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Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1982/83-1986/87) online

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The Department's library is at the disposal of all students
enrolled in chemistry courses. Numerous lectures and
seminars are sponsored by the Department and Sceptical
Chymists. These involve resource persons from
universities, industries, government agencies, and
professional schools and are designed to complement the
curricular activities of the Department. An annual highlight
is a two or three-day visit by an outstanding scholar in
the field of chemistry. The program is supported by The
Musselman Endowment for Visiting Scientists. Many
qualified upper-classmen— chemistry majors and others-
gam valuable experience from serving as laboratory

101 General Chemistry

Study of chemical principles with emphasis placed on
providing the student with an understanding of how these
principles relate to the non-scientist, especially in the
areas of industry, ecology, health, and philosophy.
Laboratory experiments are designed to offer a "hands-
on" familiarity with the principles discussed in the
lectures. The course is designed for students planning to
complete only two courses in chemistry and who may
have limited or no previous exposure to chemistry. Three
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr. Grzybowski

102 General Chemistry

Review of principles studied in Chemistry 101 and
application to problems of current and historical interest.
Demonstrations and laboratory experiments are designed
to illustrate and complement the material discussed in |'
class. Prerequisite: Chemistry 101 or 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

111 Fundamentals of Chemistry

Study of atomic structure, theories of bonding, |]

stoichiometric relationships, properties of solutions and '
gases, and elementary thermodynamics. The laboratory
work covers quantitative relationships by employing
titrimetric and gravimetric techniques. This course is
designed for biology, chemistry, and physics majors and
others with a good secondary school background in
chemistry and elementary mathematics. Course credit is
not granted for both Chemistry 101 and 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Parker

112 Fundamentals of Chemistry |

Study of kinetics and mechanisms of reactions,
equilibrium, electrochemistry, and theories of complex
formation. Laboratory work includes kinetic studies,
qualitative analysis, and the application of various
instrumental procedures to the quantitative analysis of
systems. Course credit is not granted for both Chemistry
102 and 112. Prerequisite: Chemistry 111. Three lecture
hours and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Parker

112A Fundamentals of Chemistry

Designed as an honors seminar for the more capable
first-year chemistry students. Kinetics and mechanisms of
reactions, equilibrium, electrochemistry, and coordination
chemistry are among the topics discussed. Laboratory
work includes experiments in kinetics and equilibrium and
the application of principles from lecture to a project of
several weeks duration. Emphasis is placed on
independent work with necessary guidance in both the
seminar and the laboratory. Prerequisites: Chemistry 101
or 111 and invitation of the Department. Two afternoons.

Mr Parker

112B Fundamentals of Chemistry

A special section for those students whose performance
in Chemistry 111 indicates the need for continuing lecture
and laboratory experience in a smaller group. Topics
covered will be similar to those in Chemistry 112, with
appropriate changes in scope. The class size will permit a
greater degree of class participation by each student in
the discussion of concepts and problems. Prerequisites: -
Chemistry 111 and invitation of the Department. Three ]
lecture hours and one laboratory afternoon. Alternate I
years, offered 1983-84. 1

Mr Row! arid

203 Organic Chemistry

Study of the fundamental concepts of the chemistry of
carbon compounds with emphasis on methods of
preparation, reaction mechanisms, stereochemical control
of reactions, and the application of spectroscopy to
problems of identification. Prerequisite: Chemistry 112,
112A, or 112B. Three lecture hours, one lab discussion
hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Rowland

204 Organic Cliemistry

Study of the various classes of organic compounds,
including substitutions in the aromatic nucleus, polycylic
compounds, and natural products such as amino acids,
carbohydrates, peptides, and enzymes. Prerequisite:
Chemistry 203. Three lecture hours, one lab discussion
hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Ms. l-IMaway

J 21 Ctiemical Applications of Spectroscopy

Study of the theories and applications of ultraviolet,
infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass
spectroscopy are discussed in relation to the import of
these spectroscopic methods in the analysis of chemical
systems. The utilization and limitations of each type of
spectroscopy are covered. Course work includes lectures,
discussions, and laboratory sessions. The lab periods
involve a study of the operation of the pertinent
spectrometers as well as the actual use of these
instruments in the identification of organic compounds.
Lecture work is supplemented by films and videotapes.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 203.


305 Pliysical Chemistry

Study of the principles of thermodynamics and kinetic
theory as applied to the states of matter, chemical
reactions, equilibrium, the phase rule, and
electrochemistry using lectures, readings, problems,
discussions, and laboratory exercises. The computer is
used as a tool for solving problems and for the reduction
of experimental data. Prerequisites: Chemistry 112 or
112A or 112B, Physics 112, mathematics through calculus
;usually Math 211 or 212). Three lecture hours, one
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

306 Physical Chemistry

Introduction to theories of chemical kinetics, quantum
mechanics, and statistical thermodynamics and their
applications to chemical systems through the use of
problems, lectures, readings, discussions, laboratory
investigations, and projects. The computer is used for
modeling, simulations, and solving problems. Assignments
are made so as to encourage the individual study of
specific related physical chemical phenomena.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 305. Three lecture hours, one
discussion hour, and one laboratory afternoon.

Mr Fortnum

317 Instrumental Analysis

Study of chemical analysis by use of modern instruments.
Topics include complex equilibria, electroanalytical
methods, quantitative spectroscopy, and chromatography
Analytical methods will be studied from both a chemical
and an instrumentation point of view. The laboratory will
stress quantitative analytical procedures and laboratory
preparations. Prerequisites: Chemistry 204 and J 21. Three
lecture hours and two laboratory afternoons.

Mr Grzybowski

353 Advanced Organic Chemistry

Study of physical organic topics including
stereochemistry, pericyclic reactions, and the investigation
of mechanisms. Selected subjects in the synthetic section
are photochemistry, organometallic reagents, asymmetric
reactions, rearrangements, heterocycles, and multistep
syntheses of complex molecules. Laboratory work
involves advanced syntheses and techniques with an
emphasis on independence and skills as well as
extensive use of the library. Prerequisites: Chemistry 204
and J 21. Three lecture hours and two laboratory

Ms. Hatfiaway

373 Advanced Inorganic Chemistry

Study of valence bond, crystal field, and molecular orbital
theories; boron chemistry; organometallic compounds;
structural, kinetic, and mechanistic studies of coordination
compounds. Group theoretical and experimental methods
for the elucidation of the structure and bonding of these
compounds are discussed. Prerequisite: Chemistry 305.
Three lecture hours.

Mr Grzybowsl<i

462 Individualized Study Research

An independent investigation in an area of mutual interest
to the student and a faculty director. The project normally
includes a literature survey and a laboratory study. An
oral report to staff and students and a final written report
are required. A student wishing to enroll in this course
should consult with the faculty director and submit a
written proposal to the department for approval at least
three weeks before the last day of classes of the term
preceding the term in which this course is to be taken.
Prerequisites: Permission of the faculty director and
approval of the proposal by the chemistry department.
Open to junior and senior chemistry majors. Offered in the
fall and spring terms.




Professor Pavlantos (Chairman)
Assistant Professors C. R. Held and Kaike


The courses offered are designed to acquaint the student
with the language, literature, history, and civilization of
Greece and Rome. These societies present a nnicrocosm of all
human experience. Fulfillment of the human potential in
spite of adversities and threats to existence was the ultimate
quest then as it is today. Learning how the founders of
western civilization dealt with such conflicts as the
aspirations of youth and the compromises of middle age,
the claims of community and individual rights, the
ecstasy of love, and the despair of loss can help us
understand our own thoughts and emotions as we
confront these age old problems and pressures.

Requirements and Recommendations

The department offers majors in Greek, Latin, and
Classical Studies. Required for all majors: CI. 121, CI. 122,
CI. 395. Additional requirements:
Latin Major: 7 courses in Latin including Lat.

312, beyond Lat. 102, Latin 251
Greek Major: 7 courses in Greek beyond Gr.

102, Gr. 251
Classical Studies Major: 8 courses. The 202 level in either

Latin or Greek must be attained.

In both Greek and Latin language courses, 201, 202 or
their equivalent is a prerequisite for all higher language

A minor consists of six courses in the department
including two language courses.

Distribution Requirements

Latin 201, 202 and Greek 201, 202 may be used to meet
the College's language requirement. Latin 203, 204, 303,
304, 305, 306, 311, 401, Greek 203, 204, 301, 302, 303,
304, 305, 306, and Classics 262, 264, 266 may be used in
partial fulfillment of the literature distribution requirement.
Classics 121, 122, Latin 251 and Greek 251 may be used
toward fulfillment of the College distribution requirement
in history, philosophy or religion and may be counted
toward a major in history with the consent of that

For prospective secondary school teachers the
Department cooperates in offering Education 304,
Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of Secondary

Special Programs

Through a cooperative arrangement under the auspices of
the Central Pennsylvania Consortium, Gettysburg, along
with the other two member colleges— Dickinson and
Franklin and Marshall— share membership in both the
American School of Classical Studies in Athens and the
Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome.


101.102 Elementary Greek

An introduction to the alphabet, inflections and syntax of
Attic Greek.

Mr. Held

201, 202 Intermediate Greek

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading texts.
Selections from Xenophon's Anabasis, some writers of the
New Testament and other authors are read, with an
emphasis on grammar. Prerequisites: Greek 101, 102 or
its equivalent.

Mr Held

203 Plato

The Apology and Crito, with selections from other
dialogues are read.

Mr Held

204 New Testament Greek

An introduction to Koine Greek. Selections from the New
Testament are read with attention to their language and

Mr Held

251 Greek History

A survey of Hellenic civilization from the Bronze Age to
the Hellenistic period. Extensive readings in the Greek
Historians as well as modern scholars (in English) are
included. A knowledge of Greek not required. Offered

Ms. Pavlantos

301 Homer

Selections from the Iliad and Odyssey with examination of
syntax and style. Offered 1982-83.

Ms. KaIke

302 Greek Historians

Readings in the text of Herodotus or Thucydides.

Ms. Pavlantos

303 Greek Comedy

An introduction to Greek drama. Selected comedies of
Aristophanes are read with attention to style and metrics.

Mr Held

304 Greek Tragedy

Selected plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides.
Various plays are also read in English. Oral reports. Not
offered every year.

Mr Held

306 Greek Oratory

Study of selected orations of Demosthenes and Lysias.
Offered 1982-83.

Mr. Held
individualized Study staff


101. 102 Elementary Latin

An introduction to Latin. Designed for those who have
had no contact with the language.

A^s. Kaike

201. 202 intermediate Latin

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading texts.
Selections from Latin prose and poetry are read, with
continuing grammatical review and analysis. Prerequisite:
two years of secondary school Latin or Latin 101, 102.

l\/ls. Kall<e

203 Roman Prose

Selections from Roman prose writers and intensive
review of grammar. Prerequisite: three or four years of
secondary school Latin or Latin 201, 202.


204 Roman Poetry

Extensive reading in Catullus, Ovid, and Horace with a
close examination of poetic forms other than epic.
Prerequisite: three or four years of secondary school Latin
or Latin 201, 202.

251 Roman History

The history of the Republic. Extensive readings in the
Roman Historians as well as modern scholars (in English)
are included. Papers required. A knowledge of Latin not
required. Offered 1983-84.

l\/ls. Pavlantos
303 Cicero

Selected essays of Cicero, with supplemental reading
from his letters and orations. Supplemental reading in
English. Not offered every year.

306 St. Augustine

Selections from the first nine books of the Confessions
with attention to the differences between Late Latin and
Classical Latin. Not offered every year.

Mr Held

308 Roman Satire

Selections from Horace, Martial, and Juvenal with
attention to the changes in language and style from the
Classical to the Post Classical period. Not offered every

/Ws. Pavlantos

309 Roman Historians

Selections from Livy and Tacitus with attention to their
peculiarities of language and style. Not offered every

Ms. Pavlantos

311 Lucretius

Extensive reading in On tfie Nature of Tilings with
attention to Lucretius' metrical forms, science, and
philosophy. Offered 1982-83.

Mr Held

312 Prose Composition

A course designed to increase the student's ability to
translate from English to Latin which includes a thorough
grammar review. Not offered every year.

Ms. KaIke
401 Vergil

A seminar devoted to the study of Vergil's literary style,
poetic genius, and humanity as seen in the Aeneid. Open
to seniors and qualified juniors. Offered 1982-83.

Ms. Pavlantos
individualized Study staff

Classical Studies

121 Survey of Greei( Civilization

A survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc, of the
Greek polis from its beginning to the conquest of
Alexander with emphasis on Greek concepts which
influenced western thought. Knowledge of Greek not

Ms. Pavlantos

122 Survey of Roman Civilization

A survey of the politics, history, literature, art, etc. of
Rome from its founding to the Council of Nicea with
emphasis on the authority of the state and development
of a system of law and government encompassing the
whole Mediterranean. Knowledge of Latin not required.

Ms. KaIke

230 Classical Mythology

A survey of classical mythology with attention to the
process of myth-making and the development of religion.
No knowledge of Greek or Latin required. Not offered
every year.

Ms. KaIke

262-266 Genre Literature

An examination of the genre literature of Greece and
Rome in translation. Selected works will be studied
through analysis of form, structure, and content. No
knowledge of Greek or Latin is necessary.


262 Ancient Epic

A study of Homer, Apollonius of Rhodes, and Vergil, Not
offered every year.

Ms. Pavlantos

264 Ancient Tragedy

A study of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Seneca.
Offered 1982-83.

Ms. Pavlantos

266 Ancient Comedy

A study of Aristophanes, Menander, Plautus, and Terence.
Offered 1983-84.

Ms. Pavlantos


395 Senior Seminar

Content will be determined each year by the senior class
in consultation with the siaff. Required of all majors.


individualized Study


Computer Studies

Professors Fortnum and Mara

Associate Professors Flesner, Kellett, and Leinbach

Instructor Hanlon


Computers and their associated technologies create
opportunities to develop and apply new approaches to
problems for which solutions were heretofore
inaccessible. The Computer Studies curriculum is
designed to encourage students to develop the practice of
clear thinking and logical reasoning needed to take
advantage of these opportunities. The emphasis is on
algorithmic thinking, which links computers and the
humans who use them. An algorithm is defined as an
unambiguous procedure for solving a problem.
Algorithmic thinking involves not only the development of
algorithms, but also a creative and critical approach to
problem solving, Typical questions which a student must
ask about a working algorithm: How general is it? How
clear is it? How efficient is it? How should the data be
presented? How is it best implemented? The Computer
Studies curriculum provides the student with a means for
analyzing these and other questions.

The courses listed below cover those concepts which are
at the core of computer science. This core can serve as a
base for students who intend to apply the principles of
computing to their academic discipline and also for
students who wish to become computer scientists.
Courses in computer studies are taught by faculty
members from the Mathematics, Physics, and Economics
and Business Administration Departments.

Requirements and Recommendations

The following courses are designed to meet the needs of
two types of students: those who desire to use the
computer in their academic disciplines and those who
have an aptitude for and a desire to obtain a rigorous
introduction to the discipline of computer science.

Computer Studies 105 is a one course survey of computer
science and emphasizes problem solving using a
computer. This course is a terminal course and requires
no background in mathematics beyond the high school
level. Computer Studies 211 is the usual first course for a
student planning to take higher level computing courses.
Students taking this course are required to have a
background in mathematics which includes a college level

calculus course. The Data Structure course, Computer
Studies 216, is the prerequisite for the remaining courses.
It is strongly recommended that any student who intends
to take Computer Studies courses other than Computer
Studies 105, should take Mathematics 111-112 followed
by Computer Studies 211.

A student intending to do graduate work in computer
science is advised to take the following courses in
mathematics; Modern Algebra, Differential Equations and
Numerical Analysis.

The prerequisites listed for courses serve as a guide for
the student. A student may take any course with the
special permission of the Computer Studies faculty. Credit
will not be given for both Computer Studies 105 and
Computer Studies 211. ,


In addition to several microcomputers, the College
maintains a Burroughs 6700 computer with both batch
and terminal processing, This large scale computer is
used extensively in all upper division computer studies
courses and provides computing power comparable to
that in most large scale installations. Students have
and PLV languages and software that includes major
packages in graphics, operations research, scientific
subroutines, statistics, simulation, and word processing.
There are more than 20 terminals available for student
use for a minimum of 16 hours a day, seven days a

Course Descriptions

105 introduction to Computing

An introduction to problem solving using the computer as
an aid. Emphasis is placed on formulation of algorithms
using the top-down method of problem analysis. Topics
will include flowcharts, control structures, syntax and
semantics, program structure, arrays, and subprograms.
The BASIC and FORTRAN languages will be used for
writing programs. i

/Ws. Hanlon and Messrs. Flesner and Mara

21 1 introduction to Algorithms and Programming

An introduction to Computer Science using the FORTRAN
language. Topics will include algorithm formulation, the
structure of algorithms, programming style, elementary
numerical methods, arrays, and files. Prerequisite:
Mathematics 112 or Mathematics 118.

Messrs. Fortnum and Kelleti

216 Data structures

An introduction to the major data structures and some of
their applications: Topics include linear lists, sets, queues,
stacks, linked lists, string processing, trees, graphs,
arrays, tables, files, and dynamic memory management.
Prerequisite: Computer Studies 211.

Mr Leinbach

311 Design and Analysis of Algorithms

A survey of the basic principles and techniques for the
development of good algorithms. Emphasis is placed on
individual development of algorithms and an analysis of
the results in terms of usefulness, efficiency, and
organization. Topics include design techniques, worst
case and average case analysis, searching, sorting,
branch and bound, spanning trees, reachability,
combinatorial methods, and NP-hard problems.
Prerequisite: Computer Studies 216.

Messrs. Flesner and Leinbacii

322 Computer Organization and Assembly Language

Programming at the machine level with an emphasis on
the logical connection of the basic components of the
computer and on systems programs. Topics include
machine and assembly language, basic computer
operations, hardware organization, systems software, and
compilers. Prerequisite: Computer Studies 216.


Economics and Business

Professor W. F. Railing (Ctiairperson)

Associate Professors Baird, Fender, Gemmill, Hill, and

Assistant Professor Gondwe
Instructors Griffith, Hanlon, Lewis, McClymont, Pellak,

Poorman, Siegel, and Singh
Adjunct Assistant Professor J. M. Railing
Adjunct Instructors Katzman, Musselman, Raffensperger,

and Robert
Lecturer Schlegel
Assistant S. Cavaliere


The Department offers courses in economics, business
administration, and accounting. A knowledge of these
areas has become increasingly important for effective
participation in our complex society and is essential for a
person to be considered liberally educated. The
Department's courses present this knowledge with a
focus on problem solving that emphasizes the
identification and solution of problems through analysis
rather than the mere acquisition of vocational tools.
Courses stress the critical thinking skills of a liberally
educated person: analysis, synthesis, and ability to
perceive, create, and choose among alternatives.

Economics is a social science that studies the use of
scarce resources to produce and distribute goods and
services within society. Economists analyze economic
problems such as inflation, unemployment, and economic
growth and put forth suggestions for the solution of these

Business administration is concerned with the operation,
management, and control of economic organizations in a
society. The managers of economic organizations have a
profound influence on a social system since they must
understand the needs of their constituents and make
decisions on the use of physical and human resources to
satisfy these needs.

Accounting measures the activity of economic
organizations, analyzes the resulting data, and provides
alternatives and recommendations to the management of
such organizations.

The Department offers two majors, one in economics and
the other in business administration, with a concentration
in accounting possible within either major. Ten courses
are required for a major in economics or in business
administration. In addition to its liberal arts objectives, the
Department's curriculum is designed to meet the needs of
students who intend to (1) pursue graduate study in
economics; (2) enter graduate professional schools in
business administration, law, and related areas; or (3)
pursue a career in business, non-profit organizations, or

Online LibraryL SeamanGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1982/83-1986/87) → online text (page 7 of 117)