-e in
the country lived before the plague, who caused it to be
cleared for himself." (New England Prospect p. 40).

Therefore, Mannt Wallaston was the original "Massachu— "
the great hill," while sett, was the field that the Sagamore


clcn,ro(l "ill (lie viciiiiiy of tlie groat liill," and as Dr. Trum-
bull has sliown the final s does not belong to tlie original
nani(!, but was added to form an Anglitused i)lnra,l.

The greatest Sagamore was probablj^ Massasoit, 'tlie great
king,' from Massa 'great,' tassoot (Eliot) 'a king.' This is
also confirmed by several authorities. Samoset and Squanto
during their visit to the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1621, says:
"that their great Sagamore MassM,soyt was hard by." E.
Winslow wrote: "Tlieir Sachems cannot be all called kings,
but only some few of them, to whom the rest resort for pio-
tection, and pay Jioniage unto them****. Of this sort is Mas-
sassowat, our friend, "the Good News from N. E. (in Younge
Cron. of Plymouth p 360-61.) He having lived there before
the "Plague," which happened a few years previous to the
landing of the Pilgrims in 1620, carries Woods record back
to the visit of Gapt. John Smith in 1616. This quotation
fi'om Wood, a strong corroborative one to my mind, was
evidentl}'^ overlooked by Dr. Trumbull when he wrote his
study of the name.

Sag Harbor, N. Y. Wm. Wallace Tf)OKER.

Early Laws in Massachusetts, Relating to Fires. —
The first devastating fire in America was probably the one
occuringat Boston, March 20, 1760, when 400 dwellings and
stores were buiiuMl, causing a loss of X100,000. In the
colony of Massachusetts Bay, regulations in regard to con-
struction of chimneys and thatched roofs were made as early
as March Ifi, 1630, and various enactments were made at
later dates. The ordinance of tlie town meeting at Boston,
Maic.h 14, 1645, made provision that each householder should
hav(! ladders long enough to reach to the ridge of his house,
and a pole "about 12 feet long, with a good large swob at
the end of it; " and various graded penalties were provided
for those not (M)ufoi-ming to the law. Q.

The New England Courant. — At the meeting of the
Massa(;husetts Historical Society on Thni'sday, June 11,
1891, after two papers of little general interest had been read.


I)r. Samuel A. Green -called attention to the society's file of
tlie New England Courant, which had recently been rebound.
It extends fi-om November, 1721, to June, 1726. In de-
scriljing the file he spoke in part as follows:

This newspaper, from its connection with Benjamin Frank-
lin, is one of tlie most interesting of early Boston publica-
tions. It was started by his brother James, who afterward,
on account of certain articles therein printed had trouble
with the public authorities, and in consequence was thrown
into prison, where he lay for a montli. On his release he
was forl)idden by the Assembly to continue publishiug the
paper, unless the articles were first supervised by the secre-
tary of the Province. For the purpose of evading this order,
the publisher's name was changed from James Franklin to
that of his youngest brother, Benjamin, who then was only
seventeen years old, and at that time an apprentice in the
printing office; and in this way the penalty of the law was

The name of Benjamin, as the publisher, first appears on
tlie number for Feb. 11, 1723, and continues till June 4,
1726 — which is the end of the file — although he left home in
October, 1723, and never again lived in Boston. His name
remained on the newspaper probably as long as it was pub-
lished, which was not more than six or eight months after
this time. In the issue of the Courant for July 2, 1722,
there is a bare allusion to "Shakespere's works," which is
|wol)ably the earliest instance in New England literature
where the name of the great dramatist is mentioned.

A Curious Leoacy. — In ye olden time, there were many
tilings performed, which in this age appear very singular,
and probably a century hence our proceedings will appear
quite as ridiculous to our survivors. Mr. William Cory, of
Portsmouth, R. I., made his will on the fourth day of Janu-
ary, 1681. He had a numerous family, consisting of five
sons and five daughters. He divided his lands among the
former and gave ten pounds to each of the latter, and be-


queaths his children to his wife in the following curions

"And I do beqneath my children nnto my wife next under
God, desiring that tliey may be tenderly bronglit up and
educated till they come to the age of one and twenty years,
the males, and the females at marriage estate, and then they
are to provide for themselves as tlie Providence of God shall
direct them." P. T.

A Tablet Erected to the Memory of Rev. Dr. Mans-
field, AT Derby, CoNN.-The one hundred and fiftieth anni-
versary of the establishment of Episcopacy in tlie town of
Derby, Conn., was celebrated, June 30, with ceremonies ap-
propriate to such an occasion, when the memory of one of its
most prominent men was fittingly perpetuated in a tablet of
brass, set conspicuously upon the walls of St. James church.

The tablet erected to his memory and unveiled at the cele-
bration, is of polished brass, mounted on Champlain marble
of beautiful design, and inscribed as follows:

To the glory of God and in

memory of

Richard Mansfield, D. D.,

Born in New Haven, A. D. 1724;

Graduated at Yale College in 1741;

Ordained Priest by the Archbishop of

Canterbury, Aug. 7th, 1748.

Placed in charge of this parish l)y the

Society for the Propagation of the

Gospel in foreign parts

in 1748.


rector of the paiish for

72 years, and until his death,

which occurred in Derby, Aug. 12. 1820.

Age 96 years.



• J^istorical.

31. Pastors, Tbaciieus and Elders of the N. E.
Churches. — The early New England cliurclies had Pastors,
Teachers and Ruling Elders. What was the distinction
between Pastor and Teaclier? What were the duties of the
'^Ruling Elder?"

San Francisco, Cal. J. P- B.

32. Fire Engines in Boston, 1740.— In May, 1740,
many of the inhabitants of Boston signed a petition for a fire
engine "to be placed at the Westerly part of Boston." Was
one purchased at that time? When was the first fire engine
introduced in New England? Wm. P. Pratt-

33. Prizes for Digging Graves. — On the records of
Boston I find the following motion recorded: — "March 13,
1731. On a motion of several sextons — Voted; That James
Williams be directed to apply himself to the Selectmen, and
they be desired to state to him the prizen for digging graves
and opening tombs in the two south burying places." What
was meant by the word prizes? Was the digging of gi-aves
regnlated by law? Where ean such a regulation, or law, be
found? " Wm. P. Pratt.

•84. Reynolds. — 1 would like information concerning 1st,
Nathani(!l, son of Peter and Maiy (Giles) Reynolds, baptized
in Bristol, R. I., October 27th, 1717. There was m intention


of iiiaiTiagc Ijctwcuii him and Maiy Little recorded iu Bristol
June 13tli, 1741. In the town records there is notice of the
death of Nathaniel Reynolds at Jamaica, Septemher, 1747.
Is this the same, and did he die childless? 2d. Benjamin,
son of Benjamin and Susannah {Rawsori) Reynolds, born in
Bristol November 15th, 1722. He went to Chiquesto, Nova
Scotia, probably returning to the United States about the
time of the Revolution, lie left children. 3d. Peter, son
of Rev. Peter Reynolds of Enfield, Ct., born May 17th, 1730.
He had two sons, Peter and Samuel. Sanuiel, I think, Ifad
three sons, Manassah, Peter, Moriah. 4th. John, son of
John and Mary {Lickwood') Reynolds, and grandson of Rev.
Peter Reynolds, born December 23, 1769, died in New York
April 11, 1803. Did he leave children? 5th. Charles, son

of Thomas Reynolds of Wrentham, Mass, born ,

1760. 5th. Eleazer, son of Thomas Reynolds of Wrentham,

Mass., born , 1762. I would like to correspond

with descendants of any of the above.

Bristol, R. L J. P. Reynolds.

85. Salisbury. — ( ) William Salisbury, (b. in Swan-
sea, Mass., October 9, 1085), married Bethiah . When

and where did this marriage take place? What was her
maiden name, date and place of birth, date and place of
death, and what is her ancestry? When and where did said
William Salisbury die?

The said William and Bethiah Salisbury had, among
others, a son Oliver (b. in Swansea February 5, 1711-12),
who m. January 9. 1734-5, in Swansea, Elizabeth Haill (d. of
Barnard). Oliver and Elizabeth are thought to have had
about six children, the births of two of which are recorded in
Swansea as follows: — Oliver, b. Sept. 12, 1740; Phebe, b.
Feb. 28, 1743-4. What were the names of the other childi-en
of said Oliver and Elizabeth? When and where were they
born? When, where and whom did they many? When ajid
where did thej die? Did the said Oliver and Elizaheth have
a son William? When and where did the said Oliver


die? (Note — Oliver, Sr., nuiiried 2d i^jalia Buwcn, of
Wanen, R. 1.)
Frovidcnce^ R. I. Edson Salisbury Jones.

86. McLaflin-Fellows-Wells. — I. John Ri.sing, of
Suffield, Conn., married there Sept. 22d, 169U, his second
wife, Mary McLaflin. Who were her parents? 2. Ephniini
Fellows, of Plaiiifiuld and C-aiuiau, ('OUiL, married at Plain-
field Dee. 3d, 1711, Mary . Who were her parents? 3.

Samuel Wells, of New Hartford, Conn., b. 1712, d. 17r>4,
son of Samuel and Rachel (^Cadwell) Wells, of Farminjjjton,
had wife Susanna. Who were her parents? Answers to
any of these queries will be thankfully received.

27 West 2Gth street, New York, N. Y. L. E. Oj'DYCKE.

37. Hopper. — I have been engaged for some time in
tracing the genealogy of the Ho[)per family to which I belong.
Three brothers, John, Roltert and Christo[)her Hopper,
natives of County Durham, England, came to America, and
one or two of them settled at Flushing, Long Island. My
ancestor, John Hopper, appears to have been a resident of
Flushing as early as 1675. About the year 1700 he located
in Woodbury, New Jersey, from which place his descendants
have scattered to various parts of the United States, many
of them now being located in Philadel[)hia and vicinity. It
is said that Robert Hopper, brother of John, settled some-
where in New England. I desire inf(n-mation about any of
tlie above named and their P]nglish antecedents. In the lino
of my maternal ancestry I am investigating the faniilies of
Coffee, Collins and Hudson, all of whom were residents of
New Jersey, I am also investigating my wife's ancestry.
Her paternal ancestry relates to the P'etter family which
came from Germany* and located in Pennsylvania, Her ma-
ternal ancestry has been traced to Tillinghast Collins, who
was a mariner and a native of Cranston, Rhode Island. His
grandfather was an Irishman who emigrated to America in
Colonial times. Tillinghast Collins appears to have removed
to Philadelphia, and on April 27, 1800, married Ann Gould,


whose family lived in the vicinity of Trenton, New Jersey,
and was of Welsh origin. Information is desired concerning
any of the above families.

Harky S. Hopper.
51If Walnut street, Philadelphia, Penn.

38. Messer-Hutchins. — William Messer, a soldier in the
revolntion, resided in Jones Co., North Carolina as late as
1810. What were the names of his parents? When and where
was he born? Date of his deatli and his age wanted.

William Hutchins, boi-n in Haverhill, Mass., married Abi-
gail Flood, March 27, 1760, moved to Wear, N. H., before
1768, their children were James, Judith, Sarah, Joseph,
Abigail, Hannah, Ruth and William. He was at the surren-
der of Crown Point and Ticonderoga, was Lieut, in the 1st
N. H. Regt. of the revolution, who were his parents? What
was his age, date of his birth and death?

Correspondence with those interested in Messer Genealogy

Box 155, Onarga, 111. Moses H. Messer.

89. Snow.-I would appreciate any information as to birth
place, and date of l)irth and death of Daniel Snow, who lived
at Rutland, Mass., until about 1790. He died in Marlboro,
Vt., about 1812.

Speiieer, Iowa. S. S. Snow.

40. Lamb. — Steven Scott and Sarah Lamb, were married
6th mo., 27, 1664, by Mr. Bellingham. — Braintree Mass., rec-
ords. Wlio were the parents of this Sarah? Thomas Lamb, by
wife Hannah, had several children recorded at Glastonbury,
Conn., 1765-1774. Who were the parents of Thomas? A
Joseph Lamb, of Glastonbury, Conn., married Oct. 25, 1764,
Rhoda Tryon, and had several children, was he a brother of
Thomas above mentioned? Jehial l^amb, from Sharon,
Conn., settled at Westerly. N. Y., about 1793. He was born
Feb. 8, 1756, married Huldah Fairchild, of Danbury, Conn
Had brothers Alexander, John, David and Sylvenus, and


sisters Elizal)ct]i aiul Hannah. What was tlie parents names?
Weatfield, N. Y. FuANK B. Lamij.

41. Waite. — I would like to obtain some information in
regard to Thomas Waite, who, tradition says, landed in
Massaehnsetts in 1634. I find hut little relating to him
until July 1, 1639, when he was in Portsmouth, R. I. Wlio
can give me an account of him previous to 1689?

Springtvater, K Y. D. Byron Waite.

42. Ellery-Keith. — On the records of Hartford, Conn., I
find the following marriage: "1760, November 26, William
EUery and Susannah Keith." Who were the parents of
Susannah Keith? Did they leave issue, and if so where can
tlieir direct descendants be found?

Manchester, N. H. J. F. H.

43. — What is known of Godfrey Malbone's
family? Considering his prominence tliere seems to be little
upon the Newport, R. I.,town records about his descendants.
Who were they? Where did he originate? Inquirer.


2. Chester. — Leonard Chester, accordingto an old Ches-
ter chart, married "Mrs. Mary Ward, daughter of Nicli.
Sharp, Esq., first came from England with family ob. at 86."

E. H. W. Jr.

11. The Oldest Baptist Church In R. I. — This
vexed question is one that has been a source of much trouble
among the Baptists of Rhode Island for many years. We
expected to give our readers an abstract from the Records
of the First Bai)tist (church of Newport, relating to this
matter, but we are unable to do so at this time. There is,
however, positively nothing on record in Newport to show
that a Bai)tist Cluirch existed on the Island of Rhode Island
before 1640. Mr. Sidney Rider, of Providence, publisher of
the Book Notes, in a review of our magazine for April, takes


up lliis (luostion, and makes the following comments, which
wo fully endorse. The question is still open and we ho])e
to hear from others who have made the history of this church
a study, [Ed.

From Book Notes, June 6, 1891.

"Amono- tlie cjneries in the cnrrent nnmher of this maga-
zine is one from Texas asking, "which is the oldest chnrch,

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