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Staff

107 Environmental Ethics A study of the ethical
issues raised as we attempt to deal with
environmental questions such as waste disposal,
pollution, land use, our treatment of animals, and
the conservation and preservation of natural
resources. Do biotic systems, species or non-humans
have rights? What are our obligations to or regarding
such objects? How are we to decide between
environmental values and human needs or wants?
How do we balance current needs against our
concern for future generations?

Ms. Portmess

205 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy A

study of the philosophers and philosophies of
ancient Greece and Rome. Major emphasis will be
on the Pre-Socratics, Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic
Neoplatonism.

Mr. Coulter



PHILOSOPHY/ PHYSICS



135



207 Early Modem Philosophy A study of the major
figures in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century
European Philosophy. Detailed attention will be
given to the major Rationalists, Descartes, Spinoza,
and Leibniz, and to the major Empiricists, Locke,
Berkeley and Hume, hnportant secondary figures
such as Francis Bacon, Hobbes, Pascal, and
Malebranche will also be studied.

Ms. Coulter

208. Kant and Nineteenth Century Philosophy A

study of the leading European and American
thinkers of the nineteenth century, including
readings from Kant, Hegel, Feuerbach, Marx, Mill,
Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Peirce and William James.

Ms. MacKendrick

211 Logic and Semantics An introduction to formal
logic and a study of the formal uses of language, with
particular reference to the nature of inference from
premises to conclusion; rules for deductive
inference; construction of formal proofs in sentential
logic; the nature of the language; informal
inferences and fallacies; and theory of definition.

Mr. Coulter

217 Worldviews, Meaning and Conunitment A

study of the nature, construction and critical
examination of worldviews, or ways of knowing — the
mythic, the religious, the scientific, the philosophical
and the aesthetic — by which we arrive at
philosophies of life. The course will focus especially
on the relationship between meaning and
commitment, and will examine strategies for the
articulation, comparison and evaluation of
worldviews. Readings will be drawn from philosophy,
poetry and fiction. (Not offered 1994-95)

Mr. Walters

230 Ethical Theory A study of the major figures and
schools in the Western ethical tradition. Attention
will be paid to selections from representative
philosophers from Plato to twentieth century
thinkers such as Moore and Rawls. Specific issues to
be examined include the nature of rights and
responsibilities, virtue, ethical relativism and divine-
command theory.

Mr. Zenzinger

334 Philosophy of Art A survey of the major
paradigms in the history of aesthetic theory (e.g.,
formalism, representationalism, expressionism, etc.),
with emphasis on the relation of aesthetics to other
aspects of philosophy. Such issues as the nature and
function (s) of art and the qualifications of a good
critic will be discussed.

Ms. MacKendrick



337 Philosophy of Religion A study of philosophical
efforts to understand and to justify religious beliefs.
The course will examine the writings of philosophers
who have answered such questions as "What is
Religion?" "Is a natural theology possible?" "What is
the importance or significance of specifically religious
experiences?" "What account can we give of the
meaning of religious claims?" "How can we mediate
between apparently conflicting religious beliefs?"
(Not offered, 1994-95)

Mr. Coulter

340 American Philosophy A study of the major
figures in colonial, early republic, nineteenth and
twentieth century Colonial and U.S. philosophy.
Detailed attention will be given to four primary
schools of thought: deism, transcendentalism,
pragmatism and historicism. Important secondary
movements such as puritanism and evolutionism will
also be considered.

Mr. Walters

400 Senior Seminar A discussion of at least four
important texts by twentieth century philosophers,
representing major movements.

Mr. Coulter

460 Senior Thesis An individualized study project
involving the research of a topic and the preparation
of a major paper. This will normally be done during
the fall or spring semester of the senior year.
Prerequisite: major or minor in philosophy.

Staff



Physics



Professors Aebersold and Marschall

Associate Professors Aldinger, Cowan and Pella

(Chairperson)
Assistant Professors Good and Luehrmann
Laboratory Instructors Cooper, Hayden, Moore and

Walz

Overview

Within wide limits, a physics major can be tailored to
meet the needs and desires of individual students. A
major in physics is appropriate for those who enjoy
the subject and who have no particular career in
mind. It is also suitable preparation for careers
ranging from government and law to theoretical
physics and molecular biology. Gettysburg physics
graduates have selected a wide range of fields for
graduate study, including astronomy; astrophysics;
biophysics; business; geophysics; environmental,
electrical, nuclear and ocean engineering physics;
and physiological psychology.



136



PHYSICS



Persons who become physics majors ought to be
curious about the ways of nature and have a strong
urge to satisfy this curiosity. Their success depends
upon their abihty to devise and perform meaningful
experiments, their intuitive understanding of the way
nature behaves, and their skill in casting ideas into
mathematical forms. No two majors are endowed
with precisely the same division of these talents, but
they must develop some proficiency in each.

Courses in the department emphasize those theories
and principles that give a broad, unifying
understanding of nature and the analytical reasoning
needed for their use. Laboratory training stresses the
design of experiments, the techniques of precise
measurement, and the interpretation of data.

Requirements and Recommendations

The physics department offers both a Bachelor of
Science and Bachelor of Arts degree for the major.

B.A. requirements:

A minimum of nine physics courses including the
following eight core courses: Physics 111, 112, 213,
240, 310, 319, 325, 330, and one additional course at
the 300 or 400 level are required of all majors. This
minimum major is more than adequate preparation
for physics certification for secondary school
teaching and industrial or government laboratory
work. Anyone for whom graduate study is a
possibility should plan to take the additional courses
described under the B.S. requirements below.
Students are not permitted to take more than tv\'elve
courses in the department without the permission of
the department, unless the thirteenth course is
Physics 462 (Independent Study).

In addition, all majors must complete mathematics
courses through Mathematics 212 or its equivalent.
Majors are expected to exhibit increasing
competence with computers as they progress
through the courses in the physics curriculum. First
year students who are considering a major in physics
should enroll in Physics 111, 112, and Mathematics
111, 112, if possible. However, prospective first year
majors may also accomplish a full major in physics by
taking Physics 101 in the fall semester of their first
year before taking Physics 111, 112 in their
sophomore year.

B.S. requirements:

In addition to the eight core courses specified above,
the B.S. degree requires Physics 462 (Independent
Study), 341, and two additional courses in physics
chosen from 312, 352, or 381. Candidates for the



B.S. degree must also complete Mathematics 363.
Students planning to continue graduate work in
physics should plan on following this course of study.

Minor:

A minor in physics consists of Physics 111, 112, 213,
240 and two additional courses in physics at the 200
level and above.

Distribution Requirements

The laboratory science distribution requirement may
be satisfied by taking Physics 101 and 102, Physics
111 and 112, Physics 101 and 111, Physics 103 and
104 or by taking Astronomy 101 and 102.
The prerequisites listed below in the course
descriptions are meant only as guides. Any course is
open to students who have the permission of the
instructor.

Special Facilities

In addition to well-equipped laboratories in nuclear
physics, atomic physics, electronics, optics, and
plasma physics, the facilities of the department
include a planetarium and an observatory. The
observatory features a 16" Cassegrain telescope with
a computer-controlled drive, a UBV photometer, and
an astronomical spectrometer.

Computational resources include a microcomputer-
equipped introductor)' laboratory, a microcomputer
resource room, a microvax, two Sun workstations,
and terminals to access the College mainframe
computers, a VAX 6210 and a Sun 4/690. In
addition, the department is networked to all other
computing resources on campus, including Internet.

Support facilities in Masters Hall include the physics
library, a machine shop, and an electronics shop.

Bjigineeriing

The department administers the Dual-Degree
Engineering Program with Columbia University,
Washington University in St. Louis, and Rensselaer
Polytechnic Institute. Students selecting this
program take Physics 111, 112, and 213, and
graduate from Gettvsburg with a major in physics
upon successful completion of an engineering
degree at Columbia University, Washington
University in St. Louis, or RPI. The Dual-Degree
Engineering program is further described on page
50.

More details regarding the physics and the Dual-
Degree Engineering Program are described in the



PHYSICS



137



Handbook for Students prepared by the Physics
Department. Majors and prospective majors should
request a copy from the Physics Department office.

101 Solar System Astronomy An overview of the
behavior and properties of planets, satellites, and
minor members of the solar system. Subjects include
basic phenomena of the visible sky, gravitation and
orbital mechanics, the results of telescopic and space
research, and theories of the origin and evolution of
the solar system. This course is designed to satisfy the
laboratory science distribution requirement for non-
science majors. Three classes and a laboratory.

Mr. Marschall

102 Stellar Astronomy An overview of current
knowledge about the universe beyond the solar system
from a physical and evolutionaiy standpoint. Subjects
include observational properties of stars, methods of
observation and analysis of light, the nature of stellar
systems and interstellar material, principles of stellar
structure and evolution, and the overall structure and
development of the physical vmiverse. Prerequisite:
Astronomy 101 or permission of the instructor. Three
classes and a laboratory.

Mr. Marschall

101 Introduction to Contemporary Physics An

introduction to twentieth-centuiy physics providing
the student with an overview of the fundamental
principles of classical physics, including gravitation
and electromagnetism, the theory of relativity and
quantum mechanics. The course includes a discussion
of the fundamental forces of nature; nuclear and
atomic physics; elementary particles; grand unified
theories; and cosmology, including the origin and fate
of the universe. The course, along with Physics 102 or
111, will satisfy the laboratory science distribution
requirement for non-science majors. Does not count
toward the major. Three class hours and three
laboratory hours.

Mr. Aldinger

102 Contemporary Physics A continuation of Physics
101 designed for the non-science major. The course
will concentrate on the relationship between the
physical principles developed during the first
semester and the world in which we live. Topics will
include heat and thermodynamics, fluid mechanics,
optical instruments, electricity and circuits, medical
diagnostics, and radiation effects. Not appropriate for
students taking Math 112. Prerequisite: Physics 101.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours.

Mr. Good



103-104 Elementary Physics I and II A general
coverage of the fields of classical and modern physics
structured for students in biology, environmental
science, the health professions, etc. with time
devoted to fluids, heat, radiation, and numerous
applications. While particularly useful for biology
majors, the two-course sequence will serve any
student as an introduction to a wide range of topics
in physics. The two course sequence will satisfy the
laboratory science distribution requirement for non-
science majors. Does not count toward the major.
Prerequisite: Facility in algebra and geometry. Three
class hours and three laboratory hours.

Staff

111 Mechanics and Heat Introduction to classical
mechanics and heat: laws of motion; conservation of
energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum;
laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory and ideal gas
laws. Differential and integral calculus is introduced
and used. Prerequisite: Mathematics 111, which may
be taken concurrently. Four class hours and three
laboratory hours.

Mr. Good

112 Waves and Electricity and Magnetism

Electrostatic fields, currents, magnetic fields, mag-
netic induction, and Maxwell's equations. Other
topics include waves, light as a propagating electro-
magnetic disturbance, and optics. Prerequisite: Physics
111. Four class hours and three laboratory hours.

Mr. Cowan

213 Relativity and Modem Physics Special theory
of relativity, including four-vector notation. Other
topics include black body radiation, photoelectric
and Compton effects, Bohr theory, uncertainty
principle, wave packets, and introductions to nuclear
physics and particle physics. Prerequisite: Physics 112.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours.

Mr. Pella

240 Electronics Principles of electronic devices and
circuits using integrated circuits, both analog and
digital, including amplifiers, oscillators, and logic
circuits. Prerequisite: Physics 112. Two class hours and
six laboratory hours.

Mr. Good

310 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Introducfion to
quantum mechanics. Potendal wells, barriers, one
electron atoms, and multielectron atoms are studied.
Other topics include nuclear models, decay, and
nuclear reactions. Three class hours and three
laboratory hours. Prerequisite: Physics 213.

Mr. Pella



138



PHYSICS / POLITICAL SCIENCE



312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Temperature, heat, the first and second laws of
thermodynamics, and introductory statistical
mechanics of physical systems based on the principle
of maximum entropy. Topics include the ideal gas,
Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein "gases," electrons in
metals, blackbody radiation, low temperature physics,
and elements of transport theory. Prerequisite: Physics
213. Three class hours.

Mr. Aldinger

319 Classical Mechanics An intermediate-level
course in mechanics for upperclass physics majors.
Topics include generalized coordinate systems,
systems of many particles, rigid-body dynamics,
central forces, oscillations, and the formalisms of
Lagrange and Hamilton. Prerequisites: Physics 213
and Mathematics 211. Three class hours.

Ms. Luehrmann

325 Advanced Physics Laboratory A laboratory
course with experiments drawn from various areas of
physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, atomic
physics, and nuclear physics, with particular emphasis
on contemporary methods. Error analysis and
experimental techniques are stressed.

Staff

330 Electricity and Magnetism An intermediate
course in electromagnetism, including vector fields
and vector calculus, electrostatic field theory, dielec-
trics, magnetic phenomena, fields in matter.
Maxwell's equations, Laplace's equation and
boundary value problems, and electromagnetic waves.
Prerequisites: Physics 112 and Physics 319. Three class
hours.

Mr. Aldinger

341 Quantum Mechanics An introduction to the
Schrcxlinger and Heisenbei^ formtilations of quantum
mechanics. Topics covered include free particles, the
harmonic osciDator, angular momenttun, the hydrogen atom,
matrix mechanics, the spin wave ftinctions, the helium atom,
and perturbation theory. Prerequisites: Phyacs 310 and 319,
Mathematics 363. Three class hours.

Ms. Luehrmann

352 Optics and Laser Physics An intermediate
treatment of physical optics and laser physics. Topics
include the electromagnetic theory of light,
interference, diffraction, coherence, holography,
Fourier optics, fundamentals of laser operations,
laser spectroscopy, and fiber optics. Three class hours
and three laboratory hours. Prerequisites: Physics 310
and Mathematics 211 or permission of Instructor.

Mr. Cowan



381 Special Topics in Physics Topics in physics not
covered in the usual ctirriculum. Topics to be
covered will vary from year to year and may include
relativity; astrophysics; advanced topics in modern
optics, solid state physics and electromagnetism;
fundamental particles and nuclear structure; the
physics of plasmas and various mathematical topics in
physics (topology, special functions, fractals) .
Prerequisites: Upper division standing and approval
by instructor. Three class hours.

Staff

452 Tutorials: Special Topics Designed to cover
physics or physics-related topics not otherwise
available in the cvuriculum. Open to upperclass
physics majors who arrange with a staff member for
supervision. Possible areas of study include advanced
electronics, medical physics, astrophysics, acoustics,
and optics. Prerequisite: Approval by department.

Staff

462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a
research-level problem selected by a student in
consultation with a staff member. Students should
arrange with a staff member for supervision by the
end of the junior year. Open only to second semester
senior physics majors. Results of the investigation are
reported in a departmental colloquium. Prerequisite:
Approval by department.

Staff

474 Internship Research participation during the
summer at a recognized research laboratory such as
Argonne National Labs, Department of Energy
Laboratories, or Oak Ridge. Individual students are
responsible for obtaining acceptance to these
programs. In most cases students will be required to
describe their participation in a departmental
colloquium. Prerequisite: Compledon of sophomore
year and departmental approval.

Mr. Pella

Political Science

Professor Mott (Chairperson)

Associate Professors Borock, D. Tannenbaum and

Warshaw

Assistant Professors Baum, Dawes, DeClair, Gaenslen,

Hardt, Hartzell and lannello

Adjunct Assistant Professor Dimcan

Overview

The department aims at providing an understanding
of the study of politics, emphasizing the methods and



POLITICAL SCIENCE



139



approaches of political science and the workings of
political systems in various domestic, foreign, and
international settings.

The program provides balance between the needs of
specialists who intend to pursue graduate or
professional training and those who do not. Courses
offered in the department help prepare the student
for careers in politics, federal, state, and local
government, public and private interest groups,
business, journalism, law, and teaching.

Requirements and Recommendations

The requirements for a major in polidcal science are
as follows. Majors in the department are required to
take a minimum of eleven courses in political science.
Majors are required to take four introductory courses:
Political Science 101, 102, 103, and 104. These
courses are designed to introduce the students to the
discipline and to the types of issues that are important
to political scientists. The 100 level courses may be
taken in any order, and they should be completed by
the end of the sophomore year. All students must take
Political Science 215 (Political Science Research
Methods) as sophomores or first semester juniors.
Among the six courses needed to complete the major,
students must take three courses in three different
subfields at the 200 level, and two courses within those
same subfields at the 300-400 level. The remaining
requirement may be satisfied with any upper level
course. The foregoing requirements take effect with
the Class of 1997.

Students are encouraged to take internships for
academic course credit, but they are graded S/U and
do not count toward the major requirements.
Political science courses taken off campus will satisfy
200 level requirements only.

Requirements for a minor in political science are as
follows: successful completion of any two 100 level
courses and any four upper4evel courses which
normally count toward the major, provided that they
do not all fall into the same subfield.

Departmental honors in political science will be
awarded to graduating majors who have achieved an
average of 3.5 in political science courses and who
have successfully completed a significant research
project in the senior year. Students wishing to qualify
for honors are responsible for choosing a faculty
member to direct the project. A second faculty
member will act as a reader of the completed work.
Those who achieve honors are expected to present



their work in a public forum.

Students interested in political science are urged to
take basic courses in history and economics during
their first two years. In the junior and senior years,
majors are urged to participate in departmental
seminars, individualized study, and internships.

Distribution Requirements

Any of the following courses may be counted towards
the College distribution requirements in social
sciences: 101, 102, 103, and 104. The following
courses may be counted towards the College
distribution requirement in non-Western culture:
270, 271, 362 and 363.

Special Programs

Qualified students may participate in off-campus
programs, such as the Washington Semester, The
United Nations Semester, and Study Abroad.

Introductory Courses

101 American Government Examination of the
institutional structure and policy-making process of
national government as reflections of assumptions of
liberal democracy and the American social and
economic systems. In addition to the legislative,
executive, and judicial branches of government,
political parties, interest groups, and elections are
considered.

Mr. Dawes, Ms. Hardt, Ms. lannello, Mr. Mott, Ms.

Warshaw

102 Introduction to Political Thought Analysis of
political philosophies dealing with fundamental
problems of political association. The course will
examine concepts of power, authority, freedom,
equality, social justice, and order as expressed in
works of philosophers from Plato to Marx.

Mr. Tannenbaum, Staff

103 Introduction to International Relations

Examination of the behavior of nation-states in the
international system from a micropolitical
perspective that encompasses such topics as
nationalism, power, and war, as well as from a
macropolitical perspective that stresses broad trends
such as political and economic interdependence and
the effects of modernization.

Mr. Borock, Ms. Hartzell

104 Introduction to Comparative Politics

Introduction to the structures and processes of
political institutions in major types of political
systems, including parliamentary systems, the



140



POLITICAL SCIENCE



countries of the former Soviet Bloc system, and
systems in developing countries.

Mr. DeClair, Mr. Gaenslen

Methodology

215 Political Science Research Methods

Introduction to quantitative research methods and
their applicadon to the study of politics. Topics
include empiricism, survey research and polling,
electoral behavior, and public opinion. Special
attention is given to research design, data collection,
data processing, and statistical analysis. Prerequisites:
C>ompletion of three of the following: Political Science
101, Political Science 102, Political Science 103, and
Political Science 104, or permission of the instructor.
Mr. Dawes, Mr. DeClair, Mr. Duncan

American Government

220 Urban Politics Study of the changing patterns
in American urban life. Particular attention will be
given to the governing of urban America in the past,
present, and future, and the structure of power that
has affected urban policy decisions. Prerequisite:
Political Science 101 or permission of the instructor.

Staff

223 U.S. Congress Study of the United States
Congress, focusing on theories of representation,
nomination and electoral processes, internal
organization of Congress, influences on
Congressional policy-making, and (Congressional
interaction with other participants in the policv



Online LibraryL SeamanGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1992/93-1995/96) → online text (page 112 of 126)