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Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1992/93-1995/96) online

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courses. Exceptions to the two 100-
level course limitation may occur in
departments offering more than
one major. Students may not
declare a minor in the same
department in which they have a
declared major. Students must
maintain a 2.00 average in the
minor field of study. Although a
certain number of courses
constitute a minor field of study, all

courses in the minor field will be
considered in determining the
minor average.

Requirements And
Schedule Limitations

The normal program consists of
nine courses per year, with five
courses in one semester and four in
the other. Thus, a student will
complete graduation requirements
in four years of full-time academic
work in the September-through-May
academic year. The last full year of
academic work must be in residence
at Gettysburg College or in an
approved College program. Students
may not complete requirements as
part-time students during their last
semester of residence.

Students proposing to complete
graduation requirements in less
than four full years must have their
programs approved by the
Academic Standing Committee
through the Office of the Registrar.

Such approval should be sought at
least a year before the proposed
completion of requirements.

A full-time student for academic
purposes is one carrying a
minimum of three courses during a
semester. No student who is a
candidate for a degree may take
fewer courses than this without
permission of the Academic
Standing Committee.

Students may not enroll in the
equivalent of six or more full unit
courses per semester without the
approval of the Academic Standing
Committee. In granting approval to
take six courses, the Committee
requires evidence that the student is
in good academic standing and will
be able to perform at an above
average academic level during the
semester of heavy enrollment. Any
course enrollment above five in full
or half unit courses represents an
overload and results in an extra
course fee.


The required courses in health and
physical education, generally taken
during the first year, are in addition
to the full course load in each
semester. These courses do not
count toward the 35-course
graduation requirement.

Majors in music and health and
physical education must take
quarter courses in addition to the
normal course load. Other students
may take quarter courses in applied
music over the normal load with the
approval of their advisers and of the
music department at an additional

A student may audit informally any
College course with the permission
of the instructor. No charge will be
made for such an audit and no
record of auditing will be recorded
on the student's transcript.

The College offers a limited
opportunity for students to register
for and complete a course of study
during the summer. Primarily these
are individualized study or
internship courses and are
arranged through academic

Gettysburg College is aware that
physical and learning disabled
persons may have special needs and
is committed to making
adjustments in order to make the
program accessible to them.



Students must be officially
registered for a course in order to
earn academic credit. The registrar
announces the time and place of
formal registration. By formally
completing his or her registration,
the student pledges to abide by
College regulations.

Also students may enroll in a course
for credit during the first twelve
days after the beginning of the
semester. A proposed change must
be submitted to the registrar on an
official course change slip after first
being approved by the instructors
involved and the student's adviser.
Students are not permitted to
enroll in a course after the twelve
day enrollment period.

Many departments establish limits
to class enrollments in particular
courses to insure the greatest
opportunity for students to interact
with their instructors and other
students. As a result, students
cannot be assured of enrollment in
all of their first choice courses
within a given semester.

The Grading System

Normally courses are graded A
through F, with these grades having
the following significance: A
(excellent); B (good); C (fair); D
(poor); and F (failing). Instructors
may modify their letter grades with
plus and minus signs.

In successfully completing a course
imder this grading system, a student
earns a number of quality points
according to the following scale.


4 1/3






1 2/3


3 2/3


1 1/3


3 1/3








2 2/3



2 1/3

A student's accumulative average is
computed by summing his or her
quality points and dividing by the
number of courses taken. The
average is rounded to the third
decimal place.

The College resei^ves the right to
make changes and adjustments in
the grading system even after a
student enrolls.

h"'"l£iiBl—<"f " — "*^

The College also offers a
satisfactory /unsatisfactory grading
option. This option is intended to
encourage students to be
adventurous intellectually in
courses with subject matter or
approaches substantially different
from their prior academic
experience or attainment. An S
signifies satisfactory work, and is
given if a student performs at the C-
level or higher, a U signifies
unsatisfactory work, and is given for
work below the C- level. Courses
graded S/U do not affect a
student's quality point average, but
a course completed with an S grade
will coimt toward the total number
of courses needed for graduation. A
student may elect to take a total of
six courses on an S/U basis during
his or her four years at Gettysburg
College; however, no more than two
S/U courses may be taken in any
one year. This grading option may
not be selected for: (1) College
course requirements in written
English or the First Year Colloquy,


(2) distribution requirements for
graduation, and (3) courses taken
in a student's major field.
Exceptions may be made with
regard to the major in cases where a
department specifies that a
particular course is available under
the S/U grading system only, and in
cases where the student declares the
major after taking the course. A
student must choose the S/U
grading option during the first
twelve class days of the semester.

The basic skill courses in health and
physical education (all of which are
graded S/U) shall not count in
determining the maximum number
of S/U courses a student may take.
Students who enroll in Education
476: Student Teaching may take an
additional course under the S/U
option during the senior year,
provided that their total number of
S/U courses does not exceed six.

When a student registers for and
completes a course which he or she
has already taken at Gettysburg
College, both the credit and the
grade previously earned are
canceled, but they are not removed
from the permanent record. The
credit and grade earned in
repeating the course are counted
toward the student's requirements.

A grade of I (Incomplete) is issued
through the academic advising
office when emergency situations,
such as illness, prevent a student
from completing the course
requirements on time. Unless the

Academic Standing Committee
extends the time limit, an
incomplete automatically becomes
an "F" if it is not removed within
the first six weeks of the semester
following the one in which it was

A student may withdraw from a course
only with the knowledge and advice
of the instructor and his or her
adviser. A student who withdraws
officially after the twelve-day
add/drop period but within the
first eleven weeks of the term

receives a "W" (withdrew) grade in
the course. If a student withdraws
from a course during the last five
weeks of the semester, he or she will
receive an "F" (failure) in the
course. A student who withdraws
officially for medical reasons
receives a "W"" regardless of the time
of withdrawal. The designation "W"
is not used in computing averages.

Transfer Credit


After enrolling at Gettysburg,
students may use a maximum of
three course credits toward the
degree for work taken at other
colleges if such courses have first
been approved by the chairperson
of the department concerned and
by the registrar. Coiuse credit, but
not the grade, transfers to
Gettysburg if the grade earned is a
G- or better. This transfer option is
not available to those who receive
three or more transfer course
credits at the time of admission or
readmission to the College.

This course credit limitation does
not apply to Central Pennsylvania
Consortium courses or to
individually arranged off-campus
study programs approved by the
Academic Standing Committee.

Both credit and grades transfer for
work done at another Central
Pennsylvania Consortium College,
or in certain Gettysburg College off-
campus affiliated programs
described beginning on page 42.


Exemption from
Degree Requirements

The College may recognize work on
the college-level completed
elsewhere by a student. This
recognition may take the form of
exemption from degree
requirements and may carry
academic credit. Students should
present their requests for
exemption to the registrar. They
should be prepared to demonstrate
their competence on the basis of
their academic record, Advanced
Placement Examination results of
the College Board (see page 169),
or examinations administered by
the department concerned. The
decisions on exemption and credit
rest with the department and the

Students may satisfy the writing
proficiency requirement by scoring
sufficiently high on the Test of
Standard Written English (TSWT)
of the College Board. In 1993, the
College exempted those students
who scored 58 or above on the
TSWE. Those scoring 53-57 were
permitted to gain exemption by
passing a departmental
examination given on the campus.

Students may satisfy the foreign
language requirement in a language
not regularly offered at Gettysburg by
demonstrating achievement at the
intermediate-level through transfer
credit, by examination, through
independent study with a Gettysburg
faculty member, or through an

- .*i.:r'-'

approved exchange program with the
Central Pennsylvania Consortium.
International students who have
learned English as a second language
may satisfy the requirement with their
primary language.

Individualized Study
and Seminar

There are opportunities in most of
the departments for students to
engage in individualized study and
seminars. These opportunities are
primarily for seniors, but other
students are frequently eligible. In
some departments participation in
this type of activity is part of the
required program of study; in
others it is optional. Most of these
courses are numbered in the 400's
under "Courses of Study".

Student Originated
Studies (SOS)

SOS courses are student initiated
and run courses, with students
having the primary responsibility

for the content, readings,
assignments, and conduct of the
course. A faculty member assists in
the development of the proposal,
advises the students throughout the
semester, attends course meetings
as appropriate, and assigns the final
grade. Each SOS course provides a
half course unit of credit toward the
35 courses graduation requirement
and is graded "S/U".

Academic Standing

Students are expected to maintain
an academic record that will enable
them to complete the requirements
for graduation in the normal eight
semesters. To be in good academic
standing a student must have at least
a 2.00 accumulative average, a 2.00
average for the semester, a 2.00
average in the major field of study by
the end of the junior year and
during the senior year, and be
making appropriate progress in
acquiring the credits and
completing the various requirements
for graduation. Students who do not

meet these standards will be given a
warning, placed on academic
probation, placed on dismissal alert,
or be dismissed from the College.

The student who falls below the
following minimum standard is
considered not to be making
satisfactory progress and is either
placed on dismissal alert or is
dismissed: for first year students -
1.50 GPA and six courses
completed; for sophomores - 1.80
GPA and fifteen courses completed;
for juniors - 1.90 GPA and twenty-
five courses completed.

In addition to these minimum
standards, a student on probation
must show significant improvement
during the following semester in
order to remain at the College.
Normally, a student may not remain
at the College with three
consecutive semester averages
below 2.00.

Students receiving some forms of
financial aid must maintain certain
progress toward achieving a degree
in order to remain eligible for such
aid. See the "Financial Aid" section
of this catalogue for a more
complete discussion of appropriate

In accordance with the regulations
of the National Collegiate Athletic
Association (NCAA) , a student who
is on dismissal alert status may not
participate in the institution's
intercollegiate athletic program.



The College supports students in
their candidacy for graduate or
professional school admission or in
their search for appropriate
employment by providing a
responsive transcript service.
Requests for transcripts must be in
writing and should be directed to the
Office of the Registrar. This office
prepares transcripts twice a week on
Tuesdays and Fridays. There is no
charge for this service unless the
request requires special handling.


Withdrawal and

The Academic Standing Committee
and the Committee on Readmission
review appHcations for readmission
from students who have withdrawn
from Gettysburg College.
Readmission for students who
withdraw from the College is not
automatic. The procedure for
seeking readmission depends on the
student's academic status at the time
of withdrawal, the length of time
that has elapsed since withdrawal,
and the reason for withdrawal, as
described in the sections that follow.
Normally, the Academic Standing
Committee reviews all applications
for readmission by the second week
of November and the second week
of April; all supporting materials
should be submitted to the Office of
Academic Advising by the beginning
of November or the beginning of

Voluntary Withdrawal

A student who is in good academic
standing at the time of withdrawal
and seeks readmission within one
academic year after withdrawing
must file with the Academic
Standing Committee, through the
Office of Academic Advising, an
application for readmission that
provides an account of his or her
activities during the absence from
the College. This application is
available through the Office of
Academic Advising and should be
submitted by November 1 or April 1 .
Any student who seeks readmission

after one year has elapsed must
submit a more detailed application
for readmission. This application is
also available through the Office of
Academic Advising. Any student
who desires to be considered
eligible for financial aid upon
return must complete all financial
aid applications by the normal
financial aid deadlines and notify
the Office of Financial Aid of his or
her intention to return.

A student who withdraws voluntarily
should arrange for an exit interview
with a member of the academic
advising staff prior to leaving the
College. A readmission interview is
desirable, and in some cases
required, depending on the
circumstances surrounding the
student's withdrawal.

A student who withdraws voluntarily
and is on academic probation at the
time of withdrawal must submit an
application for readmission to the
Academic Standing Committee
through the Office of Academic
Advising. The Academic Standing
Committee will review the student's

application, previous record at
Gettysburg College, activities since
leaving college, and prospects for
the successful completion of his or
her undergraduate studies.


A student who is dismissed from the
College for academic reasons
normally is not eligible for
readmission imtil one academic year
has elapsed. Students who have
been dismissed from the College for
academic reasons for a second time
are not eligible for readmission. An
application for readmission must be
submitted to the Academic Standing
Committee through the Office of
Academic Advising. A personal
interview may be required. The
Academic Standing Committee will
review the sttident's application,
recommendations from an
employer and three Gettysburg
College faculty members, activities
since leaving college, and prospects
for future academic success at the
College. To be eligible for
readmission, a dismissed student
mtist also have completed at least
one course at an accredited
institution and have earned a grade
of "B" or higher.

A student who is suspended for
disciplinary reasons must follow this
same procedure for readmission
except that he or she is not required
to take course work elsewhere. A
student in this category is eligible to
apply for readmission at the end of
the time period designated for the



Medical Withdrawal

A student whose health is so
impaired that matriculation cannot
be continued will be granted a
medical withdrawal provided that a
physician, psychiatrist, or
psychologist confirms in writing the
seriousness of the condition and
recommends that the student
withdraw from the College. In such
cases an Associate Dean of
Academic Advising may authorize
grades of "W" for the courses in
which the student is currently
enrolled. A student in good
academic standing who has been
granted a medical withdrawal must
stibmit an application for
readmission to the Academic
Standing Committee, throtigh the
Office of Academic Advising, at
least three weeks prior to the
beginning of the semester that
matriculation is desired. A letter
from his or her attending physician,
psychiatrist, or psychologist which
certifies that the student will be
ready to resume a ftill academic
program by a designated time must
be sent to the Counseling Center or
Health Services. If, based on

medical considerations, there is
reason to limit the student's course
load or physical activity, a
recommendation for such should
be noted in this letter. A personal
interview with a member of the
Counseling Center or Health
Services staff may also be reqtiired.
Decisions regarding readmission
are the responsibility of the
Academic Standing Committee.
Students who have withdrawn for
medical reasons and who intend to
return are subject to the same
procedures for financial aid as are
matriculated students; it is
imperative to be in touch with the
Financial Aid Office during absence
from campus.

Senior Scholars'

The College offers a unique and
valuable opportunity for its
otitstanding senior students. Each

year the Senior Scholars' Seminar,
composed of selected seniors,
undertakes a study of a
contemporary issue which affects
the ftiture of humanity. The issues
are always timely and often
controversial. Past topics have
included genetic engineering,
conflict resolution, global
disparities, computer and human
communication, aging and the
aged, dissent and nonconformity,
imagining peace, human sexuality,
and environmental protection or
exploitation, and the concept of the

In 1991-92 the eighteen Senior
Scholars' Seminar sttidents not only
brought outside experts to campus,
but also traveled to other highly
selective liberal arts colleges to do
research on "Creating and
Sustaining Intellectual Commtmity
in the Liberal Arts College." During
1992-93, the seminar focussed on a
timely topic in an election year,
"media, power and contemporary
presidential politics". Sixteen
seminar participants studied the
topic "Working Effectively in
Groups: The Role of Creative
Leadership" during the 1993-94
academic year.

In previous years the Senior
Scholars' Seminar invited other
authorities of national stature to
serve as resource persons. Experts
who have visited the seminar


include George Wald, Kenneth
Boulding, Herbert Gans, Paolo
Soleri, Joseph Fletcher, Leon Kass,
Stuart Udall, David Freeman,
Thomas Szasz, Daniel Ellsberg,
Jonathan Schell, Daniel Bell, and
James Gould. Student participants
in the seminar publish a final
report based on their findings and

The issues explored in the seminar
are always interdisciplinary in
scope, and the students selected for
this seminar represent a wide
variety of majors. The seminar is
team-taught by two professors of
different departments.

Early in the second term of the
junior year, qualified students are
invited to apply for admission to the
course. After the members of the
class have been selected through a
process of interviews, they begin to
plan the course with two faculty
directors and become active
participants in the enure academic

process. The Senior Scholars'
Seminar is assigned two course

Computer Courses

In the tradition of the liberal arts,
Gettysburg College emphasizes the
interdisciplinary nature of the
computer as a tool in problem-
solving. A thorough understanding
of the concepts and applications in
various disciplines is important for
those students interested in
pursuing a career in computer
science. The biology, chemistry,
economics, management,
mathematics, physics, political
science, psychology, and sociology
and anthropology departments all
offer courses that make significant
use of the computer. In recent
years, 95% of the graduating
students have made use of the
computing faciliues in their courses
at Gettysbiug.

Also, most of the First Year
Colloquy courses require a multiple
week training session in the use of
microcomputers. These training
sessions provide an introduction to
WordPerfect, electronic mail, the
campus computer network and
computerized information system,
and tools to use the Internet to
access information at campuses and
other sites across the country and
around the world.

In addition to these courses in
various departments, the College
has a computer science curriculum
of courses that cover the concepts
that are at the core of the
discipline. These courses are listed
imder computer science in the
"Course Descriptions" section of
this catalogue.

Teacher Education

Gettysburg College education
programs in secondary school
subjects, elementary education,
music education, and health and
physical education are competency
based and have received approval
from the Pennsylvania Department
of Education. The liberal arts are
central to the College's teacher
education programs. Students
planning to teach must complete a
major in an academic department
of their choice and fulfill all the
requirements for the bachelor of
arts degree or the bachelor of
science degree. Upon completing a
program in teacher education,
students are eligible for a
Pennsylvania Certificate,
Instructional I, enabling them to
teach in the public schools of the
Commonwealth and other states
with similar requirements. Students
who pursue teacher certification are
required to demonstrate computer
literacy prior to admission to the
Education Semester. A minimum of

forty hours of observation and
participation in schools is required
prior to acceptance into the
Education Semester. Students who
are seeking an Instructional I
Certificate mvist have successfully
completed the National Teachers'
Exams (NTE) in the core battery
(general knowledge,
communication skills, and
professional knowledge) and
specialty area (the subject area for
which candidates are seeking
certification). For more
information on the exams, contact
a member of the education

Secondary Education

Students interested in preparing to
teach academic subjects in the
secondary schools must complete
one of the following approved
programs for secondary
certification: biology, chemistry,
physics, general science,
mathematics, English, German,
Latin, French, Spanish,
comprehensive social studies,
health and physical education (K-
12), or music (K-12).These
secondary programs have been
granted program approval by the
Pennsylvania Department of
Education. Students must complete
an approved program listed in the
Handbook for Teacher Education,
which will, in most cases, closely

Online LibraryL SeamanGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1992/93-1995/96) → online text (page 64 of 126)