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GENEVIEVE




MAY I BUY ONE OF YOUR ORANGES?"



**
II



GENEVIEVE



A STORY O F FRENCH SCHOOL DAYS



BY



LAURA SPENCER PORTOR




NEW YORK

E. R DUTTON 8c CO., INC.

PUBLISHERS



3-3*



COPYRIGHT, 1914
BY

B. P. BUTTON & COMPANY

First Edition October, 1914

Second Edition July, 1915

Third Edition September, 1918

Fourth Edition April, 1922

Fifth Edition September, 1925

Sixth Edition February, 1927

Seventh Edition February, 1929

Eighth Edition November, 1932



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PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES O7 AMERICA



To

Three Children
And Others Whom I Love



*



CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGH

A LETTER TO THE ONE WHO READS THIS BOOK . vii

I A LETTER AND A TELEGRAM .... I

II MADEMOISELLE MALLET'S SCHOOL . . 16

III THE "LAST CLASS" 27

IV COMPARING NOTES 35

V A NEW FRIEND 44

VI ANOTHER SCHOLAR 60

VII A DISCOVERY .69

VIII MY NORMANDY 78

IX NEWS FOR PHILIPPE 99

X PARIS, I SALUTE THEE no

XI A NEW PLEASURE 135

XII THE HERO OF FRANCE 145

XIII LAURE BEGINS TO UNDERSTAND . . . 165

XIV A DAY TOGETHER 178

XV A HEROINE, IN A BOOK ..... . . 192

XVI NEW FLA^S ... . . . ... . . . 202

XVII TELLING THE OTHERS ..... 220

XVIII LETTERS 01 -I-M POF.T AN CE' 231

XIX A DECISION ; 237

XX GENEVIEVE AND DELPHINS . . . . 246

XXI ON THE WAY ; ' . ;* . . ., . 263

XXII THE ARRIVAL , . 269

XXIII MARSEILLES ........... 281

XXIV ON THE SEA 291

XXV GOOD NEWS . , . 300

XXVI AT LAST 309

NOTES . 319



* *



e *



A LETTER TO THE ONE WHO READS

THIS BOOK.

DEAR SCHOOLMATE:

You know by this time, if you have read my
letters in the other books of the Little School-
mate Series, that two kinds of immigrants came
to America in the early days before the Ameri-
can Revolution had made us a nation. There
were those whose first desire was home-mak-
ing : people who, like the English and the Ger-
mans, had suffered in their native land because
of poverty or religion, and who came across the
sea to turn the wilderness into a home-place
for fathers and mothers and children. And
then there were those whose first desire was
worldly glory : America did not mean "home"
to them, it meant a rich prize gold mines and
precious stones, they hoped to be taken pos-
session of in the name of their king, who was
either the King of Spain or the King of
France, for these adventurers were Spaniards
and Frenchmen.

vii



viii GENEVIEVE

If America is great to-day, she owes the be-
ginnings of all her greatness to these two kinds
of settlers, the home-makers and the ex-
plorers. It was the home-makers who tilled
her fields and built her factories and fought for
her independence. It was the explorers who
stretched her boundaries from the Atlantic to
the Pacific and from the Great Lakes to the
Gulf of Mexico, it was they who opened
her highways and waterways to commerce.
Our eagle needs both wings, if she would fly.

Now I do not want you to think that the
Spaniards and the French never made homes in
the New World; that would be quite a wrong
idea. The Spaniards, as we all know from our
American History, settled in some of the West
Indies, in Mexico and parts of South America,
and established missions in California ; and the
French founded the cities of Quebec and Mon-
treal in Canada, and New Orleans and St.
Louis in the United States; but they seem to
have been less interested in settling than in ex-
ploring, and they were certainly less wise in
the way they tried to keep house. The Cuban
War of 1898 and the Mexican Civil War of
1913 were both the results of the poor house-



A LETTER ix

keeping of the early Spanish settlers ; and Que-
bec and Montreal might not be British cities
now if the French had had the true home-
feeling for them from the beginning.

It is of the French that I am going to write
to-day. If you want to know what I have to
say about the Spanish discoverers, you can find
it in my letter in the first book of this series,
In Sunny Spain, by Katharine Lee Bates.

The Huguenots were perhaps our most
promising French colonists, for they, like the
English Puritans of Massachusetts and the
German Protestants of Pennsylvania, were
seeking a home for their families, where they
could worship God in their own way. A num-
ber of them were scattered through the differ-
ent colonies, and as they were industrious and
often men of education they were valuable in
the communities where they settled. But when
they tried to found colonies all their own, they
failed. In 1562 a company of Huguenots set
out for the New World, with a certain Jean
Ribaud as their leader. They landed at the
mouth of the Port Royal River in what is now
South Carolina; but Ribaud had to go back to
France and the colonists became discouraged



x GENEVIEVE

by the hardships and abandoned the colony.
Another company settled on the St. John's
River in Florida, in 1564; but these fared even
worse, for the King of Spain heard of them and
said they were trespassing on his land, and his
Admiral, Fernando Menendez, cruelly massa-
cred the whole colony.

But it is high time we turned away from
thinking about the things the French didn't
do in America, and fixed our minds on the
things they did do ; for those are the things that
count. So I shall leave you to read for your-
selves, in an American history, of the quarrels
between the English and the French, called,
King William's War, Queen Anne's War, King
George's War, and the Old French and Indian
War, no doubt you already know that those
quarrels ended in defeat for France, and I
shall tell you, instead, of their adventures that
succeeded, their deeds that live.

The glory of those living deeds echoes to-day
in the names of two great rivers, the St. Law-
rence and the Mississippi.

In 1535, a Frenchman of Normandy, Jacques
Cartier by name, came by chance to the
mouth of the beautiful river that every school-



A LETTER xi

child knows as the St. Lawrence. As winter
was near at hand and Cartier knew that this
north country must be very cold, he turned
about and went home, after leaving a cross with
the arms of France upon it on the shore, to
show that he had taken possession. But in the
spring he came again and went up the river a
long way. In one place he found a little In-
dian hamlet at the foot of a steep and rocky
hill, and he climbed the hill and looked out over
the fair land. And it was on the side of this
hill that Samuel de Champlain, another Nor-
man explorer, was to build Quebec, in 1608.
But Cartier did not know that; he came down
to his boat again and went on up the river until
he came to the island where later Montreal was
to rise, also founded by Champlain. Then he
went home again and got leave from the king
to found a farming colony on the shores of the
river. You see he had his dreams of making
the wilderness blossom.

But the King was not wise about colonies,
and the first people who were allowed to join
Cartier were poverty-stricken gentlemen and
ruffians whose one idea was to get rich quick;
and they were too impatient and lazy to till the



xii GENEVIEVE

soil. And then it occurred to the King that
his prisons were very crowded and that there
was a land empty of Frenchmen on the other
side of the ocean, so he sent a ship-load of con-
victs, and poor Jacques Cartier's colony was a
failure.

But he had taken possession of Canada for
France, and soon other Frenchmen followed in
his footsteps; gay young fellows who made
friends with the Indians and lived in the woods,
hunting and fishing and falling in love with the
pretty Indian girls. Coureurs de bois these
adventurers were called, runners of the
woods.

But besides these lawless young men there
came missionaries, holy men, of the Roman
Catholic faith, whose hearts were full of love
and pity for the heathen savages, and who
braved all sorts of hardships, and even suffered
frightful martyrdom in order to bring these
poor people to a knowledge of Christ.

And there were settlements in Acadia,
which we now call Nova Scotia and New
Brunswick. You must know something about
the Acadians, for Longfellow tells about them
in his poem called "Evangeline," and every



A LETTER xiii

American schoolchild reads Longfellow's
poems.

And Champlain discovered some of the great
lakes, as well as the smaller one which bears his
name. And his two settlements, Quebec and
Montreal, on the St. Lawrence, grew larger and
more important, year by year, until now they
are two of the most important cities in Canada,
We think of Canada to-day as an English
country, a part of the British Empire, but for
more than two hundred years from about
1535 when Cartier took possession, to 1759
when Wolf and Montcalm fought their battle
at Quebec, Canada belonged to France ; Eng-
land has held the country only a little more
than one hundred and fifty years, counting
backward from 1914. French customs and the
French language still persist in parts of
Canada. Quebec is like a beautiful bit of Old
France ; and the English conquerors are proud
of that French beauty, they cherish it almost as
lovingly as if it were of their own making.

But this letter is not about the English; I
have still to tell you the story of the other river
which the Frenchmen explored, and it begins
'(the story, not the river) in Canada.



xiv GENEVIEVE

In the seventeenth century there lived, about
nine miles below Montreal, a Norman gentle-
man from Rouen, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la
Salle. A very different sort of man, this, from
the gay, improvident coureurs de bois who were
content to live from hand to mouth, setting
traps for furry creatures. The Sieur de la
Salle had dreams of empire in his heart.

Now you must know that Europeans were
still trying as in the days of Columbus to
find an easy way westward from Europe to
India and China. If they could bring home the
treasures of the East spices, silks, precious
woods and precious stones, by a short cut,
their everlasting fortunes would be made. At
least, so they thought. And if a Frenchman
could find this short cut and claim it for France
and bar out the other nations, or charge them a
heavy toll, then France might become one of
the richest and most powerful countries in the
world.

This was one of the dreams of La Salle. He
had heard, through some friendly Indians, of
a river which rose, as they said, in their coun-
try and flowed westward; and if one followed it
one came, after eight or nine months, to the



A LETTER xv

sea. All of La Salle's life, thereafter, was
filled with a dream of the river and of how it
might bring glory to France.

At first he thought that it must empty into
the Pacific Ocean, but when he had explored
the valley of the Ohio, and the Illinois country,
and had gone perhaps as far as where Louis-
ville stands to-day, he concluded that the river,
by turning south, emptied into the Gulf of
Mexico. This ended his dream of a short cut
to China, but he was soon dreaming another
dream. He wanted to build a great empire for
France in what is now the middle and the
western part of the United States; and again
the river was his hope, for he dreamed of it as
a highway with cities on its shores and busy
boats full of merchandise hurrying back and
forth on a perpetual market day.

On February 6, 1682, we are told, La Salle
started again to explore his river. He went
down to what is now Peoria, and thence on the
Illinois River in bark canoes till he came to the
Mississippi. He discovered the mouths of the
Missouri, the Ohio, the Arkansas and the Red
Rivers. This part of the river, as far as the
Arkansas, had already been traversed by the



xvi GENEVIEVE

Sieur Joliet and Pere Marquette, two other
Frenchmen, who came into the Mississippi by
way of the Wisconsin River, and as I told you
in another letter, it was really De Soto, the
Spaniard, who discovered the river. But to
La Salle belongs the honor of going to the
river's mouth. On April 6, he came to a part
of the river so wide that it seemed like an im-
mense watery plain. This, he thought, was the
beginning of the mouth, so he went on shore
and planted a cross on the bank of the river,
with a leaden tablet at its foot, on which was
graven, in French, "In the name of his most
Christian Majesty the King, Louis XIV, King
of France and of Navarre." Then he and his
men sang the hymn which begins :

"The royal banners forward go "

and then the Te Deum : and they fired off three
volleys of musketry and named the new empire
Louisiana, after "his most Christian Maj-
esty."

In 1684, after he had been to France to in-
terest the King in the new empire of dreams,
and after he had succeeded in obtaining more
men and more ships, La Salle set out to find the



A LETTER xvii

mouth of the river from the sea. And now
comes the tragedy of the story, for the ex-
plorers did not keep close enough in shore when
they came to the Gulf of Mexico, and they
missed the mouth of the river and strayed as
far as what is now Texas. La Salle tried to
continue his search by land, but the great river
seemed to have vanished, like a dream, off the
face of the earth. Some of the men fell ill,
and of course they blamed La Salle for their
misfortunes. And there were ugly quarrels;
and at last one day two of the discontented
men hid in the woods and shot La Salle as he
was passing by. So he died, for the sake of
his dream.

And now, as the story books say, the years
passed. France was busy about other mat-
ters, and almost forgot there was an empire
waiting to be built in the wilderness ; until one
day somebody whispered that the English were
going to send out an expedition to take pos-
session of Louisiana ; and naturally, as soon as
they found that someone else wanted their neg-
lected prize, the French immediately discov-
ered that they valued it themselves. So they
sent out Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur dTberville, to



xviii GENEVIEVE

see if the tales that La Salle had told of the
country were true.

This gentleman, like Cartier and Champlain
and La Salle, had Norman blood in his veins ;
and pioneer blood as well, for he was a Cana-
dian of Montreal. With him, on this journey
of exploration, went his younger brother, not
yet twenty years old, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne,
Sieur de Bienville; and a good part of the
success of the expedition was due to this sunny
tempered boy with his genius for making
friends with the Indians and his quickness in
learning their strange languages.

It was in the autumn of 1698, thirteen or
fourteen years after the death of La Salle, that
Iberville and his brother Bienville set sail from
Brest, in France, to find the mouth of the great
river. After stopping a while in St. Domingo,
in the West Indies, they sailed north to some-
where about Apalachicola Bay on the coast of
Florida, and there they turned westward, keep-
ing close to the shore so as not to make La
Salle's mistake and miss the river's mouth. On
January 26, they came by chance into the har-
bor of Pensacola (you will enjoy this voyage
better if you trace it out on a map of the Gulf



A LETTER xix

coast in your Geography), where they found
some Spaniards who were too hungry and un-
happy at that time to care where the French-
men were going. Iberville, however, was
careful not to tell them, for the Spaniards and
the French explorers were always jealous of
each other. So, after resting a bit they
pushed westward once more, to Mobile Bay,
where young Bienville scraped acquaintance
with the Indians and learned from them of a
river called Malbanchia, evidently the Missis-
sippi that he and his brother were looking for.
They were getting "hotter and hotter," as we
say when we play Hunt the Thimble, but still
the mysterious river hid itself.

And now the weather turned against them.
They were drifting among little islands and
sandbanks, and they had to spend two stormy
nights on one of these banks, with the sea rag-
ing all around them. When they started off
again (they were in barges now) the waters
were so wild that they thought they should be
drowned, but they kept on, as close in shore as
possible.

And then it seemed as if the end had come,
for there rose up before them a hideous rocky



xx GENEVIEVE

cape, all black, and the wind and the water
would not let them sail round it. Three hours
they were trying to escape that threatening
rock; but at last, when it began to grow dark,
they gave up and let themselves go, straight
towards the frightful cape, thinking that one
of two things must happen: either the sea
would toss them high and dry on shore, or else
it would hurl them against the rocks, and beat
their boats and them to pieces.

But lo, something quite different took place !
As their boats rushed to destruction, the rocky
cape changed before their eyes, and instead of
one great black rock they saw that it was sev-
eral smaller rocks jutting out of the sea, with
quiet water in between. But let us read
what Iberville had to say about it in his jour-
nal:

"As I neared the rocks, I perceived that
there was a river. I passed between two of the
rocks in twelve feet of water, the sea very
heavy, where, on nearing the rocks, I found
the water sweet and with a very great cur-
rent/'

This sweet water or fresh, as we should
call it flowing so swiftly, was the Mississippi.



A LETTER xxi

The river had at last given up its secret to these
bold, persistent Frenchmen.

I wish I could take the time to tell you the
whole romantic story of the two brothers;
there are Indians in it, and pirates, and it
rings with the energy and devotion of young
Bienville. For it was the younger brother
who founded New Orleans, the city which La
Salle had seen in his dreams, years before.
Bienville began to clear the ground for the
site of the city in February, 1718, and in June
the first citizens had arrived from France,
sixty-eight of them. Four years later New
Orleans was made the headquarters of the
colonial government of the province of Louisi-
ana. It had been laid out in streets with an
open Square in the center, on the river bank.
They called the Square the Place d'Armes in
the early days, but now the New Orleans chil-
dren know it as Jackson Square; for its name
was changed in honor of General Jackson, who
fought the battle of New Orleans behind the
cotton bales in 1815. But many of the old
French names of the streets have never been
changed, and never will be, let us hope; they
bear the names of French royalty, Dauphine



xxii GENEVIEVE

Street, Conde, Chartres, Bourbon, Royale;
they are echoes of the days when French was
the native language of New Orleans; when
schoolchildren spoke no English. And still
to-day, in those old-world streets, English is
the foreign tongue, and the French descend-
ants of those early settlers speak the beautiful
language of their forefathers, although most
of them have learned English as well, so as
to be able to understand their American neigh-
bors.

But the rest of the story of Louisiana and
New Orleans you will have to hunt up for
yourself. You will find it in the history of
Louisiana, by Mr. Albert Phelps, and in Miss
Grace King's books about New Orleans. What
I have told you I learned from Mr. Phelps ; at
least it will help you to appreciate the fearless
and high-hearted enthusiasm of those first
French-Americans, who could tramp for days
in the rain, in water waist-high, through the
flooded lands of Louisiana, and then write as
did young Bienville :

"Surely this is fine work to temper the fires
of youth; but we never leave off singing and



A LETTER xxiii

laughing to show the guide that we do not
mind fatigue and that we are a different sort
of men from the Spaniards."

The French immigrants who come to the
United States to-day are not as picturesque
as those early gay adventurers, they are of two
other kinds. The true French ; many of them
educated people, teachers, dress-makers, en-
gineers, miners, clergymen, artists, servants,
who, like the scattered Huguenots of the six-
teenth century, make good citizens and are
welcomed wherever they choose to settle. As
many as 11,500 of these true French came to
America in the year 1904.

The other kind are the French Canadians,
who began to come into the United States from
Canada after the Civil War. They find work
to do in the mills and factories of New Eng-
land, and in the lumber camps of New Eng-
land, Michigan and other states bordering on
Canada. If you have ever been in New
Hampshire in the spring, when the loggers
are driving the logs down the Androscoggin
River, you know that many of the men who
are leaping about among the floating logs,



xxiv GENEVIEVE

prodding here, pulling there, to keep the great
mass from getting all jammed together, are
French Canadians.

We should welcome these immigrants more
heartily if they understood better the mean-
ing of citizenship; but those in the factories
are willing to work for such very low wages
when they first come to America that other
workmen are thrown out of work to give place
to them. And then, as their wages are low,
they cannot live decently; they crowd together
in unsanitary houses; they put their children
into the factories to work when they are too
young, unless the State laws prevent them from
doing so; they are ignorant and do not under-
stand why they should send their children to
school. So you see, they are troublesome at
first; they keep the factory inspectors and the
truant officers busy.

But the children, who are sitting beside you
in school, perhaps, already are beginning to
understand that their schooling will make them
better workers than their fathers and mothers
are, and better citizens. When they grow up
they will not be contented with the poor houses
and the poor food which seemed enough to their



A LETTER xxv

fathers and mothers; they will be ashamed to
underbid their fellow-workmen; they will say:
"Why, I went to school with that fellow; he
was my friend, I can't take the wages out of
his pocket. If he is worth so much a day to
his employer, I ought to be worth just as
much; it is up to me to make myself worth it."
Surely, this is what it means to be a school-
mate, in America; it means learning to stand
shoulder to shoulder for the good of the coun-
try that sends you to school, looking backward
for inspiration to the men who first made the
country, men like La Salle, and Bienville, and
Patrick Henry, and Washington and Lincoln;
and looking forward in high hope to the men
and women too who shall follow in those
gallant footsteps, and whose names shall be
added to the list which other schoolmates, yet
unborn, shall read. Can you look as far ahead
as that, dear schoolmate? Do you dream of
seeing your own name, one day, on that shin-
ing list of good citizens ?

Affectionately yours,

FLORENCE CONVERSE.



GENEVIEVE

CHAPTER I

A LETTER AND A TELEGRAM

COUSIN SOPHIE turned the lamp a little
higher and, readjusting her spectacles,
began rereading the letter.

"It is from my father, Cousin Sophie?"

Cousin Sophie did not answer at once.

The children were used to these delays.
Cousin Sophie kept things from them "for
their good" very often. Genevieve watched
her anxiously, but Philippe with a frown.

"He is coming back soon ? Oh, do say yes !
Is he?" Genevieve persisted.

Cousin Sophie glanced over her glasses,
which always hung a little crooked on her
nose.

"It is not polite to interrupt when one is

reading."

i



2 GENEVIEVE

Genevieve folded her hands and waited, but
with her eyes hungrily on Cousin Sophie's face.

Finally Cousin Sophie turned the last page
and folded the letter.

"What is it, please," said Genevieve, going
over and putting her hand on the back of
Cousin Sophie's chair, and not afraid to be
curious and eager.

"Another piece of folly." Cousin Sophie


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