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Grain-mills and flour in classical antiquity online

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changes in temperature. The question is easily answered. The air
is so rarefied and free from moisture, the cold is very little felt. The
change of temperature during the hours of darkness is of very little
consequence ; it is the conditions during daylight hours that should
influence you in the choice of locality.

Duriuff the winter, and indeed throughout the year, there is more
or less mobility of atmosphere, an absolutely still air being excep-
tional. We are, as it were, upon a seashore, the plains being the
ocean, and the mountains the shore, with a land and sea breeze.
Prom September till the latter part of April there is no rain,
and the total amount of snow that falls during the whole winter is so
slight that there are very few days upon which it is seen at all. April
and May are the least desirable months.

Nearly every day during the summer there is a shower, lasting
about half an hour. The mornings and evenings are cool, fresh and
beautiful.

Prom 10 a. m. to 4 p. m. the heat, though always scorching under
the direct rays of the sun, is not exhausting, and no one need ever
fear being uncomfortable in the shade. The nights are always cool
enough to make a heavy blanket necessary. It is almost impossible
for those who have never spent a few weeks at an altitude similar to
this to realize how both great heat and cold are so little felt, and
how the great contrast between sunshine and shadow is experienced
without danger, and what esJiilaration and health are found by a
life in this bright, sparkling air.

When the question arises, where shall the invalid go ? various
considerations are to be taken into account. The different tempera-
ments of invalids and the degree to which the disease has progressed
are more important than the character of the illness.

A residence of eight years in Colorado has given me ample op-
portunity to study the physiological effects of the climate on invalids,
and we will now discuss some of the benefits to be derived from a
residence in Colorado. On the skin, the effects are very markedly
shown. Its activity is increased ; it is better nourished and strength-
ened. As the skin is an important a^entin regulating the conditions
of life, it is quite essential to keep it in workmg order, for through
the pores, to a certain extent, the used up carbonaceous and nitro-



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Climate of Colorado. 207

fjenous elements are thrown off. If the pores become clogged the
ungs have to do more work in eliminating the waste material of the
body, and disease is the result. I would confidently recommend
invalids, if strong enough, to use a sponge bath, at a temperature of
from sixty-two to sixty-eight degrees every morning. Circulaiion —
the heart and blood vessels are strengthened. The frequency of the
pulse is increased upon first arriving in Colorado, but soon returns to
its customary number of beats. If the heart is muscularly weak,
great improvement in tone, strength and steadiness is observed. If
the valves are permanently injured or there is fatty degeneration, or
much dilatation, this climate is not suitable. A permanent increase of
appetite and assimilation of food occurs in most cases. As the
nourishment and strength of the body, as well as the power of resist-
ing the inroad of disease, depend upon the food digested, it will be
seen what importance should be attached to this fact. Insomnia is
less frequent and a far less serious trouble here than in the east. In
all cases dependent upon over- work, hypersemia, or reflex troubles,
this climate has, in my experience, proved to be of the utmost benefit.
In only one instance have I advised a change to a lower altitude on
account of insomnia. It is the universal opinion of physicians in
Colorado that for the majority of persons, and especially for con-
sumptive invalids, sleep is more easily obtained and more refreshing
in Colorado than in the eastern States. There is a class of invalids
who should never be sent to Colorado. I refer to those of an irrita-
ble, nervous or hysterical temperament, in whom there is a tendency
to vascular excitement from slight causes. Colorado is only good for
a nervous system needing a stimulus, and bad for one that does not.
Ansemia and chlorosis are usually benefited by a few weeks resi-
dence at this altitude. Scrofula is seldom seen except in the children
of consumptive parents. It is said that children born in Colorado
never die from consumption. If we exclude the issue of consump-
tive parents, I believe this to be true. Cholera infantum is almost
unknown here ; in fact I have seen but two cases in the past eight
years, both mild in character and easily treated. It is undoubtedly
the open-air life led by the children, and the bracing effect of the
atmosphere, together with cool nights, even in midsummer, insuring
refreshing sleep, that prevent the development of the disease. I
have seen but one case of tubercular meningitis. Children whose
parents have died or are suffering from consumption form so large a
portion of the youthful population of Colorado Springs, I am sur-
prised that this disease is not more frequent than it is. Results of
malarial poisoning are rapidlr removed ; the country is too high and
dry for malarial diseases to nourish.

Chronic rheumatism is relieved, as I can speak from actual
experience, having been a great sufferer for ten years before going to
Colorado. Asthma, where purely nervous, is almost invariable
relieved, and many cases are permanently cured. Chronic pleurisy
and its results, empyemia, etc., are decidedly benefited, for, as might
be expected, the tendency of the climate is to cause the absorption
of pus and unorganized lymph. Chronic pneumonia under certain
conditions may be benefited.



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\



208 TJie Clinical Reporter.

Phthisis — I wish to call your attendon at this time to the fact
that the climate of Colorado presents more favorable conditions for
the relief of consumptives than any other ^lace on the face of the
globe. If a person is suffering from the incipient signs of phtMsis it
does not follow that he must die from it ; on the contrary, he may
hope to successfully combat it, and ultimately come off conqueror, as
thousands have done in Colorado. One- third of the population in
Colorado Springs are reconstructed invalids. In a disease like con-
sumption, which usually begins insidiously, and whose lesions almost
always consist of numerous small, scattered processes ; in a disease,
moreover, in which our hope of success lies in early treatment, it is,
of course, exceedingly important that the first signs, however incon-
siderable, should receive attention.

Dr. S. E. Solly has written upon this disease in connection with
elevated resorts, as follows :

" General Conditions. — These must be such as to insure, in
the first place, sufficient margin of healthy lung tissue to bear the
increased work that the rarefied air throws upon the respiratory act,
and this should not be determined merely by the extent of the dam-
aged tissue, but also by the quality of the breathing carried on by
the sound portions. For instance, cases in which both lungs
are affected, or where there are large cavities, will often derive bene-
fit if the remainder of the lung tissue acts with freedom and vigor.
Great care must also be exercised on first arriving, and here comes in
the important point of the condition of the heart.

Circulation. The heart ought to be examined and its history
inquired into in all cases of phthisis seeking change to elevations.
This especially applies to persons in whom the amount of sound lung
is limited, for the demand for faster and stronger pumping by the
heart is greatest upon them, and where there is much deficiency in
muscular power, imperfection of the valves, or dilatation of the cavi-
ties, there is great risk of the heart's action continuing to increase in
rapidity and lose in force till it comes to a standstill, instead of, as
when it has sufficient integrity, gradually losing the frequency which
the elevation at first induces and gaining in force, so that at the end
of a few weeks the heart beats are at the usual rate, but of more
than usual strength."

Hemorrhages. — The fact has been well established by experi-
ence and observation that elevation prevents hemorrhage. Lootdng
back over a period of eight years, the writer can recall many cases
having had hemorrhage before coming here that never suffered with
them while here. Dr. Solly writes "that where the disease is much
advanced it goes without saying that no honest physician would rec-
ommend a change of climate, and especially so great a change as to
an elevation of several thousand feet." But cases do often come at
this stage and have their condition much improved, their sufferings
mitigated, their lives prolonged.

The writer recalls four cases that came to Colorado six years
ago, the only apparent hope being to prolong life for a few months.
Since then two have married and borne children, and two are in the
active pursuits of business and enjoying fair health. While this



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Climate of Colorcbdo. 209

does not prove that consumption can be cured when the disease is
far advanced, you must admit that so far no other agent has been
discovered that will produce such good results as the climate of Col-
onido. At high altitudes, nature is applying her remedy unceas-
ingly. The importance of this fact cannot be overestimated. The
great object to be accomplished under all circumstances is to
strengthen and invigorate. This, we claim, the climate of Colorado
will do.

DISCUSSION.

Dr. Moses T. Runnels — I have been to Colorado and I know
that the points made by Dr. Lawrence will all hold good. Last June,
I found it necessary to go to Colorado with my own child, six months
old. I took the child when I thought it would not live two hours.
When I had gone 100 miles I saw an improvement. I took the Santa
Pe R. R. Many of these children can be saved by going to a higher
altitude. I went 5 miles beyond Colorado Springs. The child is living
to-day and I do not know any place so well £^apted to diseases of
children, especially troubles of the bowels, as that place. Colorado
surpasses any other climate for consumption.

Dr. Jenney — I have had considerable experience in sending pa-
tients there and found, as a rule, that patients were much benefited.
I also found that patients aflfected with pulmonary diseases were
troubled much with hemorrhage, which they did not have in this cli-
mate. For Asthma, I think we have as good a climate here as they
have in Colorado. Some patients will be benefited here for a num-
ber of years and finally be benefited in Colorado. It seems the cli-
mate here wears out. In regard to hemorrhage, I find they have been
sui)erinduced. For diseases of infants, I think it is a good climate.
I had a child here with cholera infantum. One night it was pulse-
less. I expected it to die. I hurriedly bought tickets for Colorado.
When I reached home, however, the child was somewhat improved,
so that I did not go at all.

Dr. H. W. Westover — Is the climate of Colorado beneficial in
cases of rheumatism ?

Dr. Geo. W. Lawrence — That has been the opinion of physi-
cians, especially in chronic cases.

Dr. H. W. Westover — I was under the impression that Rheu-
matism was quite prevalent there.

Dr. Geo. W. Lawrence — I have had one case of rheumatism
since my practice in Colorado. Hemorrhages are usually brought on
from over-exercise.

Dr. a. C. Williamson — My observation goes as far back as
1863. We traveled West in wagons. We were all much benefited.
We got the remedy gradually. I think that if anybody with any
degree of hope will start out with a mule team to-day he will get
well. People at the present time go too fast.

Dr. Geo. W. Lawrence — This is the cause that they stop at
Pueblo. I have had cases that to day can climb the biggest peak.
Among them are dozens of active men weighing from 180 to 200 lbs.



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210 The Clinical Reporter.

Dr. Jas. a. Campbell — I bear testimony to the climate of Colo-
rado. My first baby was very much benefited there. I am thor
oughly convinced that a nervous disease with tendencies to the cere-
brum is not benefited by Colorado climate. I could not sleep ; went
away from Colorado disappointed. Simply from overwork, my brain
was in a hy perse mic condition. The next year, I went to the seashore
and there is where I want to go.

Dr. W. B. Morgan — I should like to hear from Dr. Sutfin, who
has had some experience with the Colorado climate.

Dr. Sutfin — ^I shall give you my experience in a short way. I
was given up by the old school physicians for lung trouble. I could
not walk half a block. I am sorry to say that I must differ with the
Dr. a little. K troubled with hemorrhage, it is better to keep away
from Denver. I was \\ years recovering. By falling into the homoe-
opathic treatment I fooled the undertakers out of their job for 20
years. The allopaths plastered me without any effect. Five drops of
Bryonia took me out of danger so that I could get up and walk. I
was out in Colorado 5 years before I returned. In that time I made
many acquaintances, and the majority of them were not benefited as
they hoped to be. In regard to hemorrhage, I desire to state that my
son took hemorrhage in that climate. I found a climate in New Mex-
ico. When we arrived he could not walk a block without a hemor-
rhage. In six weeks' time he could ride 60 miles a day. Colorado is
beneficial to those to whom it is homoeopathic. To those to whom it
is not, it is injurious. Those who need a dry climate, should go to
that place.

Dr. C. E. Fisher — I would like to deviate a little from the pa-
per. I do not believe that I would be just to my State (Texas) if I
did not speak of its climate. I find that hyper«emic cases do not do
well in Colorado. Two patients were so affected on the train that
berths had to be made for them. I have had a number of cases who
developed hemorrhage and had to leave. I think it stands to reason
that hemorrhage is bound to occur in those cases in whicti tubercle
is present when the heart-beats are much increased In Texas we
have altitudes of 7000 feet. We do not dare to send our patients
there, except by slow stages. The ox train produces a gradual change,
a change eo imperceptible that the heart's action is not accelerated,
and the consequence is there is not so disastrous a result. For ca-
tarrhal troubles, Texas is a perfect cure. The western portion of
Texas is the best place for catarrhal troubles. You cannot sleep out
of doors in Colorado, or without plenty of cover. It is a common
thing in Texas for people to sleep out. Texas has the advantage over
Colorado of having no snow. Emaciated people cannot stand the
cold of an altitude of 6000 feet. While we do not claim the climate
of Texas is a cure-all, it is of great benefit to slow, chronic cases, and
hemorrhagic cases in the main do well. Fourteen years ago I had
bronchial catarrh. Two hemorrhages after I got there. Gained 20
lbs. on the ox train and have not lost any of it. Bowel troubles do
not do well. Colorado is the place for teething children and bowel
troubles. Rheumatic cases do not do well, we are too close to the



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Climate of Oolorado. 211

gulf. Farther west, however, and 200 miles north is particularly
recommended for chronic rheumatic cases.

Dr. Geo. W. Lawrence — I have had patients who spent most
of the summer outside, riding all day with a blanket behind them.
Meat drying in Texas is also one of the great claims for Colorado.
The hunters spend weeks there and bring the meat dry to Colorado
Springs. What can be more beneficial to diseased tissue than this
aseptic air of Colorado ? Thus in cases of softening you can see the
expectoration in a short time lessening week after week. Of course,
I have seen cases that were hurried into the grave, from what cause
I know not— cases which I expected to be benefited when they ar-
rived there. One young man came from Cleveland, Ohio, 4 yrs. ago.
The phvsicians told him that he would not live to reach Colorado. I
found tne young man with an afternoon temperature of 104*^ ; for 3
weeks had a severe chill every day, and a i pt. of purulent expecto-
ration. To-day that young man is apparently as healthy as any man
in this room. Now, if any of you know of a climate that will pro-
duce any better results, in cases like that, I want to know it.

Dr. Nbumbister — I can testify to one case here in Kansas City.
While he was here his expectoration was slightly discolored, but he
was not satisfied. Thought a change of climate was necessary. He
was recommended to go to Colorado by Dr. Griffith. He went there,
had another hemorrhage, and came home in a coffin.

Dr. C. E. Fisher — I do not want to appear antagonistic to the
'Climate of Colorado, but I think We should individualize the cases.
Dr. Docum, of San Antonio, got into Colorado bleeding all over the
western part of the State. I am satisfied that there are cases that do
not do well in Texas. I am satisfied that Colorado, which increases
the heart's action, will increase the hemorrhage.



ORGANON: SEVENTH PARAGRAPH.



MART U. SARGENT, M. D., ST. LOUIS.



§ 7. " la a disease presentinff no manifest exciting or maintaining cause for
removal, nothing is to be discerned but symptoms."

Whenever we can see the cause, it is, of course, our duty
to remove it, if possible, and when the cause is removed
the morbid symptoms disappear and need no medication.
If you get a splinter in your hand, of course you must pull
it out, but it is not always so easy to find or remove a
cause.

Theorists have been busilv searching for thousands of years to
discover some material cause for all diseases, but only in those dis-
eases which are the direct results of excesses, traumatism or drug
poisoning are they able to see and remove a cause.

In the countless cases where such causes are not manifest, noth-
ing can be seen but symptoms. Yet, the blinded adherent of the
old school pays little heed to nature's voice plainly pointing out and




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312 TTie Clinical Reporter.

demanding a remedy. He would hush her cries with some opiate
while he frantically searches for a material canse to remove. He
extracts some blood from his patient's veins. He cuts oflF a piece of
muscle. He brings to bear the lens of his microscope. Lo ! he dis-
covers something ! It moves. It seems to have form. It is a hug.
Now he is happy. He has discovered the cause of disease in that
bug. Yet, if it is a bug, how did it get there, what made it grow and
why are not all persons so afflicted with bugs ?

Why, it is not very long ago that scientific men taught us that
we were made up altogether of bugs — that our blood was red because
it was full of little red bugs. This was the first idea which was
taught my infant mind in our public schools ; and I remember won-
dering why these bugs didn't eat us all up, and whether I must eat
so much more bread and butter than I really needed in order to feed
those bugs.

The bug, if bug there be, must have had a cause for his being.
He is only a result, and not what you were looking for after afi.
To be honest, in your efforts to destroy bacteria, how much have you
gained ? Have you reduced the death rate to any extent ? Some
of you have been earnestly trying for some years to kill those veno-
mous little animals.

One man has gone so far as to announce that he treats all dis-
ease with arsenic and whiskey. Surely he is consistent. Arsenio
ought to be sufficient to poison all the bugs ; while the whiskey
would stimulate the patient, and make him feel happy during the
process.

How is it that some of the greatest and most successful surgeons
have abandoned all germicidal lines of treatment, and use, in their
cases, nothing but warm water and perfect cleanliness ?

The very fact that you are not able to kill these bacteria, or that^
in killing them, you are most liable to kill the patient, proves that
you have not gone deep enough in your search for a cause.

Let us not deceive ourselves, there is something in the cause and
nature of disease which we can not determine any more than we can
determine how it is that the little seed, so insignificant and lifeless
in appearance, under favoring circumstances, bursts and evolves-
itself into a living, growing plant.

We have no power to determine the difference between dead and
living protoplasm except we see its manifestations ; so we discern
nothing of disease except through its manifestations or symptoms.

" These alone (with due regard to the possible existence of some
miasm and to accessory circumstances, § 5) must constitute the
medium through which tne disease demands and points out its cura-
tive agent."

The miasm of the patient and the accessory circumstances (such
as " bodily constitution, character of mind and temperament, occupa-
tion, mode of living and habits, social and domestic relations, a^e,.
sexual function, etc.,") constitute what we may call the peculiarity
or idiosyncrasy of the individual. These modify diseases which are
produced by the same contagious or noxious infiuence and cause
them to differ widely in different individuals. Were it not for thia



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Organon: Seventh Paragraph, 213

important fact, it might be snfficient to divide diseases into classes,
give them names and treat them according to the name. K every
case of malarial fever were exactly like every other case of malarial
fever, we might well say with the old school doctors, "Chills? Um—
nm — Quinine." It would be just as sensible to say "Frenchman?
Give him frogs."

You may chance to hit the mark, and give in the case just what
nature is calling for ; but it is only a guess or a happen so. The
next case may be a failure

How dangerous is this method of trifling with human life, when,
by a closer investigation, by a consideration of all of the expressions
of nature and finding a remedy adapted to this totality, failure in all
curable diseases becomes impossible !

Shall we establish signal services to note the least change in the
direction of the wind, study so diligently the stars and the ocean
currents, devote so much time and intellect to the closest investiga-
tion of nature in her lower manifestations, while we neglect her ex-
pressions in the highest and noblest creation — man ?

Let us not be blind to this " outwardly reflected image of the
inner nature of the disease," as Hahnneman so beautifully expresses
it. Let us not get merely a part of the image, the charcoal sketch,
but the whole, finely shaded picture.

Two cases of gangrenous inflammation may seem very much
alike. There is no difference in the appearance of the parts— there
are the same burning pains in each. Either Arsenicum or Secale
might correspond to the case. But we must individualize. Shall we
give Arsenicum on general principles and then flnd out, when it is
too late, that oar patient had a great aversion to heat and a desire
to be uncovered. Secale would have fitted his case but we were
blind to the finer shadings and the result is failure !



REMEDIES FOR POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE.
IPECACUANHA.



BY JOHN HALL, M. D.




''HE above medicine and the disease for which it is named were
given me by the Hahnemann Club, of Toronto, with the re-
quest that i would write on them an essay. In beginning, I
may remark that, while all Hahnemannians believe in the
totality of symptoms as furnishing the only guide for selec-
tion of the remedy, it is not so well known that it is not
merely the totality that we require, but a totality of characteristic
symptoms^ for it is well understood that not unfrequently there will
be a totality among two or three different remedies, and which then
to choose with confidence is the knowledge which we most want.

As an illustration, and that my meaning may be better under-
stood, let me refer to some, say two, remedies as confirmatory — ^for
example, the CBdema of Kali carb. and of Apis mel., both of which



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214 TTie Clinical Reporter.

are very much alike. We have in each bag-like swellings above and
below eyes, swellings of the face, hands and feet, which, by careful
analysis, will give us differences sufficient, perhaps, on which to pre-
scribe ; but if we possess some characteristic conditions of each
remedy, the minor examination, which takes much time and is often


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Online LibraryL. A MoritzGrain-mills and flour in classical antiquity → online text (page 15 of 18)