L. H. (Liberty Hyde) Bailey.

The nursery-book, a complete guide to the multiplication and pollination of plants online

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may be obtained by allowing the wood to become well
hardened before it is used. Soft cuttings will root in two or
three weeks under good treatment.

In order to secure extra strong plants from single buds,
the eyes may be saddle-grafted or whip-grafted upon a root
two or three inches long. The root grafts are then treated
in the same way as eye cuttings, only that they are usually
grown in pots from the start.

The vine may be grafted with ease by any method. Cleft-
grafting is commonly employed upon old plants. The cions
are inserted on the crown of the plant, three or four inches


below the surface of the ground. The cleft is bound with
string and then covered with earth, no wax being necessary.
Young plants are usually whip-grafted at the crown, either
in-doors or out-doors. Grafting the vine is mostly confined
to Europe, California, and other countries where the Euro-
pean grape (Vitis vinifera) is grown, as that species must be
grafted upon some other stock in order to resist the phyllox-
era. The common wild frost-grape ( yitis riparia) is the most
popular stock. The union in these cases must be two or
three inches above the ground, to prevent the cion from tak-
ing root. The union is wound with waxed muslin, and'<Uhe
earth is heaped about it until it has healed. Grafting may
be done out-doors in winter or spring. In the north, winter
grafts are likely to be heaved by frosts, and late spring grafts,
made as the leaves are pushing, are probably best.

The vine is frequently inarched, and early in spring it can
be budded by ordinary methods.

Seed-grafting is a curious practice, which may be applied
to the grape (see page 90).

Grape Hyacinth. See Muscari.
Graptophyllum, Earlia. Acanthacece.

Seeds. Increased by cuttings of rather firm young shoots
placed in a frame with some heat.

Gratiola, Sophronanthe (Hedge Hyssop). Scrofhularinea.

Seeds. Propagated readily by dividing the roots in spring
Grevillea. Proteacece.

Propagated by seeds, sown under glass iu February ; also
by cuttings of half-ripened wood.

Grewia, Chadara, Mallococca. Tiliacece.

Seeds. Cuttings may be struck in sand under glass, with

Grindelia. Compositoe.

Seeds, sown in the border or under a frame. Divisions

Ground-Cherry. See Physalis.

Ground-Nut. See Apios ; also Peanut.

Groundsel. See Senecio.

Guaiaciun. ZygophylUoe.

Ripened cuttings in spring, under a hand-glass, in heat.


Guava (Pdditmi, several species). Myriacece.

The guavas grow readily from seeds, and plants will' often
bloom when a year and a-hal£ old. They may also be. mul-
tiplied by layers, and by cuttings either under glass or in the

Guelder Rose. See Viburnum.
Guernsey Lily. See Nerine.
Gumbo. See Hibiscus.
Gum, Sweet. See Liquidambar.
Gum-tree. See Eucalyptus.
Gunnera. Halorageoe.

Propagated by division. It is very difficult to raise from
Gustavia, Pirigara. Myrtacece.

Cuttings, made of ripened shoots and handled in a frame
Gymnema. Asclepiadece.

Make cuttings of firm side shoots in spring, and place in a
Gymnocladus (Kentucky Coffee-tree). Legummosce.

Readily increased by seeds, which start better if soaked for
a few hours in hot water. Also by root-cuttings.

Gymnogramme. See Ferns.
Gymnyostachys. Araidece.

Propagation is effected by suckers and divisions.
Gynerium (Pampas Grass). Graminece.

Seeds, under glass in the.north. Also increased bydivid-
ing the tufts.
Gynura. Compositce.

Increased by cuttings and seeds.
Gypsophila. Caryofhyllece.

Propagated by seeds, division or cuttings.
Habranthus. See Zephranthes.
Habrothamnus. See Cestrum.
Hackberry. S'ee Celtis.
Heemanthus (Blood Flower). Amaryllidece.

Bulbels, which should be removea and potted when the
plants are commencing new growth, and be kept in a close
pit or house till established. Seeds aAS rarely used.


Heemodorum (Australian Bloodroot). Hixmodoracece.

Increased by dividing the roots in spring.
Hakea, Conchium. Proteacece.

Well-ripened cuttings, placed in sandy peat under glass, in
a cool house. Seeds, when obtainable, can be used.

Halesia, Pterostyrax (Silver-bell or Snowdrop Tree). Styra-
Seeds, which rarely germinate till the second year. They
should be kept constantly moist. Propagation is also effect-
ed by layers, or by cuttings of the roots in spring and autumn.
Layers are commonly employed in this country.

Hallmodendron (Salt-tree). Leguminosm.

Freely increased by seeds, layers or cuttings. May also
be grafted on common laburnum.

Hamamelis (Witch-hazel). Hamamelidece.

All grow from seeds or layers, and the Japan species suc-
ceed if grafted on American species in the greenhouse. H.
Virgmica may be readily propagated by layers.

Hamelia. Rubiacece.

Seeds. Cuttings which are nearly ripe will root during
the early part of summer under glass, with heat.

Hamiltonia, Spermadictyon. Rubiaccce.

Seeds. Half-ripened cuttings, placed in sand under glass.
Hardenbergia. Leguminosoe.

Seeds may be used ; also increased by divisions. Cuttings,
made of the firm young side shoots in spring, will grow if in-
serted under a bell-glass, and placed in a warm frame or pit,
without bottom heat.

Hardwickia. Leguminosce.

Propagated by ripened cuttings in sand, in a strong heat.
Harebell. See Campanula.
Hatchet Cactus. See Pelecyphora.
Haw, Hawthorn. See Crataegus.
Hazel. See Corylus
Heartsease. See Viola.
Heath. See Erica.
Heather. See Calluna


Hedera (Ivy). Araliacea.

Seeds. Layers. The rooted portions of the vine may be
severed and treated as independent plants. Cuttings may be
made in autumn from any firm shoots, and inserted in pots
or in the open ground. If they are placed in heat and kept
shadeduntil roots are formed, good plants are obtained much
sooner than when placed in a cold-frame or in the open air.
Named varieties are grafted on the stock of any common
strong climbing form.

Hedychimn (Indian Garland Flower). Scitaminece.

Seeds, rarely. Increased by dividing the rhizomes in
spring, when the plants are repotted.
Hedysariun. Leguminosce.

Propagation is effected by means of seeds and division.
Helenium. Compositce.

Increased by seeds or divisions.

Helianthemum, including Fumana (Rock -Rose, Sun-Rose).

The annuals are raised from seeds. The perennials may
also be raised from seeds, but it is better to trust to layers
and to cuttings, which will root freely in a sandy soil, if kept
shaded until established.

Helianthus, including Harpalium (Sunflower). Composilm.
By seeds, which may be sown in pots, and the seedlings
transferred, or in the open ground in spring. Also divisions.

Helichrysum, Elichrysum (Everlastings). Compositce.

The annual species and the varieties of //. bracteatum may
be raised from seed, sown in a light heat in early spring,
and afterwards transplanted ; or sown in the open ground a
little later. The perennial species are increased by cuttings
in spring, in a close frame without heat.

Heliconia. Scitaminece.

May be increased by seeds, but the best method is by div-
ision of the root stock in spring when growth commences.
Separate pieces may be placed in pots, and grown in a moist
stove temperature, repotting when necessary ; or they may
be planted out in the stove, if desired.

Heliotropium (Heliotrope). Boragineie.

Seeds. The common practice is to use cuttings. These
can be taken at almost any season, if good growing shoots

N. B. — 14


are to be had. They start readily in sand or soil on a cut-
ting bench, or under a frame. Plants for bedding are struck
in late winter from stocks which are in a vigorous condition

Helipterum, including Astelma, Rhodanthe. Composita.

Seeds may be sown in early spring, under cover.
Helleborus (Black Hellebore, Christmas Rose). Ranunculaceoe

Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe. Strong and healthy
root divisions are also employed.

Helonias. Liliaceco.

Propagation is' effected by seeds, and slowly by root divis-

Hemerocallis (Day Lily). Liliaceoe.

Increased by divisions. H. Middendorfii and some others
by seed.

Hemlock Spruce. See Tsuga.
Hemp. See Cannabis.
Hepatica. Ranunculacece.

Can be propagated by division •, also by seeds.
Heracleum (Cow Parsley, Cow Parsnip). Umbelliferce.

Readily increased by seeds or divisions.

Herbertia. Iridece.

Propagated by means of seeds or bulbels.

Herb-Robert. See Geranium.

Hesperis (Dames Violet, Rocket). Cruciferce.

The single sorts are increased by seeds ; the donble forms
by carefully dividing the roots, or by cuttings.

Heterocentron. Melasiotnacece.

Propagated by cuttings.
Heucheria (Alum Root). Saxifragem.

Seeds. Readily increased by dividing the crowns during

Hevea, Micrandra, Siphonia. Euphorbiacece .

Cuttings should be made of half-ripenei wood, and in-
serted in sand under glass.

Hibbertia, including Cyclandra, Pleurandra. D^illeniacK^.
Cuttings, in sandy peat under glass.



Hibiscus. Malvacece.

Seeds sometimes. Also by divisions and layers. Cuttings
-of green wood are commonly used, made in summer for hardy
species or in early spring for tender ones. Cuttings of rip-
ened wood may be taken in fall, and stored until spring in a
rather dry place. The variegated sorts do better if grafted
upon strong stocks.

Hicoiia, Carya (Hickory, Pecan, etc.). Juglandece.

Increased chiefly by seeds, which should be stratified ; also
by root-sprouts. Seeds are sometimes planted at intervals
in the field where the trees are to stand ; but this practice,is
not to be recommended. The hickory can be grafted. Bfest
results are obtained by veneer or splice-grafting in winter,
on potted stocks. Cleft-grafting can be employed out-dpors.
Saddle-grafting upon young twigs is sometimes used. See
also Pecan.
Hippeastrum (Equestrian Star). Amaryllidece.

Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe in well-drained pots or
pans of sandy loam, slightly covered, and placed in a tem-
perature of about 65°. For increasing by divisions — which
is the usual way — the old bulbs should be taken from the
pots and carefully separated, with the least possible injury
to the roots. This should be done when the plants are^ at
rest, and the offsets should be placed singly in pots. Keep
the bulb about two-thirds above the level of the soil, dispose
the roots evenly, and plunge in bottom heat, in a position
exposed to the light.
Hippomane, Mancinella. Euphorbiacew .

Propagated by cuttings, placed in sand under glass.
Hippopha'e (Sallow Thorn, Sea Buckthorn). Elaagnacece.

May be increased by seeds, suckers, layers, and cuttings of
the roots.
Hoffmannia, Higginsia. Rubiacece.

Insert cuttings in sandy soil under cover, in bottom heat.
Hog Plum. See Spondias.
Holboellia. Berberidea.

In spring, cuttings may be made of . half -ripened shoots.
Holly. See Ilex.
Hollyhock (Althaea). Malvacea.

Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe— in summer— in pots
or pans, and placed in a slight bottom heat or in the open



air. In either case, place the seedlings in 3'-inch pots, and
winter in a cold-frame. Dividing the roots, after flowering is
over, by separating the crown, so as to preserve one or more
buds and as many roots as possible to each piece. Cuttings
of young shoots three inches long, taken off close to the old
root at nearly the same time, should be placed singly in small
pots of light, sandy soil and kept close, and shaded in a cold-
frame until rooted. If cuttings are made during winter, a
gentle bottom heat must be given. Also grafted (see page
88). See also Alth^a.

Honesty. See Lunaria.

Honey-Locust. See Gleditschia.

Honeysuckle. See Lonicera.

Hop. See Humulus.

Hop Hornbeam. See Ostrya.

Horehoimd {Marrubium vulgare). Labiatix.
Seeds, in early spring. Division.

Horkelia. See Potentilla.

Hornbeam. See Carpinus.

Horse-Chestnut. See .^sculus.

Horse-Mint. See Monarda.

Horse-Radish {N^asturiiuin Armoracia). Crucifera.

Root cuttings ("sets"). These are made from the small
side roots when the horse-radish is dug. They may oe any-
where from one-fourth to one inch in diameter, and three to
six inches long, one end being cut slanting, to mark it.
These are planted obliquely, two to four inches deep, in
spring. They may be buried during winter. (Fig. 48). The
old crowns may be planted, but they make poorer roots.

Hottonia. Primulacece,

Propagation is effected by seeds and divisions in spring.

House-Leek. See Sempervivum.

Houstonia. Rubiacece.

Seeds. May also be increased by carefully-made divisions
in autumn or spring.

Hovea, Poiretia. Leguminosm.

Propagation is best effected by seeds, sown in well-drained
pots of sandy peat soil in spring, and placed in a gentle bot-
tom heat. Cuttings are difficult to strike.



Hovenia. Rhamnece.

Increased by seeds. Root cuttings are also used. Ripened
cuttings should be placed in sand, under a hand-glass.

Hoya (Honey Plant, Wax Flower). Asclepiadece.

For layering, good-sized shoots should have a few of their
leaves removed, and should then be put in pots of soil until
rooted. The plants may r.tterwards be grown on, and re-
potted according to their strength. Cuttings may be taken
in spring or later in the year, from shoots of the preceding
summer's growth, and placed in a compost of peat and sand,
and plunged in bottom heat in a frame. A slight shade and
careful watering will be necessary. H. bella does best when
grafted on a stronger growing sort.

Huckleberry. See Vaccinium.

Eumea, Agathomeris, Calomeria. Composite:.

Sow seeds in light, finely-sifted soil, and place in a frame
in early summer.

Humulus (Hop). Urticacem.

It may be propagated by seeds, or by divisions in spring."
Ordinarily, however, the species is increased by hard-wood
cuttings of two-bud lengths from the best old shoots, and
made in spring. Leave the top bud just above the ground.

Hyacinthus (Hyacinth). Liliaceis.

Seeds are employed for the production of new varieties.
These are sown the same season they mature, in light, sandy
soil, and are covered not more than a half-inch deep. In
four or five years, or sometimes even longer, the bulbs will
be large enough to flower. Varieties are perpetuated by
means of the bulbels which form freely upon some varieties.
These are treated in much the same manner as mature bulbs,
or they may be handled in pans or flats. They make flower
bulbs in two or three years. To increase the numbers of
these bulbels, the bulbs are variously cut by the Dutch grow-
ers. These practices are described and illustrated on pages
27 and 28, Figs. 12-14. Hyacinths can be propagated by
leaf cuttings. Strong leaves should be taken in early spring
and cut into two or three portions, each portion being insert-
ed about an inch in good sandy loam, and given a tempera-
ture of about 75°. In eight or ten weeks a bulblet will form
at the base of the cutting (see page 52). The lower leaves
give better results than the upper ones, Tnese bulblets are
then treated in the same manner as bulbels.


Hydrangea, Hortensia. Saxifrages. *

The hardy species are usually propagated by green cut-
tings in summer, under glass (see Fig. 57). The tender spe-
cies are increased by cuttings taken at any time from vigorous
young wood, usually in late winter. Layers are occasionally
employed, and suckers can be separated from some species.
Sometimes the hardy species are forced for purposes of prop-
agation by cuttage. //. quercifolia is propagated by little
suckers or ' ' root pips. " 6. panuulata, grandijlora can easily
be propagated from the young wood, taken in June and
planted under glass.
Hymenocallls. AmarylKdece.

Treated the same as Pancratium, which see.
Hypericum, including Androssemum, Hypericinece.

Easily increased by seeds, cuttings, or by strong pieces of
the roots of creeping-rooted species. Hard-wooded cuttings
taken in fall, are commonly used.
Hypozis. Amaryllidece.

Propagation is effected by seeds and offsets.
Hyssop (I/yssopus officitialis). Labialce.

Seeds. Division.
Iberis (Candytuft). Crudferce.

The annuals and biennials are increased by seeds sown in
light sandy soil, in spring or autumn. The sub-shrubby
sorts are also increased by seeds sown in spring, but more
often by divisions or by cuttings.
Idesia. Bixinece.

Seeds may be sown in spring in gentle heat. Half-
ripened cuttings may be made in spring or autumn, and
should be inserted in sandy loam, and placed under a bell-
glass, in gentle heat. Also by root-cuttings.
Ilex, including Prinos (Holly). Jliciiwcc.

Seeds, which should be stratified. They are often cleaned
of the pulpy coat by maceration. The seeds rarely ger-
minate until the second year. Varieties are perpetuated by
graftage. The veneer graft, upon' potted plants, is usually
employed, but other methods may be successful. Budding
is sometimes performed.
Illicium (Aniseed-tree). Magnoliaeecr.

Seeds. Cuttings of young ripened shoots may be made
during summer and should be placed in sandy soil, under a



ImantophylluiA. Amaryllideoe.

Seeds. Usually increased by division or by means o£

Impatiens, Balsamina (Balsam). Geraniacece.

The common annuals may be raised from seeds, in spring,
in any ordinary light soil. The stove and greenhouse species
may be increased by seeds, or from cuttings, which root
freely in a close frame. /. Sultani does best from seeds.

Indian Fig. See Opuntia.
Indian Shot. See Canna.
Indigofera (Indigo). Leguminosce.

Propagated by seeds. Cuttings of young shoots may be
inserted in sandy or peaty soil under glass, in slight heat.

Inga. Leguminosce.

Propagated by seeds. Cuttings root with difi&culty.
Inula, Elecampane. Compositce.

Readily increased by seeds or by divisions.
lonidium, Solea. Violarieos.

The herbaceous species are increased by seeds and by
divisions. The shrubby sorts are increased by cuttings
which will root in sand, in a frame.

Ipomoea, including Quamoclit (Moonflower, Morning Glory)
All the annual species are grown from seeds. The peren-
nials are also increased by seedjge, but they may be iraised
from cuttings struck in a forcing-house or a. frame. The
moon-flowers often do better in the north from cuttings than
from seeds. /. Horsfallice is largely propagated by layers,
and other species may be treated in the same way. Division
is sometimes employed. /. fandurata can be propagated by
root-cuttings. Also grafted (see page 88).

Ipomopsis. See Gilia.

Iresine, Achyranthes. Amarantacea.

Seeds rarely. Increased readily by cuttings. For sum-
mer bedding in the north, cuttings should be started in
February or March. For use as window plants, they should
be taken in late summer.

Iriartea, Deckeria. Palmce.

Propagation is effected by seed-


Iris, including Xiphion. Iridea.

Seeds grow readily and give good results, and they are
usually produced freely, especially in the bulbous species.
Sow as soon as ripe in light soil in some protected place.
The bulbous species produce bulbels, which may be used for
multiplication. The rhizomatous species are propagated by
dividing the rhizome into short rooted pieces. Or when the
rhizomes lie on the surface of the ground and do not root
readily, they may be layered.

Isonandra (Gutta-Percha Tree). Sapotacece.

Insert cuttings in sandy soil, under glass, in heat.
Isoplezis, Callianassa. Scrophularinece.

Cuttings of half-ripened shoots should be made in spring
under glass.

Isopynun. Ranunculacece.

Propagated by seeds or by divisions, in autumn or spring
Itea. Saxifragece.

Propagated by seeds or by suckers, in spring ; and in
autumn by layers.

Ivy. See Hedera and Ampelopsis.
Izia, including Morphixia. Iridece.

Seeds may be sown in pans of sandy soil in autumn, and

placed in a cool frame. Propagation by bulbels is a much

quicker, as it is the usual method.

Iziolirion, Kolpakowskia. Amaryllidem.

Increased by seeds ; and by bulbels.
Izora. RubiaceiB.

Seeds. Usually increased by short-jointed green cuttings
placed in a close frame with a strong bottom heat.

Jaborosa. Solanacece.

Increased by seeds sown in spring, and by divisions, also
by cuttings of young shoots, placed under a frame.

Jacaranda. Bignoniacece.

Cuttings of half -ripened shoots may be made in early sum-
mer and placed in sand over sandy peat, in heat, and kept
shaded. Also seeds.

Jacobasan Lily. See Amaryllis.
Jacobinia. See Justici:..


Jacquinia. Myrsineoe.

Cuttings of ripened shoots, usually made in summer,
placed in sand, in a moist bottom heat.

•Jalapa. See Mirabilis.
Jambosa. See Myrtus.
Jasione (Sheep's Scabious). Campanulacece .

Seeds, sown in spring or fall, usually in the open. The
perennials may be divided.

Jasminum (Jasmine, Jessamine). Oleacece.

Sometimes by seeds, but usually by cuttings of the nearly
ripened wood, under glass. Cuttings of ripe wood are also
employed, and layers are often used.

Jatropha. Euphorbiaceoe.

Cuttings made of firm young shoots will strike in sandy
soil in a strong bottom heat. The cuttings, if very fleshy,
may be dried a few days before setting them.

JefEersonia. Berberidece.

Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe, or divisions may be

Jerusalem Artichoke (Girasole). See Artichoke.

Jessamine, Yellow. See Gelsemium.

Jonquil. See Narcissus.

Jubjea (Coquito Palm of Chili). Palmce.
Propagation is effected by seeds.

Judas-tree. See Cercis.

Jttglans (Walnut and Butternut). Juglandece.

All the species are readily propagated by means of strati-
fied nuts. Do not allow the nuts to become dry. Artificial
cracking should not be done. In stiff soils the seedlings
are apt to produce a long tap-root which renders transplant-
ing difficult after the first year or two. The tap-root may be
cut by a long knife while the tree is growing, or the young
seedling may be transplanted. Particular varieties are per-
petuated by grafting or budding with any of the common
methods. In the north, they are sometimes worked indoors
in pots. Common shield-budding works well, if the sap is
flowing freely in the stock. Flute-budding is often em-
ployed. The improved native sorts are root-grafted in win-
ter. Old trees can be top-grafted like apple-trees (see p. 90).


The "English" walnut (/. regia) is mostly grown direct
from seed in this country, and the different varieties usually
come true. In California, the native v^alnut (/. Californica)
IS often used as a stock for this species, and flute-budding on
branches a half-inch or more in diameter is often practiced
"Twig-budding," or the insertion of a short branchlet or bit
of branch which is severed from the parent branch in the
same manner as a shield bud, is sometimes employed.

Jujube (Zizyphus Jujube). Rhavmece.

Seeds and cuttings.
Juncus (Rush, Bulrush). Juncece.

Seeds. The perennials may be increased by divisioh.

Junebeny (Amelanchier Canadensis, var. oblongifo/ia). Rosacece
Increased by using the sprouts which form freely about
the old plants ; also by seeds.

Juniperus (Juniper, Red Cedar). Coniferce.

Increased readily by seeds, which, hov/ever, often lie
dormant until the second year. They germinate more
readily if the pulp is removed by maceration or by soaking
with ashes for a few days. Green cuttings, in sand under
glass, root easily ; or mature cuttings may be taken in fall
and placed in a cold frame, in which they will need little pro-
tection during winter. Some varieties require a long time to
root. Most of the named varieties may be grafted on im-
ported Irish stocks, which are much used in some parts of the
country. They may be veneer-grafted and handled in a
cool house.

Jurinea. Composite^.

Increased in spring by seeds or by divisions.
Jussiaea. Onagrarie^e.

Seeds and divisions are used for propagating.

Justicia, including Jacobinia and Sericographis. Acanihaceoe .

Seeds occasionally. The species strike readily from short
green cuttings on a cutting-bench or under a frame.

Kadsura, Sarcocarpon. Magnoliacece.

Seeds. Cuttings, made of nearly ripened shoots, which
should be placed in sand under glass

Kaki. See Persimmon.


Kalanchoe. Crassulacece,

Propagated by seeds, but cuttings, when obtainable, are

Kale {Brassica oleracea, vars.). Crucifera.

By seeds, sown in the open in spring in the north, or in

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Online LibraryL. H. (Liberty Hyde) BaileyThe nursery-book, a complete guide to the multiplication and pollination of plants → online text (page 15 of 22)