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the tree. But such was the inten^iity of public feeling, he
declared he dared not do so. It was creating a local revolu-
tion, and was removed by stratagem. The tree became fa-
mous about 1760, and was named the Liberty Tree about this
time. On Feb. 14, 1766, it was pruned by the order of the
Sons of Liberty.

The ground about the tree had become sacred soil, and was
designated as Liberty Hall, and really became the original


stamping ground of the Revolution, in defiance of the "Stamp
Act." In 1767 a flagstaff was erected, which Avent up
tlirougli tlie branches, upon whicli was hoisted a flag as a
signal for the assembling of the Sons of Liberty. In August,
1775, the Tories, encouraged by their British allies, and led
on by one Job Williams, armed with axes, made a furious at-
tack upon the Liberty Tree, and it was ruthlessly cut down.
This vandal act caused great excitement. At the close of
the Revolution a liberty pole was erected on the stump of
the old ti-ee, which long served as a point of direetion. This
pole having served during the second war with Great Britain,
and having gone into decay, another one was erected about
the time of the arrival of General La Fayette as the guest of
the nation in 1824.

In 1823-24 Ah-. Ralph Haskins erected a four-story brick
hotel precisely upon the same ground occupied by Garrett
Bournes house in 163G. He named it, in honor of the ex-
pected guest, La Fayette Hotel. Major General La Fayette
arrived at the residence of Governor Eustis in Roxbury,
August 22, 1824, as the guest of Massachusetts, at about
two o'clock on Tuesday morning. On the following fore-
noon, seated in the private carriage of Governor Eustis, he
was escorted to the Boston line on the Neck, and formally
presented to His Honor Josiah Quincy and a few of the re-
ception committee, who were there to escort him as the guest
of the city. The city authorities had not been idle in the
matter of the an-ival of La Fayette. The City Council,
under the active leadership of the mayor, (the elder) Josiah
Quincy, made generous and appropriate arrangements, result-
ing in a perfect ovation by the whole populace.

Business was suspended, every possible preparation was
made for his reception that hospitality, gratitude ftnd patri-
otism could suggest. The citizens were respectfully invited
by the committee of arrangements to co-operate with them.
The grand result was that the whole city was in gay attire,
the French and American flags were entwined in various
places, every yard of ribbon and bunting in the city was used


in decorating. That not proving snfficient, a very large
amount of red and blue and bleached cotton was used. A
very large procession was formed on Boston Neck, under the
direction of Colonel Samuel D. Harris, who had more than
fifty aids and assistant marshals to carry out his wishes.
General La Fayette, seated in a barouche, accompanied by
the mayor and drawn by four white horses, was now in po-
sition. A signal gun was fired for the procession to be put in
motion, agreeably to the order of arrangements. Instantly
every public bell in Boston rang out peals of welcome. The
Sea Fensibles, stationed on South Boston Heights, and the
Columbian Artillery, stationed on Copp's Hill, fired salutes.
Tlie peals of welcome continued while the procession moved.
A civic arch was erected across Washington street, where
Dover street now exists, from the centre of which was sus-
pended a scroll bearing the inscription, "Welcome, La Fay-

In front of the La Fayette Hotel on Washington street,'
now Brigham's Hotel, was erected a civic arch twenty-five
feet high, designating where stood the Liberty Tree. The
arch proper was decorated with French and American flags
entwined. The pillars were elegantly decorated with flow-
ers, elm garlands, evergreens, oak leaves, and red, white and
blue bunting.

From the centre was suspended a large scroll, 1)earing in
large capitals in gold, "Washiiigton and La Fayette. A Re-
public Not Ungrateful."

Upon tablets at either side, in golden letters, was the fol-
lowing :

( West side.^

' The fathers in glory shall sleep,

That gathered with thee in the fight,
But the sons will eternally keep
The tablet of gratitude bright;
We bow not the neck and we bend not the knee.
But our hearts, La Fayette, we surrender to thee.


(^East side.}
Of high renown, here grevr the tree
Of elm, so dear to liberty;
Your sires, beneath its sacred shade,
To Freedom early homage paid.
This day with filial awe surronnd
Its root that sanctifies the ground,
And by your fathers' spirits swear
The rights they left you'll not impair.
The densest crowd ever seen in Boston surronnded the
arch As the General approached, three times three ronsmg
chee'rs were given. The ovation was snch that the proce^^^
sion came to a halt. La Fayette was much -ff^^ted well
knowing that he was upon the "stamping ground of the
Revolution, and in front of the stump of the Liberty Tree
A most pleasing incident occurred here during the ^^op of
the Geneial's carriage. A beautiful young girl, wi^r a .Ik
sash of red, white and blue draped across her shouldei ,
emero-ed from the door of the Lafayette Hotel, bearing a sil-
Tsrivor, on which were two goblets and a bottle of the red
claret wine of France, of which she invited the general to
partake. This he did with characteristic courtesy, ami it^ .
i notable fact that the first refreshment of which ^-^-y^
partook in the new city of Boston was funushed him fiom
the hotel bearing his name, now Brigham s Hotel. ^

After this incident another and remarkable one took place
As La Fayette rode up Tremont street, receiving on all hands
the homage and congratulations of the immense throngs tha
greeted him, he perceived, seated on a balcony of a house
then called -Colonnade Row," Mme. Scott, the sometime wife
!r;;ie sturdy old Governor John Hancock. She had been
his hostess in the old Hancock mansion on Beacon .t eet as
far back as the year 1781, and now after a lapse of f or , -
three years, was instantly recognized by the general. W th
the inborn courtesy of a Frenchman, I- ^Xvette directed .
conveyance to stop in front of the house, and rising, Avitlh
hand placed over his heart, made a graceful ol>e-nce w^^^^^^^
was gracefully returned. The lady m her maiden life was


that Dorothy Quincy wliose name and fame have been per-
petuated by Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes in his charming lit-
tle poem, "Dorotliy Q."

The procession had now come to Boylston street, and was
ordered to halt. The pnpils of the public schools, under the
direction of their teachers, had been arranged in a double
line on the Tremont-street mall, and were protected by peace
officers. The children had been instructed during the pAst
month to sing the national hymn of France, "The Marseil-
laise." They were all provided Avith bouquets of bright
flowers; the girls were all dressed in white, wearing red
sash ribbons and blue ribbons on their summer hats ; the
boys were also attired in red, white and blue, white pants,
blue jackets, and a red ribbon on their hats. The moment
La Fayette entered the mall, the children struck up, in good
voice and time, that glorious anthem, ''Marseillaise." The
effect was electrical.

The third incident of the day now took place, and, as was
each of the others, entirely unexpected by the committee.
A young girl threw her bouquet in front of La Fayette.
Her patriotic act was instantly taken up and every child all
along the line threw bouquets upon the mall, and La Fayette
literally passed over a bed of natural flowers, strewn at his
feet, and in his honor. It was the most affecting incident of
the day.

A battalion of li^ht infantry was formed on Park-street
mall, and passed in review by the general. As he entered
the State House grounds a salute was fired by artillery posted
on the high ground south of the Frog Pond. He paid a
short visit of courtesy to the governor and council, after
which he was escorted to his lodgings in the stately old-time
residence of Thomas Amory, Esq., now standing at the cor-
ner of Park and Beacon streets. Shortly after reaching his
lodgings, he appeared on the balcony, having on either side
of him, Governor Eustis and ex-Governor John Brooks, both
of whom wore their old Continental uniforms. The Boston
regiments of militia which had acted as escorts, passed in re-


view, and the ceremonies of the day were brought to a close.
Mr. Frederick F. Hassam, the antiquarian, has lately pre-
pared a pamphlet to be given away to public schools and li-
braries, and the rest of the edition to such persons as may
send him their addresses. The pamphlet contains the patri-
otic story considerably *more in detail than as given above.
Mr. Hassam, who for many years was a well-known cutler on
Washington street, is now a resident of Hyde Park. — Boston

John Josselyn, an Englishman, came to this country in
16j3, and afterwards wrote a book wliich Avas entitled "New
England's Rarities Discovered : in Birds, Beasts, Fishes,
iSerpents, and Plants of that country. Together with The
Physical and Chirnrgical Remedies wherewith the liatives
constantly use to cure their Distempers, Wounds and Sores."
It was published in London in the year 167 2, and contains a
large number of remedies to be found in the fauna a,nd Jlora
of the country.

The name ''Massachusetts'' first appeared in print in Capt.
Smith's "Description of New England" in 1616. In his nar-
rative he omits the final S when he means the place, but uses
it when he refers to the inhabitants. The best authorities on
the subject say that the name means "a hill in the form of an
arrow's head."

There has been some doubt as to whether John Dawson of
Virginia and John Gardner of Rhode Island, ever attended
any session of the Continental Congress. An investigation
of the journal of Congress shows that Dawson attended on
Monday, December 8, 1788, and Gardner on Thursday, Feb-
ruary 15, 1788.

The first mill for giinding corn, in New London, was
erected in 1651.



Ancestry of General U. S. Grant.

t ATTHEVV GRANTi was bora in England, October
27th, 1601. He came in the ship Maiy and John,
with his family, in 1630, to Dorchester, Mass., and
thence, in 1635, among the first settlers to Wind-
sor, Conn., where he spent the remainder of his life, dying

December 16th, 1681. His wife, Priscilla , was born

in England, February 27th, 1601, and became the wife of
Matthew Grant, November 16th, 1625. She died at Wind-
sor, Conn., April 27th, 1644.

Their son Samuel Grant,^ born at Dorchester, Mass., No-
vember r2th, 1631, settled in Windsor, Conn., and married
Mary Porter, who was born in England in 1638, and became
the wife of Samuel Grant at Windsor, May 27th, 1658.
Samuel Grant departed this life September 10th, 1718.

Their son Samuel Grant,^ Jr., was born in Windsor, Conn.,
April 20, 1659, and married first, Anna Filley, Dec. 6th, 1683,
who died at East Windsor, Conn., May 8th, 1710. His sec-
ond wife, Miss Grace Miner, was the daughter of John and
Elizabeth (Booth) Miner, and granddaughter of Thomas and
Grace (Palmer) Miner, to whom lie was married April 11th,

Their son Noah Grant* was born at Windsor, Conn., De-
cember 16th, 1693, and married Martha Huntington, daugli-
ter of John and Abigail (Lathrop) Huntington, June 12th,
1717. They became early planters of Tolland, Conn., where
he died Oct. 16th, 1727.

Their son Noah Grant^, Jr., was born at Tolland, Conn.,
July 12th, 1718. He enlisted in the early part of 1755, and
pi November of that year was engaged with Israel Putnam


in rebuildino; and strengthening Fort Lyman, afterwards
called Fort Edward. He was a Lieutenant in the scouting
party with Rodgers and Putnam from the camp at Lake
George, from October •29th to November 3d, 1755. He com-
manded the garrison at Fort Edward from November 23d,

1755, to March 26th, 1756, and was then discharged, and re-
enlisted the same day, and was appointed Captain of tlie 7th
Company in the then Second Connecticut Regiment. . He
was one of a scouting party of about sixty men, who went
out from Fort William Henry about the eleventh of August,

1756, under Lieut. Kennedy of the Regulars, who reduced
the party to eight, sending the rest of them back to the Fort.
Lieut. Kennedy returned September 20th, 1756, but Captain
Grant has never been heard of since he parted with him
"many days" before. Noah Grant, Jr., married Susanna
Delano, at Tolland, Conn., Nov. 5tli, 1746.

Their son Noah Grant,*^ Jr., was born at Tolland, June 20th,
1748, and married the widow Anna (Buel) Richardson in
1775, who died at Coventry, Conn., in 1789. For his second
wife he married the widow Rachael Kelly, at Greensburgh,
West Moreland County, Penn., to which place he had moved
March 4th, 1792.

Their son Jesse Root Grant," was born tliere in January,
1794, and married Hannah Simpson, June 24tli, 1821.

And their son Gen. U. S. Grant^ was born at Point Pleas-
ant, Ohio, April 27th, 1822, and was married to Miss Julia
B. Dent, at St. Louis, August 22d, 1848, and died at Mount
McGregor, New York, July 2od, 18ii5.— Richard A. Wheder
m Narragansttt Weekly.

As early as 1715 the people of Nantucket were pursuing
the whales upon the ocean in small sloops and schooners,
making voyages of a few weeks' duration and bringing tlie
blubber home and trying out the oil on shore.

The first church in Cambridge, Mass., and Harvard Col-
lege, both date from 1686.


Graffort's Fort and Queen's Chapel,


tHE following is an exact copy of a document in the
county registry at Exeter, N. H., showing the true site
/ of Graffort's Fort, at Portsmouth, N. H.:
^T To all people to whom tliese psents shal come John
Penhallow of Portsmo In N-Hampse In N-Engld Esqr Send-
eth Greeting know ye yt ye sd Jno Penhallow as Executr to
ye Last Will & testament of his Honed father Sandl^ Pen-
hallow Esqr Deed for ye paymt of ye debts and Legacies of
ye Deed & in Consideration of ye sum of Seventy Ponnds
Curtt money of N-Engld to him In hand before ye Ensealing
& Delivery hereof wel and truly pd Thirty pounds thereof
by Henry Hope of Boston In N-Engld merchtt as a Gift and
Benefaction towards ye Purchase of a lott of land as hereaf-
ter Boundd for ye Building of a Church or Chaple thereon
ye other part being forty Pounds pd by ye Honble Henry
Sherbun Esqr Bening Wentworth Theodore Atkinson Joseph
Peirce & Isaac Sumners all of Portsmo aforesd as a Comitte
Chosen by ye Society or Benefactors and Subscribers for ye
Building sd Church or Chaple Rectt of wch sd Sums ye sd
Jne Penhallow doth hereby Acknowledge & himselfe thereof
& therewith fully Satisfied & Contentd hath Given Grantd
Bargaind Sold Aliend Enfeoffd Conveyd & Confirmd & by
these psents doth fully freely & Absolutely Give Grant Bar-
gain Sell Alien Enfeoff Convey and ('onfirm unto ye Comitte
aforesd & their Successors forever all yt lot or peice of land
Scituate Lying & being In Portsmo aforesd at a place Calld
& known by ye name of Graffords Hill where ye ffort calld
Graffords ffort formerly stood being Buttd & Boundd as fol-


loweth Beginning at ye Corner where Bow Street & Toomb
street meets fronting on ye East Side of Tooml) street one
hundred foot and then Easterly by a lot of land of Margaret
ffoys, formerly Margt Vaughan Eighty foot then northerly by
a tryangular peice of land of ye sd Margt ffoys ninety two
foot to Bow street & so as yt ye sd Church lot may be ninety
five foot front or Rear on ye sd Bow Street To haue & TO
HOLD ye aforesd Lot or peice of land Boundd as aforesd unto
ye Comitte aforesd & their Successors & after unto ye War-
dens of ye sd Church or Cliaple & their successors forever
to and for ye use and uses Benefit and Behoof of ye sd
Church or Chaple their building and to be Built from hence-
forth and forever & to & for no other use & uses Intents or
purposes wtsoever ; & ye sd Jno Penhallow for himself e his
heirs Execs & Admrs doth hereby Covenant promise & grant
and agree to & with ye aforesd Comitte & their successors
(& ye) Wardens yt may succeed & their successors In maner
& forme following yt is to say yt at ye time of ye Ensealing
hereof by virtue of his sd father's Will & for ye paymt of
his Debts & Lesracies as aforesd he hath In himselfe full
Power good Right & Lawfull Authority to sell & Dispose of
ye pmises in manner and forme aforesd & farther yt ye sd
Jno Penhallow doth hereby Covent Promise Bind & Oblige
himselfe his heirs Exers & Admrs from henceforth & forever
hereafter to Warrant & Defend allye above Granted & Bar-
gaind pmises & ye Appurtens thereof unto ye sd Comitte
& their successors ye Wardens and their Successors against
ye Lawfull Claims and Demands of all & Every pson &
psons whomsoever. In witness wrof ye said Jno Penhallow
hath hereunto sett his hand and Seal this 29th day of June
Ano Dom : one thousd seven hundred and thirty two 1732.

John Penhallow [Seal]

Signd seald & dd in Presence of

John Eyre

Mark : H : Wentworth


Prove of N-Hampslie Portsmo Augt: 11th 1732 then
John Peiihallow Esqr Acknowleclgd ye foregoing In-
strument as his Act & Deed.

Cor : Josh : Peircb

Just Pacs
Recordd According to ye Origll Augt ye 12th 1732.

The foregoing document proves conclusively that Graf-
fort's Fort, supposed by some to have stood on Market Square
near the North church, really stood on the spot now occupied
by St. John's Episcopal church. The church or "chappie,"
mentioned in this document, was, of course, Queen's Chapel,
erected in 1732 and destroyed by fire Dec. 24, 1806.

Graffort's Hill and Fort derived their name from Thomas
Graffort, for a time member of the Provincial Council of New
Hampshire. He was the second husband of Bridget, daugh-
ter of Richard Cutt, and niece of President John Cutt.

Bridget Cutt's first husband was Thomas Daniel, from
whom Daniel street derived its present name. This street
was previously called Graffort's Lane. Capt. Thomas Dan-
iel was in the Pascataqua region as early as 1652. He was
appointed one of the magistrates for Dover and Portsmouth,
Auo-ust 9, 1676, and ordered with Mr. Marten of Portsmouth
to impress such vessels as were needful to go to Black Point
and Winter Harbor against the enemy. (N. H. Provincial
Papers, I. : 346.) He was appointed member of the Council
in 16b0, and again in 1682. His death occurred Nov. 18,
1682, in a time of general sickness and mortality. The loss
of a man of so much importance was so greatly deplored
that the Rev. Mr. Moody preached his funeral sermon from
H. Samuel, 2:30 — "There lacked of David's servants nine-
.teen men and AsaheL"" — {Ibid, 1:374.)

Bridget Daniel is spoken of as the executrix of Thomas
Daniel's estate, May 12th, 1684. She married Thomas Graf-
fort, Dec. 11, of the same year, but August 6, 1697, became
once more a widow.

It was the year of Thomas Graffort's death that his fort


was made a prison. The slieviif having complained that the
want of a prison in the province rendered him incapable of
performing his office, it was ordered by the general assembly
June 9, 1697, "that he forthwith take up ye Fort on Mr. Tho.
Grafford's hill at Portsmouth for that use, and see it fitted
accordingly, ye cliarge thereof to be paid out of the treasury,
and the owner to be allowed reasonable rent for the same."
Forty shillings per annum were allowed. — {IbuJ, 3:49.)

Tlie General Assembly voted Nov. 9, 1699, "that a strong
logg house be built in the Province for a Prison, of thirty
foot long, fourteen wide, one story of seven foot high, two
brick chimneys in the mid.s, five foot each, to be done
forthwith, strong and substantial, the Treasurer, the Over-
seer, and tlie charge to be paid out of the next Province as-
sessment : to h& sett in Portsmouth in or near the Great
Fovtr— Ibid, 3:88.)

Sheriff Gambling complaining twenty-five years later that
the jail was not sufficient, it was voted by the General As-
sembly May 30, 1724, "that the old prison in Portsmoutli be
sold for the benefit of tlie Province to the best advantage." —
Qlbid, 4:137.) This was accordingly done by John Gilman
and Theodore Atkinson, the committee appointed for that
purpose. — Mart/ P. Thompson in Poitsmouth, N. H., Jouryial.

The first meeting house in the North Parish of New Lon-
London, Conn., was erected in 1722, on land given to the
parish by John Merritt and Mrs. Mercy Raymond. It was
35x45 feet, twenty feet high, and cost one hundred and forty
pounds. When first erected, the only finish was an outside
covering and floors- The pews were built by individuals,
and held as their property, transferable by a written agree-
ment. This house remained in use until 1772, when it was
abandoned, and a new house built on a new site.

The office of sergeant-at-arms of the Legislature of Mass.,
was established by law in 1835. Previous to that time, Jacob
Kuhn was messenger to the General Court from 1786.


The Parentage of Roger Williams.

^. ± ITTLE is known of the origfin and early life of the
Jl I founder of the State of Rhode Island. He was, ac-
Tljjli cording to a current tradition, botfi in. Wales. We
''^f have, however, no record or verified statement to this
effect. This tradition or conjecture was endorsed, if it was
not first put forth, by Rev. Morgan Edwards, a Baptist
preacher, who was born in Wales in 1722 ; emigrated to this
country in 17j1, and died in 1795. The tradition was the
more readily accepted, from the fact that Williams was a
common family name in Wales, and several Welshmen,
named Roger Williams, acted prominent parts in connection
with the stirring scenes and events of the 16th centiir}^, nota-
bly Sir Roger Williams, whose military career is set forth in
Motley's "United Netherlands." About twenty years ago
this distinguished historian stated to the writer that he had
failed to trace any relation between the family of this dough-
ty Welshman and that of Roger Williams of Providence, and
had no reason to believe that any such relation existed.

For a long period the tradition of the Welsh origin of
Roger Williams remained without an}'- manifest effort to re-
fute it or to verify it by means of authentic records. The
tradition came thus to be well established and to be repeated
as a verified statement. The fact is readily recalled that,
when the Roger Williams Monument Association was formed
in Providence, in 1860, several Welshmen residing in other
sections of the country actively participated in the move-
ment, with the expressed object of seeing a fellow country-
man duly honored. Since that time Welshmen and men of
Welsh extraction, impelled by a like generous motive, have


erected and dedicated in the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., a mon-
ument in honor of Roger Williams, the founder of the State
of Rhode Island, whom they understood to be their fellow-
countryman.* In the library of the Rhode Island Historical
Society is a picture 22x28 inches, containing 76 portraits,
each duly labeled, and all the persons represented presumed
(from the context) to be Welshmen. The picture was litho-
graphed in Philadelphia in 1883 (not far from the time when
the plan for the monument referred to above was drawn).
The picture was presented to the Society in 1885, by Mr.
Daniel L. Jones of Brooklyn, N. Y. The central portrait,
resembling one of Franklin, is labeled Roger Williams (the
name being the latter's fac-simlie autograph). The whole
picture represents, as explained by its donor, the champion
of religious liberty greeted by a goodly concourse of generous

But this demonstration of patriotic sentiment has not pre-
vented some research and investigation, with a view to ob-
tainincr a better knowledge of the man whose title to honor
does not depend upon birthplace or family. A discrimina-
ting and well-to-do Welshman, who has lately paid the debt

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