Lambeth Palace Library.

Art treasures of the Lambeth library. A description of the illuminated mauscripts, etc; online

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John HunferIK


I 96, Piccadilly, London, W.


PriDp Council Cracts.


\. Ecclesiastical Cases.

II. Patent Cases.

Dedicated to the Right Honourable Barox Hatherley.
Royal 8vo., pp. 75, is. 6c/.

'* This is No. III. of a series of which the first two are already
well known, and duly appreciated wherever they are known. Able
as the others are, this far surpasses them in weight, wit, and crush-
ing argument. They deserve a leading article to themselves, and
if we content ourselves with a brief notice it is only in the hope that
we shall be able to say enough to induce our readers to procure
the tracts themselves. They must interest every clergyman in
his official character, and touch every Englishman in his love of
liberty and justice." — Church Review.

CASE OF "THE 4,700." Dedicated to the Lord Bishop
OF London, is.

"The wonderful parallel between the two cases must strike every
reader.'' — The Church Times.


Dedicated to His Grace the Archbishop of York. is.

" . . . . This most useful pamphlet .... The pamphlet should
be bought." — The Literary Churchman.

" A scathing reply to the judgment from the writings of Dr.
Stephens himself."

Basil Montagu Pickering.

SAD TONES FOR SICK TIMES. By Vox et Praeterea Nihil.
1870. Crown 8vo., 3s.

This littlo voliimo is full of clever satire ; it requires from the
riiidcT a rtasonablc amount of knowledge of what is going on around
liim, especially in ecclesiastical matters, for there is much more
wit in every one of the thirteen i)ieccs contained in the volume
th;in appears on the surface. It contains an admirable satire On
the Irish Church. On the Lord Bishop and the Lord Mayor, On
Convocation. On the Two Infallibles Protestant and Papal, On
Oxford, On the Friends of Prosperity, On the Pope of Canterbury
and the Privy Council, A New Version of Sam Butler's '• He does
not Pray but Prosecute," On the Lectionary Revisionaries, and On
the Ritual Commissioners, this last is perhaps the best of the whole,
it is certainly the most severe and the most pregnant with by-play
and double entendre.

POETRY FOR CHILDREN. By Charles and Mary Lamb.
Fcap. Bvo., with woodcut initials, head and tailpieces, cloth,
35. bd.

Also on sale copies of nearly all of the publications of my late
father, William Pickering. All orders, if not sent direct, should
distinctly specify " Pickering's edition," as imitations are othernise
frequently substituted.

1 96, Piccadilly, London, W.

2ivt Creasurefi of tl)e JLambetl)

' jibf^/'**^' h€r, '!!>&- nvnrr.

Jjr"^4.v A. B<Aj~U JiUfui ^^^^'^^



Archiep- Lib. Lambetb .

^rt Creasures of t\)t Hambetf)























FTIS Manual, pretending to no deep biblio-
graphical refearch, or fkilled art-knowledge,
appears with the one aim of giving a faithful
defcription of the " Art Treafures " in Lam-
beth Library.

Under this title are comprifed the illuminated MSS.

and fome of the illuftrated books which have never been

J-pecially defcribed, and are only generally known by the

Catalogue of the MSS. compiled by Dr. J. H. Todd,

and pubHfhed in 1812.

Thefe examples of illuminated art, and their preferva-
tion in the Archiepifcopal Library, feem to demand for
them greater attention than they have yet received, and
this book is now offered as an afliftance to the artift,
archasologift, and general ftudent.

To His Gr^ce the Lord Archbifhop of Canterbury
I beg to exprefs fincere gratitude for allowing drawings
to be made of fome of the beft examples of illuminated
art, and alfo for the permiflion to publifh this work.

To Henry Shaw, Efq., F.S.A., I am much indebted
for valuable hints as to the choice of illuftrations ; to

viii Preface,

Richard Sims, Kfq., of the Britifh Mufeum, for ready
affiftance on various points of detail, and alfo to friends
for occafional fuggeftions.

The coft of illuftrating in colour has precluded the
pofTibility of employing that procefs, but every care has
been' taken to fecure a faithful reproduction of the
originals in outline lithography, by Mr. J, A. Burt.

As a " fir ft attempt" on fo technical and inexhauftible
a fubjed, I afk the indulgence of my critical readers,
who well know the difficulty in compiling, from fuch
abundant materials, an epitome at once concife and

Owing to the limited nature of a manual, the de-
fcriptions muft be fomewhat brief, but copious references
have been made from the works of able and well-known
writers, thus endeavouring to combine as much infor-
mation as poffible in the pages of a book written during
the intervals of fcanty leifure.

S. W. K.

Lambeth Library,



SHE beginning of St. John's Gofpel, from the Gofpels
of MacDurnan. Ninth century.

{To face title-page.')

Autographs of fome of the Archbifhops. Ban-
croft, 1604, to Tenifon, 171 6, &c. .....

" The Song of the great multitude in Worftiip." From the
Apocalypfe. Fo. 8. Lambeth MS. 209. End of Thirteenth
century ..........

" St. John falling down to vvorfhip the Angel." From the Apo-
calypfe. Fo. 39. Lambeth MS. 209. ....

Initial B. The Genealogical or JefTe tree, the commencement of
the " Beatus." From Pfalter. Fo. 2. Lambeth MS. 233.
Fourteenth century .......

The Marriage of Henry, Emperor of Rome, to Maude, daughter
of Henry the Firft of England. From the St. Albans
Chronicle, Lambeth MS. No. 6. Fo. 122. Fifteenth
century .........

The Signing of the Treaty of Arras. From the fame. Fo. 251/'.

Initial C. From St. Jerome's verfion of the Bible. Fo. 182.
Lambeth MS. No. 3. Twelfth century ....



Ztt Zxtaimts of tl)e JLambetl)


|HERE is general evidence to fhow that a
colleflion exifted in the very early hiftory of
the Palace, but the firfl: reliable date is the
foundation of the Library by Archbifhop
Bancroft, in 1610. That Primate, by his
will, gave all his books to his fucceflbrs, the Archbifhops
of Canterbury for ever, " provided they bound themfelves
to the neceflary afllirances for the continuance of fuch books
to the Archbifhops fucceffively," otherwife they were be-
queathed " to his Majefty's College, at Chelfea, if to be
eredled within fix years or otherwife to the publique
Library of the Univerfity of Cambridge." Bancroft's
fucceflbr, Archbifhop Abbot (161 1-33), carried out thefe
injundlions, by care being taken of the collection, and
alfo by leaving his own books to the Lambeth Library,
It is now difficult to fketch the hiftory of the collection,
for the troublous times of the Civil war were at hand ;
and according to Ducarel, we learn that Archbifhop
Laud's Books and MSS. were plundered by Colonel
Scott, in 1644. After that Prelate's death. Parliament


2 T^he Library.

being about to feize on the Library, Selden, fearing the
danger of total difperfion, fuggefted to the Univerfity of
Cambridge, their right to the books in accordance with
Bancroft's will, as above-mentioned. Thither they were
transferred, till the reftoration reinftated the Archbifhops,
when the colledlion was reclaimed by Juxon (1660-63),
but he, dying before the books were reftored, it was left
to his fucceflbr, Archbifhop Sheldon, (1663-78), to fee
them replaced at Lambeth. This Primate, by his will,
bequeathed a portion of his own library " towards the
encreafe and improvement of the publique library of the
See of Canterbury, now fettled at Lambeth houfe."
From the foregoing ftatements we have feen that Arch-
bifhops Bancroft and Abbot gave largely to the collec-
tion ; of Laud's bequefts very little remains. That
Prelate's benefactions to the Bodleian Library and St.
John's College, Oxford, are well known, but to Lambeth
he is underftood to have given only among the MSS. three
or more volumes, one of which, however (No. 943) is
of intereft, being defcribed as a '* colledion of papers
formerly belonging to Archbifhop Laud ; many of them
written by his own hand, and moft of them endorfed by

There are a few fmall books which bear marks of
having belonged to him, but whether they came into the
library by his gift or afterwards, through fome other
fource, it is hard to determine.

Archbifhop Sancroft (1678), though the printed
books owe nothing to him, took great pains with the
MSS. having had many of them rebound, and had ac-
tually placed his colledion for the ufe of his fuccefTors, but
upon his deprivation, prefented it to Emmanuel College,
Cambridge, of which he had been Mafter. We hear of
no bequefls from Archbifhop Tillotfon (1691-5), but

The Library. 3

Tenifon (i 695-1716), bequeathed a portion of his
library to Lambeth, a part to St. Paul's Cathedral, and
a part to the library which he had founded in St. Mar-
tin's-in-the-Fields. Many of the Lambeth books contain
his infcriptions, copious notes or autograph fignatures.
During the next fifty years, when the See was filled
by the Primates Wake, Potter, Herring, and Hutton
(17 1 6-1 757), few additions were made. Archbifhop
Seeker (1758-68), befides expenditure in improvement,
dire6led by his will all the books in his own library, of
which no copies exifted in the Archiepifcopal collec-
tion, to be added to it. Archbifhop Cornwallis (1768-
1783), caufed the large colledlion of trads to be
arranged and bound, and Archbifhops Manners-Sutton
(1805-1828), and Howley (1828-48), largely contributed
to the theological department. Hitherto, no mention
has been made of the valuable colledlion of MSS. and
their benefaftors, which has been referved for fpecial
mention. The MSS. numbering in all fome 1,300
volumes, are divided into feven feries or fets ; and named
after their refpedlive donors, viz :

1. Lambeth MSS., Nos. 1-576, given by feveral

2. Wharton, S77'595i thofe of Henry Wharton,
purchafed by Archbifhop Tenifon.

3. Carew, ^96-638, thofe formerly belonging to
George, Lord Carew, purchafed by Tenifon.

4. Tenifon, 639-923, colledled and given by Arch-
bifhop Tenifon.

5. Gibfon, 929-942. Formerly belonged to Arch-
bifhop Tenifon, who gave them to his librarian, Edmund
Gibfon, who direded them to be depofited at Lambeth.

6. Mifcellaneous, 943-1174. Prefented by various

4 T^he Library.

7. Manners-Sutton (1175-1221). Thofe purchafed
and prcfented by Archbifhop Manners-Sutton ; princi-
pally the colledion of the late Profeflbr Carlyle.

The remaining manufcripts more properly belong to
the clafs of Records, and include the very valuable feries
of the Regifters of the Archbifhops of Canterbury, from
Peckham (1274) to Potter (1744) ; Surveys of Church
Lands, circ. 1650, Chartae and other mifcellaneous collec-
tions of an ecclefiaftical charadler, all of which are defcribed
in Dr. J. H. Todd's printed catalogue of the MSS. 1 8 1 2.

As the word " Regifter " may lead to mifapprehenfion
by fome, I may ftate that thefe volumes contain, in
general, the account of each Archbifhop's confecration or
appointment, records of inftitution to benefices, lifts of
perfons ordained, and a number of important wills. The
Epifcopal Regifters in the feveral cathedral libraries em-
body moft of thefe particulars, thofe of Canterbury and
York alfo contain proceedings with the fuffragans, re-
cords of Convocation and Councils. The former are ren-
dered doubly valuable by an elaborate index in fixty-
feven volumes, compiled by Dr. Ducarel, librarian at

The nature and value of the library (both Printed
Books and MSS.) is fo well recognized, that to enlarge
upon its merits would be here out of place. It may
however, be interefting to mention that moft of the
volumes are diftinguiftied by the arms or initials on the
covers, of fuccefti ve Primates and other donors, while auto-
graphs and memorandaon the title-pages or fly-leaf, record
noted names and fupply links of ownerftiip. The Library,
confifting of nearly 30,000 volumes, formerly arranged
in the galleries over the then ftanding cloifters, is now
depofited in the Great Hall, rebuilt by Archbiftiop
Juxon about 166 1, and beautifully arranged for the


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Hdri ■ yiJ^xYhm

Jomns A.Barb,lji£tw .

T^he Library. 5

purpofe by Mr. Blore, archited about 182,8, at the coft
of Archbifhop Howley.

The roof of noble dimenfions and refembling thofe
of Weftminfter Hall, Eltham and Hampton Court
Palaces, is built of Englifh oak, and on feveral parts of
the woodwork the arms of Juxon and the See of Can-
terbury are carved. At the north-eaft end of the Hall,
is a window, on which many of the armorial bearings of
the Archbifhops are painted. Here, are alfo portions of
ftained glafs which have been removed from other parts
of the Palace to this window. Other interefting memo-
rials, which more properly belong to the Palace itfelf,
can be fully ftudied in the county hiftories, or hand-
books of London.

My fketch would be incomplete without naming
fome of the eminent men who have fucceffively had
the loving care of this famous colledtion. One of
the earlieft Librarians, and appointed by Archbifhop
Bancroft, was Henry Wharton, M.A.,the learned author
of the "Anglia Sacra," and a hoft of works whofe
titles are too numerous to record here ; he died at the
early age of thirty-one. The next, Colomiez or Colo-
mefius, a learned French Proteftant, came to this country
at the invitation of Ifaac Voffius, then Canon of Windfor;
his " Galha Orientalis," or an account of fuch French
writers as were fkilled in the Oriental languages, is one
among a number of fimilar works by his pen. Edmund
Gibfon, afterwards Bifhop of London, was appointed by
Archbifhop Tenifon in 1700. The Catalogue of the
printed books was firft drawn up by him, of which a fair
copy was made by Dr. Wilkins in 17 18 in three volumes
folio. This Bilhop's tranflation of the Saxon Chronicle,
his edition of Camden, and, above all, his well-known
" Codex Juris Ecclefiaftici Angllcani " atteft his learning

6 T^he Library.

His fuccefTor, Dr. Ibbott, appointed by Archbifliop Teni-
fon in 1708, is chiefly known by his " Boyle ledlures."

Dr. David Wilkins, the next librarian, continued the
Catalogue of the MSS. and Printed Books. His fervices
to the library were great, but his fame perhaps refts
rather on his various publications ; viz. his edition of
Seidell's works, 1726, of the Anglo-Saxon Laws, 1721,
and his great and celebrated " Concilia Magnas Britan-
niai et Hiberniae " which he publifhed in 1737 in four
volumes folio. His fucceflbr Dr. J. H. Ott, a learned
Swifs, was appointed by Archbifliop Wake. Dr. Ducarel,
appointed by Archbifhop Hutton in 1757, retained the
office during the Primacies of Seeker, Cornwallis, and
Moore. Dr. Ducarel, a moft induftrious antiquarian writer,
has efpecially linked his name with Lambeth Library, in
the compilation of various Catalogues and Lidexes.
The Catalogues of the printed books, begun by Bifliop
Gibfon and continued by Dr. Wilkins, were augmented
by Ducarel, down to the time of Archbifhop Cornwallis.
The Catalogue of Archbifhop Seeker's books, another of
the Pamphlets and Tradls, and above all, Indexes in
67 volumes to the Regiflers of the Archbifhops of Can-
terbury from Peckham to Potter, were proofs of Ducarel's
untiring induftry.

Dr. J. H. Todd, Archdeacon of Cleveland, dif-
tinguifhed his librarianfhip by compiling and printing in
18 1 2 "A Catalogue of the Archiepifcopal MSS." &c.
A folio volume of prefent reference and valuable fervice.

The name and repute of Dr. Maitland, who held the
poft, during Archbifhop Howley's primacy, is flill
frefh in the memory of many fcholars and fludents.
As the author of the " Dark Ages," " EfTays on the
Reformation " and other books, his name will live, while
he no lefs contributed to the value of the Library by

The Library. j

publifhing his well-known works : " A lift of feme
of the Early Printed Books in Lambeth Library," 8vo.
1843 ' followed by "An Index of fuch Englifh books
printed before the year MDC. as are now in the Archi-
epifcopal Library at Lambeth." Svo. 1845.

The Rev. William Stubbs, M.A. Regius ProfefTor of
Modern Hiftory at Oxford, held the poft of librarian
for a few years. Among xht fever al learned hiftorical
works compiled or edited by him may be named one
(now in progrefs) which is entitled, *' Councils and Ec-
clefiaftical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ire-
land," edited in conjunction with the Rev. A. W.
Haddan, B.D., after Spelman and Wilkins ; a fmaller
though very ufeful book is the '^ Regiftrum facrum Angli-
canum " an attempt to exhibit the courfe of Epifcopal
fucceffion in England." 4to. 1858.

The lofs of his recent fervices in affording fcholarly
aid to all who confulted the MSS. and Books, will be
long felt and gratefully remembered.

In 1868 certain alterations, effected by the late Arch-
bifhop Longley, approved by the Ecclefiaftical Com-
miffioners, and afterwards enforced by an Order in
Council, rendered the library much more acceflible to all
ftudents and literary men.^

The memory of one is ftill living, who, as Honorary
Curator, difplayed an unwearied intereft in the welfare of
the library; I allude to the late Archdeacon of London,
the Venerable W, Hale Hale, M. A, and with adding a
tribute to his valuable but fhort-lived fervices, my {ketches
of thefe eminent men are brought to an appropriate clofe.

' The Library is open on Mondays, Wednefdays, and Fridays, from
ten to three, except during the Vacations, of which due announcement
is given beforehand.


" Glimpfes of glory, ne'er forgot

That telJ like gleams on a funfet Tea,

What once hath been — what now is not,
But, oh ! what again (hall brightly be."

JHE fignificance of illuminated MSS. may
be confidered in their relations to hiJlor)\
Jymholijm^ and pra5fical ujes.

The importance thefe feveral divifions
aflume, is well known to all who have
been aided by illuminations in illuftrating Tome work of
art, and the feveral characfleriftics of ftyle, execution, and
chronological data have been treated by greatly expe-
rienced writers on the fubjecft.

The following Jketch fimply endeavours to throw out
reflexions and fuggeftions, occafioned by this threefold



I. History.

|ROM remote ages the embellifhment of manu-
fcript appears to have been cuftomary, and to
have advanced or receded with the current of

The Egyptian hieroglyphics executed on fcrolls made

Hijiory. 9

of the papyrus, or common rufh of the Nile, were
rendered more attradlive by colour ornament. The
fubfequent fubftitution of vellum or parchment for
leaves of papyrus gave greater fcope for decoration,
which was further enriched, by the employment as a
groundwork, of purple and rofe colours, produced by the
procefs of ftaining. During the early centuries of the
Chriftian era, illuminations, after a claflical and oriental
model, pofTefled a great deal of important interefl in
many particulars ; and, though executed under declining
relations, are very valuable, as illuftrating the painter's
art at a period when claffical traditions were faft dif-
appearing. The libraries in Rome, Florence, Milan
and Vienna, poflefs fplendid examples of illuminated
MSS. of the above-mentioned flyles.

As a few, among many examples, it will be fufficient
to mention the "Vatican Virgil," a celebrated Homer in
the Ambrofian Library at Milan; the "Eufebian Canons"
preferved in the Britifh Mufeum; and the *' Codex Ar-
genteus" of Ulphilas, at Upfal in Sweden.

The focial and political revolutions of the Latin Em-
pire reduced the pidlorial art from its comparative
excellence, and it fought a new home and protedion in
the greater tranquillity of Weftern Europe.

It has generally been admitted that the fpread of illu-
mination in Ireland has been owing to the eftablifhment
of Chriftianity and the various monaftic fchools, of which
that of St. Columba (who was born a.d. 521), was the
moft renowned. We thus fee that religion has in all
ages been the handmaid of the Arts ; while laymen in
early times fpent large fums as offerings for the Church,
efpecially in the decoration of illuminated books ; thus a
field was now open for new countries to create diftindtive
fchools of pidorial embellifliment.

I o IntroduSlory .

The celebrated and unique Anglo-Irifh fchool, of which
fuch fine examples exift in the libraries of Dublin,
London, Oxford and a few other depofitories, flourilhed
from the 6th to the loth century ; fimultaneoufly, the
Anglo-Saxon, and abroad, the Charlemagne ftyle,
aflerted their diftindive features. The charadleriftics
of all thefe fchools remained in greater or lefs force till
the 1 2th century, when their more fpecial indications
gradually difappeared, or were merged into the next
prevailing ftyle. In the three following centuries the
monafteries maintained a regular eftablilhment, including
at leaft a ftafF of artifts, copyifts and binders, for the
production of illuminated books.

During this period fo many influences were at work,
that the greateft amount of defign, ingenuity, and ori-
ginality was difplayed in the produdlions either of native
or foreign artifts.

Several caufes contributed to the combination of
mingled charadleriftics in the fchools of illumination.

The internal commotions of England, from the time of
the Danifti and Norman conqueft to the period of the
Reformation, as well as her relations and wars with
foreign countries, influenced art MSS., and we can trace
in the tranfitional ftyle of illumination, the varied influ-
ences which brought about thefe changes.

Notwithftanding fuch fluduations, diftind fchools of
embellifliment were formed, difplaying fpecial features,
and caufing them always to be regarded as hiftoric divi-
fions in the chronology of illumination. The emigration
and conftant movements of the religious orders affeded
the hiftory of art MSS., for early miflionaries and others
in their travels failed not to carry their devotional and
fervice books with them, thus, unwittingly tranfporting

Hijiory. 1 1

defigns of one country into another. For example, at
Vienna, St. Gall, and Bobbio in Italy, places famed for
their monafteries, illuminated books of the Irifh fchool
of art have been found.

Religious fentiment entered largely into the treatment
of illuminated art, and it is interesting to obferve how
the chief incidents of Scripture and Catholic faith, are
rendered according to the fpirit of the time. Thus, at
the end of the 13th century, both at home and abroad,
the reproduction of certain figurative reprefentations was
abandoned, and inftead thereof, a vigorous tranfcription
from a6lual life was developed.

" We find alfo," fays a diftinguifhed authority. Sir
M. D. Wyatt, " that the miniature ornament of every
period, reflects on a diminifhed fcale, and frequently in a
highly concentrated form, the leading fpirit which per-
vades the greater revolutions of monumental art."

The wars of the Crufades, by bringing communi-
cation between Eaftern and Weftern Europe, led to a
change in art, efpecially by the re-introdu6hion of the
leading features of the Byzantine fchool on the medieval

French and Flemifh illuminations may be faid to have
arifen partly, from the communication of Great Britain
with thofe countries, united with the fettlement of the
Flemings in England, and a variety of incidental circum-
ftances. In the latter fchool, the improvements in
pi6lorial art, introduced by Van Eyck, influenced to a
great extent the illuminifts of England and France, of
which, the pages of the celebrated Bedford Mifial, in
the Britifli Mufeum, the Pfalter, and Devotional Books
of the Due de Berri, in the Imperial (now National)

1 3 4 5 6 7

Online LibraryLambeth Palace LibraryArt treasures of the Lambeth library. A description of the illuminated mauscripts, etc; → online text (page 1 of 7)