L. H. (Liberty Hyde) Bailey.

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become hard and dry through long exposure to the air, or
they will germinate unevenly. Apple seeds procured at the
seed stores are often worthless because of this neglect. Very
dry seeds can sometimes be grown, however, by subjecting
them to repeated soakings and then sprouting in a gentle hot-



bed or mild forcing-house. Change the water on the seeds
every day, and at the end of a week or ten days mix with
sand and place in a thin layer in the hot-bed. Stir frequently
to prevent molding. When the seeds begin to sprout, sow
them in the open ground. This operation, which is some-
times called pipping^ may be performed in a small way by
the kitchen stove. Seeds are sometimes "pipped " between
moist blankets. (See also page 17.)

When sowing is done in the fall, the seeds may be sown in
the pomace. This entails extra labor in sowing, but it saves
the labor of washing. This practice gives good results if
the pomace is finely broken, and it is now common among

In loose and well-drained soils, sowing is undoubtedly best
performed in the. fall, just as early as the seeds are ready.
But upon land which holds much water, and which heaves
with frost or contains much clay, spring sowing is preferable.
In spring, the seeds should be sown just as soon as the ground
can be worked.

If the stocks are to be cultivated with a horse, the rows
should be three or three and a half feet apart. Some grow-
ers sow in narrow drills and some in broad ones. The broad
drills are usually six to ten inches wide. The earth is
removed to the depth of two or three inches, if it is loose and
in good condition, the seed is scattered thinly on the surface
and the earth hoed back over them. If the ground is likely
to bake, the seeds should not be sown so deep ; and it is
always well, in such cases, to apply some very light and
clean mulch. The plants should be well cultivated during
the season, and they should attain a height of six to twelve
inches or more the first year. If the plants come thickly,
they must be thinned out.

In the fall of the first year the seedlings should be large
enough to be dug and sold to general nurserymen. Some-
times the poorest plants are allowed to stand another year,
but they are usually so scattering that they do not pay for the
use of the land, and they should be transplanted the same
as the larger stock, or the weakest ones may be thrown away.
The stocks are dug with a plow or tree-digger and heeled-in
closely, so that the leaves." sweat " and fall off. The plants
are then stored in sand, moss or sawdust in a cellar. Before
they are shipped the tops are cut off near the crown, usually
with a hatchet on a block. The stocks are then graded into
budding and grafting sizes. The general nurserymen buy
these stocks in fall or early winter. Those which are root-
grafted are worked during late winter, but those intended for


budding, or which must be grown another season before
they attain sufficient size for working, are "dressed" (See
Chapter V) and heeled-in ; in the spring they are set in
nursery rows, from a foot to eighteen inches apart in the
row. The nurseryman reckons the age of his tree from the
time the seedling is transplanted, rather than from the time
the seed was sown.

Seedling raising is usually conducted by men who make it
a business and who supply the general nurserymen of the
country. It is largely practiced at the west, where the deep
and strong soils produce a rapid growth. The yearling trees
are graded by the western growers into about four lots :
"Extras," or those at least one-fourth inch in diameter at the
crown and having twelve inches of both top and root ; these
are used mostly as budding stocks the next season. "Com-
mons," those between three-sixteenths and one-fourth inch
at the crown and having eight inches of root ; these are used
for immediate root-grafting. "Second-class," those from
two to three-sixteenths inch at the crown, and "third-class,"
or all those under two-sixteenths. The last two classes must
be grown in the field for one or two seasons before they can
be worked.

Dwarf stocks are mostly obtained from mound-layering.
The common stock for dwarfing is the Paradise apple, a
dwarf variety of the common apple species (Pyrus Malus).
This variety rarely attains a height of more than four feet.
A larger or freer stock is the Doucin, also a variety of Pyrus
Malus, which will produce an engrafted tree intermediate in
size between that given by the Paradise and free or common
stocks. This is little used in this country. To obtain stools
for mound-layering, the tree, when well established, is cut
off within four or six inches of the ground in spring, and dur-
ing the summer several shoots or sprouts will arise. The next
year the stool is covered by a mound, and by autumn the lay-
ers are ready to take off. Sometimes, when stocks are rare,
mound-layering is performed during the first summer, before
the young shoots have hardened, but good stocks are not ob-
tained by this method. Common green layering is sometimes
practiced the first year, but it is not in favor. The dwarf
stocks, in common with all apple stocks, may be propagated
by root-cuttings and by hard-wood cuttings.

Apple stocks are either grafted or budded. Root-grafting
is the most common, especially at the west where long scions
are used in order to secure own-rooted trees. (See Chap-
ter V. ) Budding is gaining in favor eastward and southward ;
it is performed during August and early September in the


northern states, or it may be begun on strong stocks in July
by using buds which have been kept on ice. Stocks should
- be strong enough to be budded the same year they are trans-
planted, but the operation is sometimes deferred until the
second summer. Stocks which cannot be worked until the
second year are unprofitable, especially on valuable land.
For root-grafting, strong one-year-old roots are best, but
two-year-olds are often used.

In common practice, the root is cut into two or three
pieces of two to three inches each, but stronger trees are
obtained, at least the first year or two, by using the whole
root and grafting upon the crown. The lowest piece is
usually small and weak and is generally discarded.

The apple is easily top-grafted and top-budded. (See
Chapter V.)
Apple Berry. See Billardiera.
Apricot i^Prunus Armeniaca), Rosacem.

The apricot thrives upon a variety of stocks. Apricot
stocks are used in apricot-growing regions, especially for
deep and rich well-drained soils. The pits grow readily if
given the same treatment as that detailed for the peach
(which see). The stocks are also handled in the same man-
ner as peach stocks. Apricots upon apricot roots are not
largely grown outsideof California, in this country. Apricot
stocks can be grown from root cuttings the same as cherries
and other stone fruits.

The apricot does well upon the peach, especially on light
soils. In the warmer parts of the country peach is much used.

Plum stocks are commonly used at the north, especially if
the trees are to be planted in moist or heavy soils. The
common plum is generally used, but some of the native
plum stocks are now coming into favor, especially in trying
climates. The Russian apricots, which are a hardy race of
Prunus Armeniaca, are grown in colder climates than the
common varieties, and they therefore demand hardy stocks.
Any of the native plums make good stocks, but the Marianna
is now coming into especial prominence. The myrobolan
plum can be used for all apricots, but it is not popular, par-
ticularly in severe climates.

The almond, both hard and soft-shelled, is sometimes used
for the apricot, but the union is likely to be imperfect and it
is not recommended. Almond-rooted trees are best adapted
to light soils.

Varieties of apricots are usually budded, in the same way
as the peach, although they may be side-grafted at the crown
in the nursery row.


Aquartia. See Solanum.

Aquilegia (Columbine). Ranunculacece.

Increased by seeds. They must be sown very thinly, soon
after being ripe, in a sandy soil or in pans in a cold frame.
Division of the root is the only way to perpetuate any par-
ticular variety with certainty,

Arabis (Wall Cress, Rock Cress). Cruciferce.

Increased by seeds sown in the border or in pans, in spring.
By divisions of the root, and by cuttings placed in a shady
border during summer.

Arachis (Pea-Nut, Ground-Nut). Leguminosce.

Increased by seeds, which should be sown in heat ; and,
when the plants have grown to a sufficient size, they should
be potted off singly. See under Pea-Nut

Arachnimorpha. See Rondeletia.
Aralia. Aralincece.

Propagated by seeds and by root cuttings ; also by stem
cuttings, in heat.

Araucaria, Eutacta. Coniferce.

Increased by seeds sown in pans or boxes, with but gentle
heat. By cuttings from the leading shoots, placed firmly in
a pot of sand ; they first require a cool place, but afterwards
may be subjected to a slight warmth. When rooted, pot off
into fibrous loam, mixed with leaf soil and sand.

Arbor-vit£E. See Thuya.

Arbutus (Strawberry Tree). Ericaceae.

Increased by seeds, which should be sown in sand during

early spring, and by grafting, budding, or inarching upon A.


Arctotheca. Compositee.

Propagated by divisions of the plant, or by cuttings in

Arctotis. Compositce.

Propagated by cuttings, which may be made at any time ;
they should be pricked in pots of very sandy soil, and placed
in very gentle warmth. They must be kept uncovered and
moderately dry, or they will rot

Ardisia. Myrsinece.

Propagated by seeds and cuttings.


Areca (Cabbage Palm). Pabnce.

Increased by seeds, which should be sown in a compost of
loam, peat, and leaf soil, in equal parts, with a liberal addi-
tion of sand, and placed in a moist and gentle heat.
Arenaria (Sandwort). Caryophyllece.

Increased by seeds, division or cuttings ; the last placed
under a hand-glass will root freely Seeds should be sown
in spring in a cold frame. The best time to divide the plant
is early spring, or during July and August.

Aretia. See Androsace.
Argania. Sapotaceas.

Increased by layers and cuttings. The latter require a
propagating frame. Both should be made in autumn and
spring, and in a moderately heated greenhouse.

Argemone. Papaveracece.

Increased by seeds, which may be sown out-doors in Spring ;
those of the rarer species in a hot-bed.

Argyreia (Silver-weed). Convolvulacece.

Propagated by cuttings, which will do well in sand, with a
hand-glass over them, in a little bottom heat.

ArgyrochEBta. See Parthenium
Argyroxyphium. Composiice

Propagated by seeds.
Arisarum. Aroidece

Propagated in spring by seeds or divisions of the root.
Aristea. Iridece.

Increased by seeds and divisions.
Aristolochia (Brithwort). Aristolochiacece.

Propagated by seeds and layers, which are not very satis-
factory. Cuttings root freely in sand, under a bell-glass
with bottom heat. The seeds must be fresh.

Aristotelia. TiliacecB.

Propagated by layers, or by ripened cuttings, which root
freely if placed under a hand-glass.

Armeria ^Thrift, Sea Pink). Plumbaginece.

Increased by seeds sown in spring, in pots of sandy soil,
and placed m a cold frame ; by division, separate pieces
being planted as cuttings under hand-glasses.


Arnatto. See Bixa.
Amebia. Boragineoe.

Increased by seeds. Cuttings o£ the strong shoots should
be inserted in pots of sandy soil, and placed in gentle heat.

Arnica. Compodtce.

Propagated by seeds sown in a cold frame in spring, and
by divisions, which should be made in spring.

Aronicum. See Doronicum.
Arracacha. Umbelliferce.

Increased by divisions of the roots.

Arrow-root. See Calathea.
Arrhostoxylum. See Ruellia.
Artabotrys. Anonacece.

Propagated by seeds ; and by cuttings of ripened wood,
placed in early spring in sand under a frame, with bottom

Artanema. Scrophulariacece.

Increased readily by seeds and cuttings.
Artauthe. See Piper.

Artemisia (Mugwort, Southernwood, Wormwood). Conipodlie.
The annuals by seeds ; the herbaceous ones, by dividing
at the root ; the shrubby kinds by cuttings.

Arthropodiiun. Liliacem.

Increased freely by seeds and by divisions.
Arthrostemma. Meiastomacece,

Propagated by cuttings of small firm side shoots, whicA
will root, in April or August, under a hand-glass in sandy
Artichoke (Cynara Scolymus). Compositce.

Usually grown from seeds. Although the plant is peren-
nial, a new stock should be started about every other year.
It may be increased also by suckers or divisions of the stools.

Artichoke, Jerusalem {Helianthiis tuberosus). Compositee.

Commonly increased by means of the tubers, which may
• be planted whole or cut into eyes, after the manner of pota-
toes. Seeds are very rarely used.



Artocarpus (Bread Fruit). Urticacece.

Propagation is difficult. Suckers may be utilized when
procurable. The young and slender lateral growths are used
for cuttings.
Arum. Aroidece.

Propagated by seeds, but usually by division of the roots,
the best time being just as they begin their new growth,
securing as many roots as possible to each division. Any
rootless pieces should be placed in heat shortly after re-
moval ; this hastens the formation of roots and excites top
growth. Arisasmas are treated in the same way.
Arundinaria. Gramineie.

Increased by division of the root.
Arundo (Reed). Graminem.

Propagated by seeds or divisions, spring being the best
time for either method. In early autumn, the canes can be
cut into lengths of j8 to 24 inches and partly buried in sand
in a gentle bottom heat, laying them horizontally.
Asaruin. Arisiolochiacece.

Propagated easily by divisions in spring.
Ascaricida. See Vernonia.
Ascium. See Norantea.
Asclepias (Milk- weed, Swallow-wort). Asclefiadece.

Increased by seeds sown in pots in spring, pricked out
singly when large enough, and treated like cuttings. By
cuttings, which should be secured in spring, struck in gentle
heat, under a bell-glass, and as soon as they are well-rooted
potted into small pots. Seeds of A. tuberosa must be sown
or stratified at once.
Ascyrum. Hypericins .

Increased by seeds and by careful divisions of the roots in
Ash. See Fraxinus.
Asimina. Anonacece.

Propagated by seeds procured from their native country.
The seedlings should be raised in pots, and sheltered care-
fully. By layers made in autumn.
'Aspalathus. Leguminostx.

Propagated by young cuttings of half-ripened wood, placed
in sand, in spring, under bell-glasses, which must be wiped
dry occasionally.


Asparagus. Liliacece.

The common kitchen garden asparagus is best propagated
by means of seeds. These are sown in spring as soon as the
ground can be worked, usually in rows a foot or two apart.
Thin the young plants to two or three inches apart in the
row and give good culture, and the plants can be set in the
field the following spring, and they will give a fair crop after
growing there two seasons. Small growers nearly always
buy plants of nurserymen. Old asparagus crowns can be
divided, but seeds give better plants.

The ornamental species of asparagus are propagated by
seeds when they are obtainable ; otherwise, by division.
Asperula. Rubiacece.

Increased by seeds and by divisions of the roots during
spring and early summer.
Asphodeline. Liliacece.

Propagated by division.
Asphodelus (Asphodel). Liliacece.

Propagated by seeds and by division of the root in early

Aspidistra. Liliacece.

Aspidium. See under Ferns.

Aspleniuzn. See under Ferns.

Propagated by suckers.
Assonia. Sterculiacece.

Propagated by young cuttings, which will root freely in
sand with strong bottom heat, if covered with a bell-glass.
Astartea. Myrtacece.

Increased by young cuttings, in sand, in gentle heat, under
a bell-glass.
Astelma. Composita.

Propagated by seeds sown in pots of light, open soil, in
gentle heat. By half-ripened cuttings, which will root
readily in sandy soil with a hand-glass over them.
Astephanus. Ascleptadece.

Propagated by divisions ; and by cuttings, in sandy soil, in
moderate heat.

Aster (Aster, Michaelmas Daisy, Star-wort). Compositce.

Propagated by seeds sown in spring, or by root divisions
made in autumn; also by cuttings, which root freely in
sandy soil under a hand-glass, with little heat.



Asteracantha. Acanthacece.

Propagated by seeds sown in August ; and by divisions in

Asteriscus. See Odontospermum.
Asterocephalus. See Scabiosa.
Asteropterus. See Leyssera.
Asterostigma. See Staurostigma.
Astilbe. Saxifragecs.

Propagated by division in early spring, and by seeds if
they are produced.

Astragalus (Milk Vetch). Leguminosce.

Seeds should be sown in pots of sandy soil placed in a
cold frame, as soon as ripe, or early in the spring, as they may
lie a long time before germinating. The herbaceous peren-
nials also increase by divisions, and the shrubby kinds slowly
by means of cuttings placed in a cold frame.

Astrantia. Umbelliferce,

Increased by seeds and root divisions in autumn or spring.
Astrapsea. Sterculiacece.

Propagated by cutting^ of young wood made in spring,
placed in a compost of loam and peat, or sand, under a bell-
glass, in beat.

Astrocaryum, Phoenicophprum. Palmis.

Increased by seeds sown in spring in a hot-bed ; or by
suckers, if obtainable.

Astroloma. Epacridem.

Propagated by young cuttings placed in sandy soil, under
a bell-glass, in a cool house.

Asystasia. Acanthacece. •

Increased by cuttings of young shoots, placed in sand,
under a bell-glass, with a strong bottom heat, in spring.

Ataccia. See Tacca.
Atalantia. Rutacei2.

Propagated by ripened cuttings, which will root freely in
sandy soil under a hand-glass, in heat.

Atamasco Lily. See Amaryllis.


Athamanta. Umbelliferas.

Increased by seeds sown in spring, or by division.
Athanasia. Comfosiia.

Propagated by means of cuttings taken from half-ripeued
wood in spring, and placed in sand under a hand-glass.

Atherosperma. Monimiaceoe.

Propagated readily by cuttings.
Athlianthus. See Justicia.
Athrizia. ComfiosUce.

Propagated by cuttings of young wood, under a bell-glass
in sandy soil.

Athrotaxis. Coniferm.

Increased by cuttings.
Atragene. Ranunculaca^.

Seeds should be stratified, and sown in early spring, in
gentle heat. By layering in autumn ; the layers should
not be separated for about a year, when they will be vigor-
ous plants. By cuttings, which should be set in light soil
and placed under a hand-glass.

Atropa (Belladonna). Solanacece.

Aubletia. See Paliurus.

Aubrietia. Crucifers

Propagated by seeds, which should be sown in spring
In early autumn carefully transplant to a cool shady bor-
der. Also by divisions. Where a stock of old plants exists,
layer their long slender branches any time after flower-
ing, and cover with a mixture of sand and leaf soil ; they
will then root freely and establish themselves in time for
spring blooming. Cuttings should be " drawn " or grown
in a frame until they are soft, before they are removed.

Aucuba. Cornacex.

Readily increased by seeds, sown as soon as ripe ; or by
cuttings, inserted in spring or autumn in sandy- soil, with or
without a covering.

Audouinia. Bruniacew.

Propagated by cuttings of half-ripened wood, in sand,
under a bell-glass, in gentle heat.


Aulax. Proteacea.

Increased by ripened cuttings, taken off at a joint, and
inserted in pots of sandy soil. These will root well under a
hand-glass, in a cool house.

Auricula {Primula Auricula). Primulacece.

Propagated by seeds, sown as soon as ripe or in spring, in
well-drained pots, filled with sandy soil, well watered pre-
vious to sowing. Cover lightly with coarse sand, place a
pane of glass over the pot, and place the latter in a hand-
glass. By offsets, which should be removed when top-
dressed, as they are more likely to root. Arrange about
four offsets around the sides of well-drained three-inch pots,
filled with sandy soil, place under a bell-glass or in a close
hand-light, water very sparingly so as to prevent them
damping off After becoming established, admit air, and pot
off singly.

Australian Feather-palm. See Ptychosperma.

Australian Mint-bush. See Prostanthera.

Avens. See Geum.

Averrhoa. Geraniacece.

Increased :n spring by half-ripened cuttings, which will
root in sand, under a hand-glass, with bottom heat.

Axillaria. . See Polygonatum.

Azalea. Ericacea.

Increased by seeds, sown as soon as ripe, or early the fol-
lowing spring, in a large shallow frame containing from two
to three inches of peat, over which more peat must be spread
by means of a fine sieve ; do not cover, but water thoroughly.
When the seedlings begin to appear they should have air,
shade, and a daily sprinkling of water ; transplant in autumn
in boxes of peat and coarse sand,, water, shade and keep close
until growth commences. Grafting is largely practiced to
increase the stock of named varieties or choice seedlings, the
stock most employed being ^. pontica for hardy sorts, and
some strong growing variety of A. Indica, like " PhcBnicia,"
for tender ones. Layering in spring, enclosing the part bur-
ied with moss, is also practiced ; but the layer must be left
two years before separating. Cuttings of the last year's
wood two or three inches long, taken with a heel, root read-
ily in sand ; about the end of summer is the best time. When
placed outside they should be covered with a hand-light for
about two months, and at the end of that time air should be
given freely.


Azara. Bixlnece.

Propagated by cuttings.

Babiana. Iridece.

Propagated quickly by seeds sown in pans, placed in a
gentle heat. These will grow at almost any time. The
young plants will require to be carefully transplanted each
season until they develop into blooming corms. By offsets
grown in boxes or planted out in light rich soil until large
enough for flowering.

Babingtonia. Myrtacece.

Increased by cuttings of the young sterile shoots, which
may be planted in sand under a bell-glass, and kept in a
moderate heat until rooted, when they should be placed
singly in small pots, in a compost of equal parts loam and
peat, with a little sand.

Baccharis (Ploughman's Spikenard). Compositce.

Propagated by seeds and by cuttings.
Backhousia. Myrtacece.

Increased by half-ripened cuttings, in sand, under a bell-
glass, in a cool house, during spring

Bactris. Palmece.

Increased by suckers, which are very easily produced.
Badamea. See Terminalia.
Bsa, Dorcoceras. Gesneracece.
Propagated easily by seeds.
Bsckea. Myrtacece.

Increased by cuttings of young wood, which will root free-
ly if placed in a pot of sand, with a bell-glass over them, in
a cool house.

Bserla. Compositce,

Propagated by seeds sown in spring.
Bahia, Phialis. Compositce.

Increased by seeds, or by divisions.
Balbisia, Ledocarpum. Geraniacece.

Propagated by seeds, or by cuttings made from the half-
ripened wood, placed in sand, under a hand-glass.

Baldingera. See Premna.


Balfouria^ See Wrightia.

Balm (Melissa officinalis). LaHatoe.

Seeds sown out-doors in spring. Division.
Balsam (Impatiens ialsamina). Geraniacece.

Increased by seeds sown in early spring, in pans of rich,
sandy soil, and placed in a gentle bottoni heat of about 65°.
Or the seeds may be sown directly in the garden when the
weather becomes warm. Varieties increased by layers in
late summer, under glass, or by veneer grafting.

Balsamodendron. Burseracem.

Increased by cuttings taken from the ripe young wood, in
spring, and placed under a hand-glass, in bottom heat.

Balsam-tree. See Clusia.

Bambusa (Bamboo). Graminece.

Propagated by careful division of well-developed plants,
in early spring, just as new growth is commencing ; establish
the divisions in pots. If young shoots are layered, leave
only the end exposed.

Banana and Plantain (Musa sapientum, M. paradisiaca and
others). Scitaminece.

Edible bananas rarely produce seeds. The young plants
are obtained from suckers, which spring from the main root-
stock. These suckers are transplanted when two or three
feet high. These plants themselves do not produce so good
crops as the suckers which arise from them, and are not
transplanted. Two or three suckers are sufiScient for a plant

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Online LibraryL. H. (Liberty Hyde) BaileyThe nursery-book, a complete guide to the multiplication and pollination of plants → online text (page 9 of 22)