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Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1982/83-1986/87) online

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Adjunct Instructors Katzman, Kerr, Musselman, Olson,

Raffensperger, and Robert
Assistant S. Cavaliere


The Department offers courses in business administration
and accounting. A knowledge of these areas has become
increasingly important for effective participation in our
complex society and is essential for a person to be
considered liberally educated, The Department's courses
present this knowledge with a focus on problem solving
that emphasizes the identification and solution of
problems through analysis rather than the mere
acquisition of vocational tools. Courses stress the critical
thinking skills of a liberally educated person: analysis,
synthesis, and ability to perceive, create, and choose
among alternatives.

Business administration is concerned with the operation,
management, and control of economic organizations in a
society. The managers of economic organizations have a
profound influence on a social system since they must
understand the needs of their constituents and make
decisions on the use of physical and human resources to
satisfy these needs.

Accounting measures the activity of economic
organizations, analyzes the resulting data, and provides
alternatives and recommendations to the management of
such organizations.

The Department offers a major in business administration,
with a concentration in accounting possible within the
major. In addition to its liberal arts objectives, the
Department's curriculum is designed to meet the needs of
students who intend to (1) pursue graduate study in
economics; (2) enter graduate professional schools in
business administration, law, and related areas; or (3)
pursue a career in business, non-profit organizations, or

It should be noted that the Department reserves the right
to limit the number of majors in business administration
in accordance with the amount of its resources. If and
when such a limitation is imposed, students will be
selected by the Department on the basis of academic
performance and other factors, such as attitude and

Requirements and Recommendations

Majors in business administration are required to
complete ten courses as follows: Economics 101-102,


Business Administration

Accounting 153, Economics 241, 243, 245, and Business
366, and to select three courses from ttie following:
Business 361, 363, 365, 367, Economics 351, 352,
Accounting 154 and one advanced course in accounting.

Beginning with the class of 1985, majors in business
administration will be require'^ to demonstrate
achievement in Mathematics equivalent to one term of
Calculus. This requirement may be satisfied by taking
Mathematics 117, which is offered specifically for majors
in this Department, Mathematics 111, or Mathematics 108.
Exemption by examination is also possible. Students who
do not have an adequate background in algebra should
take Mathematics 101 before taking a calculus course.
Since calculus is one of the prerequisites for the required
sophomore courses (Economics 241, 243, and 245),
students who are interested in majoring in business
administration are strongly encouraged to complete this
mathematics requirement during their freshman year.

A student who plans to pursue graduate study in
business administration is encouraged to take
Mathematics 117-118 or Mathematics 111-112 and 211,
212, and Economics 242, 351, and 352. Mathematics 357-
358 may be taken by a major in business administration
in place of Economics 241 provided both terms of
Mathematics 357-358 are completed.

It should, however, be noted that a student may not
receive credit for two courses covering introductory
statistics, such as Economics 241, Mathematics 107, and
Sociology 303. All majors in the Department are required
to take Economics 241. If a student has taken
Mathematics 107 or Sociology 303 before becoming a
business administration major, he or she will be required
to take Economics 242. The Department feels that all its
majors should be exposed to at least one statistics course
stressing applications to economics, business, and
accounting problems. Of course, the option does exist of
taking Economics 241, but this will result in the loss of
credit for Mathematics 107 or Sociology 303.

The computer has become an important tool in
economics, business administration, and accounting. For
this reason, the Department strongly recommends that its
majors take, in accordance with their respective interests,
a course or courses dealing with the use of the computer
from among the following: Business 377, 378, and either
Computer Studies 105 or Computer Studies 211.

During the first two years of residence, all students who
intend to major in business administration should
complete Accounting 153 and Economics 101-102, 241,
243, and 245.

Students who develop an interest in business
administration after entering the College will, however,
find it possible to major in the Department as late as the
close of the sophomore year or the beginning of the
junior year without having followed the above program, if

they have completed Economics 101-102 and a
substantial number of the College distribution
requirements. Economics 101-102 is a prerequisite for all
courses offered by the Department except Business 363,
364, Accounting 153, 154, 253-254, 353-354, 355, 356, and
373-374. Upon application by a student, the prerequisites
for a course may be waived by the instructor.

In order to qualify for Departmental Honors in business
administration, a student must (1) satisfactorily complete
Business 400 during the senior year, and (2) have earned
an acceptable overall and Departmental grade point

Special Programs

Gettysburg College is one of a relatively small number of
colleges and universities selected by the Small Business
Administration (S.B.A.) to participate in the Small
Business Institute Program. Under the supervision of a
faculty member, students are dispatched to provide
management counseling to the area small business firms.
The S.B.I, program consists of two courses: Business 381
and 402. Students planning to seek admission to this
program must plan their schedules carefully so that they
complete the necessary prerequisites in a timely fashion.
Such interested students should consult THE HANDBOOK
FOR MAJORS of the Department of Business
Administration for details about this program and
admission to it. The HANDBOOK is available from the
Department Office.

The Department also offers a Business Administration
Internship (Businesss J-96) and an Accounting Internship
(Accounting J-96) during the January Term for well-
qualified senior majors. The internship involves an
education-employment experience in business
administration or accounting with a governmental or
private business organization. The intern may be required
to spend January outside the Gettysburg area. One course
credit is given for successful completion of the internship.

Students majoring in business administration are
encouraged to participate in The Washington Economic
Policy Semester at The American University. Those
persons interested should see page 47 and contact Dr.
Railing at the beginning of the spring term of their
sophomore year or earlier, to learn more about the
Semester and to make application for it.

The Departmental brochure, entitled HANDBOOK FOR
MAJORS, contains additional information regarding the
policies and practices of this Department. All majors and
potential majors are urged to obtain a copy of this


Business Administration

Business Administration

361 IVIarl(etlng IVianagenient

Study of the place of marketing in the world of business;
the marketing concept; understanding consumer buying
behavior; market planning and product policy; sales
management; distribution strategy; current problems,
influences and pressures on marketing. Marketing case
studies are analyzed and discussed. Prerequisite:
Economics 101-102.

Messrs. Robert and Singti

363 Business Law

Brief examination of the development of the American
legal system, and of criminal and tort law. The general
principles of contract law and the sale of goods are then
studied in depth. Offered in the fall and spring terms.

IVIs. J. M. Railing

364 Business Law ii

Secured transactions, commercial paper, employment,
and business organizations are studied. Prerequisite:
Business 363. Offered in the spring term.

Ms. J. M. Railing

365 Personnel IVIanagement

Study of both the functional context and the behavioral
factors and implications that underlie human resource
planning. Major topics include the role of unions, impact
of legislation, and social responsibility. Prerequisites:
Economics 101-102 and Business 366.

Ms. Jacobson and Mr Kerr

366 Business IVIanagement

Study of major managerial functions and decision-making
techniques. Further consideration is given to the
contribution of behavioral and management science in
treating the organization as a complex system.
Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.

Ms Jacobson

367 Business Finance

An introduction to the principles and practices involved in
the acquisition and administration of funds by the
business firm. Coverage includes asset management and
the sources and costs of capital. Emphasis is upon the
application of economic theory and basic decision theory
to the financial concerns of the firm. Prerequisites:
Economics 101-102 and Business 366.

Mr Gemmill

377 Fundamentals of Automated Business Information

Gives the student an introduction to business information
systems and a basic familiarization with data processing
concepts and terminology commonly encountered in the
business world. The COBOL programming language is
used as the vehicle for introducing and explaining the
topics covered. The subject matter is presented from the
viewpoint of the future manager or executive whose area
of responsibility will utilize business information systems.
Prerequisites: Economics 101-102, Accounting 153. Please
note that a student may not receive credit for Business

377 and the former Business 177.

Mr Katzman

378 Business Data Processing Systems and IVIanagement

Gives an understanding of the technical and
management facets of business data processing. The
human and organizational aspects as well as the socio-
economic environment related to solving business
problems via data processing are covered. The subject
matter is presented from the viewpoint of those who will
be future users of data processing, especially those in
management positions. Prerequisites: Economics 101-102,
153, Business 366, 377, and Economics 241 or
Mathematics 107.

Mr Olson

381 Small Business IVIanagement

Study of the principles and procedures of managing a
small business; relevant differences in approach between
large and small businesses; the commitments of an
entrepreneur and the required attitude; the functions of
accounting, finance, marketing, personnel, and production
forecasting for the small business manager. Prerequisites:
Economics 101-102, Accounting 153, Business 361 and

Mr Singh

400 Senior Seminar

Involves study of research methodology and application
of theory to contemporary problems in both business and
accounting. Students prepare and discuss research papers
on topics in business or accounting. Seniors must take
this course to qualify for Departmental honors.


402 Management Practicum

Study of the practical application of business theory.
Students will either assist local small business firms in
improving their operations or engage in directed
independent field research of a business problem.
Prerequisites: Economics 101-102, Accounting 153,
Business 361, 366, and 381.

Mr Singh


Individualized Study

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well qualified
students through individual reading and research, under
the supervision of a member of the Department's faculty.
A student wishing to pursue independent study must
present a proposal at least one month before the end of
the term preceding the term in which the independent
study is to be undertaken. Prerequisites: Permission of the
supervising faculty member and the Department
Chairperson. Offered during the fall and spring terms.



153-154 Principles of Financial and Managerial Accounting

Study of the basic principles, concepts and problems in
recording, summarizing, reporting, and analyzing financial
data. Topics covered In the first term include the
accounting cycle for service and merchandise business,
income determination, inventory valuation, and
depreciation methods. In the second term, topics covered
include partnerships, corporations, statement of changes
in financial position, analysis of financial statements,
present and future values, the accounting for cost of
goods manufactured, standard costing, forecasting and

t\/iesdames Hays and Lewis, l\/lessrs. Baird,
l\/lusselman and Witmer

253-254 Intermediate Accounting

A continued and more intensive study of the principles
and theories prevalent in accounting with consideration
given to alternative methods of recording and presenting
accounting data. An effort is made to acquaint the student
with the predominant professional groups and their
pronouncements on accounting matters. Prerequisites:
Accounting- 153-154.

/Ws. Lewis

353-354 Cost Accounting

Accounting for manufacturing concerns with particular
reference to securing unit costs of manufactured products.
Emphasis is placed on job order costing, process costing,
and allocation of overhead cost in 353 and managerial
control profit planning and cost analysis in 354.
Prerequisites: Accounting 153-154.

Mr. Witmer
355 Auditing

An introduction to principles and procedures of auditing,
including preparation of audit programs and working
papers, and the writing of reports. Some of the actual
experience of conducting an audit is simulated through
completion of a practice set. Prerequisites: Accounting

Mr. Raffensperger

Business Administration

356 Federal Taxes

An introduction to Federal Income Tax Laws, development
and implementation. Emphasis placed on taxes related to
individuals and corporations. Researching specific
problems through use of tax journals and services is
required. Work on the art of preparing income tax returns
and other related items is included. Prerequisites:
Accounting 153-154.

IVIr Baird

373-374 Advanced Accounting

An examination of accounting problems related to certain
areas such as estates and trusts, non-profit organizations,
partnerships, bankruptcies, and with particular emphasis
on consolidations. Considerable attention is also directed
toward regulation of accounting practices as effected by
governmental agencies, such as the Securities and
Exchange Commission, and professional bodies, such as
the Accounting Principles Board and the Financial
Accounting Standards Board. Prerequisite: Accounting

t\4r Baird

Individualized Study

(See description following Business 402)




Professors Fortnum and Rowland
Associate Professor Parker (Chairperson)
Assistant Professors Grzybowski and Malachowski
Assistant Instructors Jackson and Heiland


Each course offered by the Department provides an
opportunity for a concentrated study of the various
principles of classical and contemporary chemical
knowledge. From the introductory to the advanced
courses, application is made of basic theories and
methods of chemical investigation. The courses offered by
the Department utilize lectures, discussions, library work,
on-line computer literature searching, videotapes/films,
and laboratory investigations in order to emphasize the
concepts that underlie the topics covered. Each course, as
well as the major itself, is designed for the curious and
interested student.

The program of the Department is accredited by the
American Chemical Society. The paths taken by majors
after graduation are varied; many enter graduate work in
chemistry. Graduates also enter medical and dental
schools, industrial and government research laboratories,
secondary school teaching, and other fields such as
business and engineering.

Requirements and Recommendations

The eight basic courses required for a major are
Chemistry 111, 112 (or 112A), 203, 204, J21, 305,
306, and 317. Additional offerings within the Department
may be elected according to the interests and goals of
the individual student. Physics 111 and 112 and
mathematics through 211 are required of all chemistry
majors. Additional courses in mathematics (212) and
physics may be recommended for those contemplating
graduate study in certain areas. Junior and senior majors
are expected to join with staff members in an afternoon
seminar series which is designed to provide an additional
opportunity for discussion of current developments in the
field. Approved safety goggles must be worn in all
laboratories. Prescription glass but not contact lens may
be worn under safety goggles.

For the prospective secondary school teacher the
Department cooperates in offering Education 304,
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of Secondary

Individualized study and independent laboratory work are
available in connection with most courses. An honors
section (112A) of the Fundamentals of Chemistry course
provides a select group of students with such an
opportunity at the introductory level. Emphasis is placed
upon individual as well as group study in the January


Term offerings. During the student's junior or senior year I
the major may elect Chemistry 462, a research course in |
which a student can utilize his or her knowledge and
creativity intensively.

The optional minor shall consist of Chemistry 111, 112 (or I

112A) plus four other chemistry courses at the i
200 level or above. No more than one of the four may be

a designated January Term course. Individualized Study ^

courses may not be counted toward the optional minor. I

Distribution Requirements

The following combinations of chemistry courses may be ■

used to satisfy the distribution requirement in laboratory I

science: either 101 or 111 followed by 102, 112 or 112A. •
(Course credit will not be given for more than two

introductory chemistry courses including those given in .

the January term. Credit will NOT be given for both 111 I

and 101 OR for both 102 and 112.) I

Special Facilities and Programs

The Department's library is at the disposal of all students. I
Numerous lectures and seminars are sponsored by the *
Department and Sceptical Chymists. These involve
resource persons from universities, industries, ■

government agencies, and professional schools and are J
designed to complement the curricular activities of the •
Department. An annual highlight is a three-day visit by an
outstanding scholar in the field of chemistry. The program .
is supported by The Musselman Endowment for Visiting j
Scientists. Many qualified upper-classmen— chemistry 1
majors and others— gain valuable experience from
serving as laboratory assistants. .

101 General Chemistry |

Study of chemical principles with emphasis placed on
providing the student with an understanding of how these
principles relate to the non-scientist, especially in the i
areas of industry, ecology, health, and philosophy. I

Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a "hands-
on" familiarity with the principles discussed in the
lectures. The course is designed for students planning to j
complete only two courses in chemistry and who may |
have limited or no previous exposure to chemistry. Three '
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Grzybowski t

102 General Chemistry |

Review of principles studied in Chemistry 101 and
application to problems of current and historical interest.
Demonstrations and laboratory experiments are designed I
to illustrate and complement the material discussed in |
class. Prerequisite: Chemistry 101 or 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Malachowski ]



1111 Fundamentals of Chemistry
Study of atomic structure, theories of bonding,
stoicfiiometric relationships, properties of solutions and
gases, and elementary thermodynamics. The laboratory
work covers quantitative relationships by employing

Ititrimetric and gravimetric techniques. This course is
designed for biology, chemistry, and physics majors and
others with a secondary school background in
chemistry and elementary mathematics. Course credit is

(not granted for both Chemistry 101 and 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr. Parker

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of reactions,
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and theories of complex
formation. Laboratory work includes kinetic studies,
qualitative analysis, and the application of various
instrumental procedures to quantitative analysis.
Course credit is not granted for both Chemistry
102 and 112. Prerequisite: Chemistry 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

'112A Fundamentals of Chemistry

Designed as an honors seminar for the more capable
first-year chemistry students. Kinetics equilibrium,
electrochemistry, and coordination chemistry are among
'the topics discussed. Laboratory work includes
experiments in kinetics and equilibrium and the
I application of principles from lecture to a project of
i several weeks duration. Emphasis is placed on
•independent work with necessary guidance in both the
seminar and the laboratory. Prerequisites: Chemistry 101
I or 111 and invitation of the Department. Two afternoons.

Mr Parl<er

203 Organic Chemistry

Study of the fundamental concepts of the chemistry of
carbon compounds with emphasis on methods of
, preparation, reaction mechanisms, stereochemical control
of reactions, and the application of spectroscopy to
problems of identification. Prerequisite: Chemistry 112 or
112A. Three lecture hours, one lab discussion
hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Rowland

204 Organic Chemistry

Study of the various classes of organic compounds,
I including substitutions in the aromatic nucleus, polycylic

compounds, and natural products such as amino acids,

carbohydrates and peptides. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203.

Three lecture hours, one lab discussion hour, and one
I laboratory afternoon.

Mr Rowland

J 21 Chemical Applications of Spectroscopy

Study of the theories and applications of ultraviolet,
infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass
spectroscopy are discussed in relation to the import of
these spectroscopic methods in the analysis of chemical
systems. The utilization and limitations of each type of
spectroscopy are covered. Course work includes lectures,
discussions, and laboratory sessions. The lab periods
involve the use of spectrometers in the identification of
organic compounds. Lecture work is supplemented by
films and videotapes. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203.


305 Physical Chemistry

Study of the principles of thermodynamics and kinetic
theory as applied to the states of matter, chemical
reactions, equilibrium, the phase rule, and
electrochemistry using lectures, readings, problems,
discussions, and laboratory exercises. The computer is
used as a tool for solving problems and for the reduction
of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 112 or
112A, Physics 112, mathematics through calculus
(usually Math 211). Three lecture hours, one
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

306 Physical Chemistry

Introduction to theories of chemical kinetics, quantum
mechanics, and statistical thermodynamics and their
applications to chemical systems through the use of
problems, lectures, readings, discussions, laboratory
investigations, and projects. The computer is used for
modeling, simulations, and solving problems. Assignments
are made so as to encourage the individual study of
specific related physical chemical phenomena.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

317 Instrumental Analysis

Study of chemical analysis by use of modern instruments.
Topics include complex equilibria, electroanalytical
methods, quantitative spectroscopy, and chromatography.
Analytical methods will be studied from both a chemical
and an instrumentation point of view. The laboratory will
stress quantitative analytical procedures and laboratory
preparations. Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and J 21. Three

Online LibraryL SeamanGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1982/83-1986/87) → online text (page 53 of 117)