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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



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I



MEMOIRS OF MADAME JUNOT,

DUCHESSE D'ABRANTES.



Napoleon.

Photo-Eiching.— After the Painting by Robert

Le Fevre. |



!

I



I



Napoleon, Volumk XIII,



MEMOIRS



OF



MADAME JUNOT



(DUCHESSE D'ABRANTES)



IN SIX VOLUMES
Vol. 111.



PARIS AND BOSTON
THE NAPOLEON SOCIETY

1895



EDITION DE GRAND LUXE.

Limited to Five Hundred Copies.

No 47.4



TYPOGRAPHY, RLRCTROTYPIIVG, AND
PRINTING RY JOHN WILSON AND SON,
UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.



DC

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.



CHAPTER I.



(Pages 1-11.)

The Theatres. My Boxes. The First Representation of Pinto. M.
Carion de Nisas and The Death of Montmorency. Vanhove and Louis
XIII.'s Snuff-box. Tortures of the Inquisition. Partiality for the
Theatre Feydeau, and the Performances of Elleviou. The Italian Opera.
The Duke de Mouchy's Duets with Juuot. Cimarosa. The Theatre
de Montansier. The Masquerade, a Comic Scene.



CHAPTER II.

(Pages 12-23.)

The Private Theatre of Malmaison. Esther at Madame Campan's.
Eugene Beauharnais and M. Didelot. M. de Bourrienne an Excellent
Actor. Representation of The Barber of Seville. Madame Louis Bona-
parte as Eosina. Madame Murat. Rivalry between the Companies of
Neuilly and Malmaison. Lucien Zamora and Eliza Alzira. Lovers'
Follies. My Despair and the Tight Boots. The Officer in White Satin
Slippers. The Theatrical Sabre and a Real Wound. Comic Acting of
Cambaceres. The First Consul Director of the Stage. Mr. Fox and
Bonaparte's Three Countenances. Isabey and the First Consul. General
Lallemand. Michau's Tragi-comic Adventure during the Revolution.



CHAPTER III.

(Pages 24-35.)

The Fruit of our Triumphs, and the Peace with Austria. Brilliant
Festivities at Paris. Revival of Trade. The Balls of Malmaison.
Luxury and Elegance. Negotiations at Luneville. General Brune's






VI CONTENTS.

Victories. The Archduke Charles and Marshal Bellegarde. Early
History of General Brune. His Exploits in Holland and Italy. The
Convention of Moutfaucon. The Battle of Pozzolo. Brune appointed a
Marshal of Erance. His Interview with Gustavus IV. His Disgrace.
His Command in Provence. His Tragical Death and Prophetical Verses.
Madame de Montesson and the Lieutenant of Hussars. Bonaparte
chooses to be informed of everything. Junot's Supposed Police.



CHAPTER IV.

(Pages 36-42.)

Count Louis von Cobentzel. His taste for Fetes and Frivolities.
Anecdote of his Embassy to the Court of Catherine. The Theatre at
the Hermitage. The Ambassador as Comtesse d'Escarbagnas. The New
Courier and his Despatches. Change of Costume. Victories of Bona-
parte and Diplomacy in Masquerade. Lord Whitworth. Talents and
Manners of Count von Cobentzel. Count Philip von Cobentzel,
his Successor.

CHAPTER V.

(Pages 43-50.)

The Ambassador at the Theatres. The Vaudeville. The Comedie
Fran(-aise, Fleury. All Superiority Dangerous. The Due d'Orleans
and the Blacksmith. Fleury, "King of Prussia" and the Comte de
Perigord in Prison. Paul I. and General Sprengporten. Portrait
of Madame Kecamier. Gradual Change in the State of Society.
The Bankers' Fetes. Foreigners in Paris. Death of the Emperor
Paul and Accession of Alexander. The Russians at Paris. The
Chevalier Kalitscheff and the Count Markoff.



CHAPTER VI.

(Pages 51-58.)

A Visit from Eapp. An Invitation to Malmaison. Conversation
on the Road. Rapp's Attachment to the First Consul. Chagrin and
Melancholy of Bonaparte. Uneasiness of his Two Aides-de-Camp.
Bonaparte refuses his Breakfast. A Ride on Horseback and fear of
Assassins. The Horses at Full Gallop. Deep Affliction of the First
Consul and his Conversation with Junot. A Dinner at Malmaison.



CONTENTS. Vii

The Loss of Egj'pt. Great Projects overthrown. The intended

Pillar. The Action of Nazareth. An Order of the Day the Proudest
Title of Nobility. The Picture and the Portrait.



CHAPTER VII,

(Pages 59-68.)

Mystification. The First Consul represses it. The Princess Dolgo-
rouky. Mystification of the Institute at her House. Robert. The
Catacombs. The Plank at St. Peter's.



CHAPTER VIII.

(Pages 69-77.)

Lessons in Elocution. Mysterious Visit. Ride to Issy. Made-
moiselle Clairon's House. A Waiting-maid's Costume. Mademoiselle
Clairon at Eighty Years of Age. Extraordinary Dress. The Bust
of Voltaire. The Monologue of Electra. Mademoiselle Clairon and
Talma. The Queen of Babylon without Bread. M. de Stael. Made-
moiselle Clairon relieved by the Government. She does Justice to
Mademoiselle Mars. Nightly Sound of a Pistol-shot.



CHAPTER IX.

(Pages 78-98.)

Napoleon's Smile. His Account of the Action at Algeciras and
Admiral Linois. His Joy at the Success of the French Fleet. The
Humiliation of England his most Anxious Desire. Activity in the
Ports of the Channel. The Flotilla of Boulogne. Brunet's Jest upon
the Piniches. He learns Discretion. Inundation of Pamphlets. Fre-
quent Disputes between Fouche and the First Consul. M. de Lucchesini.
A Dinner and Diplomatic Imprudence. Madame de Lucchesini. Prob-
able Authors of the Pamphlets. The Public Baths of Paris. The
Mysterious Packet. " A Fortnight of the Great Alcander." Bonaparte
and Bussy de Rabutin. Relation of my Adventure to Junot. False Con-
jectures and my Mother suspected. Pamphlets burnt by her. Letters
and more Pamphlets from my Brother. My Brother's Letter presented to
Napoleon. Dramatic Scene in the Fir?t Consul's Cabinet. Remembrance
of a Wound. Bonaparte reckons up his True Friends. His Lively
Interest in my Mother's Illness. Anecdote of the Army in Italy.



vm CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X.

(Pages 99-106.)

A Word about the Libels. Strange Ideas of Foreigners respecting
the First Consul. Scene between Lannes and Napoleon. Errors respect-
ing Tutoying. Traits of Napoleon. The Polytechnic School. The Aide-
de-camp Lacuee and the Young Enthusiast at Malmaison. The Father's
Pupil. Severity of the Abbe' Bossu. The First Consul an Examiner.
Scene in his Cabinet. The Order of Admission.



CHAPTER XL

(Pages 107-119.)

Illness of my Mother. My First Pregnancy. The Pineapple.
Madame Bonaparte's Goodness. Predictions with Cards. Wager
between the First Consul and Madame Bonaparte on the Sex of my Child.
New Year's Day. Celebration of Twelfth Day. Junot's Distraction and
his Visit to the Tuileries. Kindness of the First Consul. His IMessage.
The News of my Accouchement carried to the Tuileries. The First Con-
sul's Compliments and his Lost Wager. Extraordinary Conduct of my
Father-in-law. The Barcelonnette. St. Helena Memorial refuted.



CHAPTER XII.

(Pages 120-131.)

The Society of Artists and Literary Men. Talma's Gaiety. The
Poet D'Offreville and his Conceit. The Tragedy of Statira. The Hoax
projected. Talma's Part in it, and the Intended Reading. The Dinner-
party. An Improvisation. Visit to the Theatre. Tiercelin and The
Farce and No Farce. D'Offreville an Unintentional Performer. The
Lost Manuscript. The Poet's Despair and Good Appetite. The Poet in
the Cabriolet, and the Vicious Mare. His Lamentations. The Hackney
Coacliman.

CHAPTER XIII.

(Pages 132-146.)

Creation of the Kingdom of Etruria. The King and Queen of Etruria
in Paris. Their Son. Files and Balls given to them at Paris. Fetes of
Messieurs Talleyrand, Chaptal, and Berthier. Napoleon accompanies the



CONTENTS. ix

King to see a representation of (Edlpus, The First Consul's Opinion
of the New King. Aristocratic Measure respecting Lists of Eligible
Persons opposed by Napoleon. Institution of the Legion of Honour.
Difficulties encountered by the First Consul. Regnault de Saint Jean
d'Angely. My Mother's Conversation on the Projected Institution with
Junot. The Concordat. Cardinals Consalvi and Spina. M. de Talley-
rand authorized by the Pope to leave the Church and return to the Lay
Community. Ratification of the Concordat. Creation of Bishops by
Napoleon. Religious Ceremony in Honour of the Concordat. Display
of Female Beauty. Offensive Remark of General Delraas upon the
Ceremony. My Uncle Bien-Ayme consecrated Bishop of Metz.
His Conversation with Napoleon.



CHAPTER XIV.

(Pages 147-160.)

Death of my Mother. Junot's Kindness. Napoleon's Condolence in
my Loss. Delicacy of Lucien Bonaparte. Misunderstanding between
the Two Brothers. Lucien's Conduct in Spain. Madame Leclerc.
Ridiculous Scene with her. Creole Costume. Her Mad Project. Fail-
ure of the Expedition to Saint Domingo. Death of Leclerc, and
Return of Pauline. The Offering of the Widow's Hair.



CHAPTER XV.

(Pages 161-173.)

Peace with England. Remarkable Speech of Bonaparte to the
Belgian Deputies. Glory of France under the Consulate. Concourse of
Foreigners at Paris. English and Russian Visitors. Characteristic
Anecdote of Mr. Fox. Lord and Lady Cholmondeley. The Duchess
of Gordon and her Daughter Lady Georgiana. Public Magnificence
and Private Economy of Napoleon. Bonaparte's Fine Coat. Story told
by the First Consul to Josephine. The Power of Masses. Characteristic
of Napoleon's Policy.

CHAPTER XVI.

(Pages 174-182.)

The First Consul the Admiration of Foreigners at Paris. Eager-
ness of Foreigners to see Bonaparte. Bonaparte's Dislike of them.
The Princess with Five or Six Husbands. The Prince de Rohan and



X CONTENTS.

the Pensioned Husband. The Duchesse de Sagau and the Duchesso
de Dino. The Princess Dolgorouki. Prince Galitzin. Lord and Lady
Conyngham. Lord Whitworth and the Duchess of Dorset. Lord
Yarmouth. Prince Philip von Cobeutzel. Madame Demidoff. Napo-
leon desires me to show the Objects of Art to the Distinguished
Foreigners at Paris.

CHAPTER XVII.

(Pages 183-198.)

Our Russian and English Friends. M. von Cobentzel's Travelling
Costume. French Institute. Messieurs Denon and Millin. David
the Painter. The Steam-pumps of the Brothers Perrier. Mirabeau
and Beaumarchais. The Museum of the Louvre. The Committee
of Public Instruction. M. Denon and the Old Paintings. Original
Drawings of the Great Masters. The Gallery of Apollo. Visit to
M. Charles, the Philosopher. The Camera Obscura and M. von
Cobentzel's Secretary. The Cabinet of Medals. Vigilance of the
Police under M. de Sartines. The National Library. Its Rich Contents.
Charitable Institutions. The Barriers round Paris. Mademoiselle
Chameroi. Scene at Saint Roche. Napoleon's Anger. The Archbishop
of Paris.

CHAPTER XVIII.

(Pages 199-210.)

The First Consul's Sponsorship. Tlie Eldest Son of Madame Lannes,
and my Daughter, the First Godchildren of Bonaparte. Cardinal
Caprara and the Chapel of Saint Cloud. Napoleon's Ambassadors.
Anecdote of the Prince Regent of England and General Andre'ossy,
related by the First Consul. Madame Lannes, Madame Devaisne,
Madame de Montesquiou, and Napoleon's Preferences. Lannes the
Rolando of the French Army. My Daughter's Destiny. Ceremony
of Baptism at Saint Cloud. Cardinal Caprara's Cap. Baptismal Gifts
of the First Consul and Madame Bonaparte. Return of the Army from
Egypt. Bianca, the Heroine of the Army. M. and Madame Verdier.
Anecdotes. Marmout and his Wife. General Colbert. General Menou
and M. Maret.

CHAPTER XIX.

(Pages 211-223.)

Prolongation of Bonaparte's Consulate. Senatus Consultum.
Remarkable Answer and Prophetic Words of Napoleon. Breakfast
given to Madame Bonaparte at my House in the Rue des Champs-



CONTENTS. xi

Elysees. General Suchet and his Brother. Present of a Hundred Thou-
sand Francs. My Ball, at which the First Consul was present. Madame
Bonaparte as Erigone. The Consulate for Life. The Wish of the Nation.
Junot's Objections to the Measure. His Quarrel with Napoleon, and his
Illness. The First Consul's Conversation with me at Saint Cloud. His
Visit to Junot when 111. Jimot's Eecovery.



CHAPTER XX.

(Pages 224-235.)

Eupture with England. Bad Faith of the English Government.
Napoleon's Preparations. Lord Whitworth's Departure. Consternation
of the English at Paris. Military Preparations. Napoleon commands
Junot to arrest all the English in Paris. Napoleon grossly imposed upon
by False Statements. Colonel Green denounced. Junot's Kemonstrance
upon the Injustice of the Step. Kesult of his Discussion with the First
Consul.

CHAPTER XXI.

(Pages 236-249.)

Letter from Duroc to Junot. Conspiracy of Moreau, Pichegru, and
Georges Cadoudal. The Due d'Enghien. Drake, the English Min'ster
at Munich. Suspicions respecting the Due d'Enghien. Conversation
between Junot and the First Consul. Napoleon's Remarks on Moreau.
Conduct of Bernadotte on the 18th Brumaire. Junot's Return to Arras.
He receives Intelligence of the Death of the Due d'Enghien. In-
tended Expedition to England. Junot's Fine Division of Grenadiers.
Change effected in their Head-dress by Junot. Napoleon created
Emperor. DavoM promoted. His Peculiarities. Admiral Magou
appointed to command the Fleet to be employed in the English
Expedition.

CHAPTER XXn.

(Pages 250-262.)

Creation of the Legion of Honour and of the Grand Officers of the
Empire. Napoleon reviews the Troops at Arras. Inauguration of the
Legion of Honour. Military Ceremony at Boulogne. Madame Ney.
Arrival of the Flotilla. Unlucky Accident. Napoleon's Vexation.
Sneers in the English Journals. My Journey to Calais with Junot.
Napoleon's Curiosity. Regulations for the Court Dress of Ladies.
Napoleon's Embroidered Coat. Bonaparte's Opinions upon Ladies'



xii CONTENTS.

Dresses. Preparations for the Coronation. Arrival of the Pope.
Description of his Appearance. Amusing Incident. The Pope and
Cervoni.

CHAPTER XXin.

(Pages 263-271.)

Porniation of the New Court. Madame Lavalette. Madame de La
Rochefoucauld. Madame Maret, Madame Savary, Madame de Ca . . . y,
Mesdames Lannes and Durosnel. The Households of the Princesses.
M. d'Aligre. The Princess Eliza. Dispute between her and Napoleon.
Madame Leclerc. Her Widowhood. Marriage. The Prince Borghese.
Tlie Bride's Visit to Saint Cloud. Her Vanity. Marmont's Disgrace.
The Author of it. Votes of the Nation. Napoleon's Severity to Lucien
and Jerome. Madame Lfetitia's Maternal Feeling.

CHAPTER XXIV.

(Pages 272-278.)

Ceremony of the Coronation. Demeanour of the Emperor and the
Empress. The Crown of Charlemagne. Ominous Fall of a Stone.
Conversation with Napoleon.

CHAPTER XXV.

(Pages 279-290.)

Junot appointed Ambassador to Portugal. He hesitates to accept the
Appointment. Lord Robert Fitzgerald and his Lady. Marshal Lannes
recalled. Cambace'res. Departure of a Squadron to Dominica. Its
Success. Detailed Instructions given to me by the Emperor. Prepara-
tions for my Departure. Court Dresses and Hoops. M. d'Araujo.
Junot's Farewell Interview with Napoleon. Our Departure from Paris.
Honours paid to Junot on the Route. Arrival at Bayonne. Alphonso
PignateUi's Offer of his House at Madrid. Entrance into Spain.



List of the Principal Honours conferred by the Esipeeor

Napoleon 291

Contemporary Rulers 303

CAMBACERi:S 306



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOL. III.

Page
Napoleon Frontispiece

JuNOT 54

Bessieres 94

Caroline Bonaparte 150

Fox 164

Marmont 208

Davoust 248



MEMOIRS OF MADAME JUNOT,

DUCHESSE D'ABRANTES.



CHAPTEE I.

One of the advantages attached to Jimot's position as
Commandant of Paris was a box at each of the theatres.
I confess I was truly grateful for the amusement I thus
enjoyed. It afforded me also the means of bestowing
pleasure, which was always to me one of the greatest I
could enjoy, and in good truth it was not sparingly
accorded to me. Tickets for morning and evening
representations were eagerly asked, and I received, at
a much later period, no less than eleven requests for the
loan of my box at the Ooincdie Frangaise for the second
representation of The Teinplars. I had opportunities of
being generous seven or eight times a day : I accorded
them in the belief that by so doing I should secure, if
not real friends, at least a sort of amicable relation with
my numerous acquaintances which might survive the
obligation. I was young when these ideas occupied
my mind.

I went frequently to the theatre — a pleasure with
which I had hitherto been so little acquainted that I had
visited the Opera but once and the French comedy three
times : at the first representation of Finto, the most glo-

VOL. III. — I



2 MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESSE D'ABRANTfcS.

rious of disturbances past, present, or to come; that of
Montviorency by Carion de Nisas; and the dcbid of
Lafont, which was so stormy that I verily thought the
Tliedtre Frangais must have been built with unusual
strength to resist such attacks.

Pinto, fine as is the subject of the Braganza conspiracy,
of which Lemercier was fully capable of taking the ut-
most advantage, did not suit the taste of that era of
clipping scissors and decisive words, which demanded :
"Take away that phrase." " Wliy ?" "Because I do
not choose that it should stand there. " " What is the
objection to it ? " "I will not allow it. " " But surely
there is some reason against it — is it unsuitable ? "
" Not at all ; but no matter, it must be removed. "

In speaking of my mother's acquaintances, I was in
error in omitting the most witty, perhaps, of the circle,
M. Carion de Nisas. I know few minds of more various
powers, more agreeable, gay, and inoffensive, and withal
more piquant; but notwithstanding his great dramatic
talent he was unfortunate in his theatrical productions.
I shall never forget the state of mind he was in at the
first representation of The Death of Montmorency, which
I believe killed him more effectually than the ConnHalle
was killed, and that owing to circumstances altogether
foreign to his work.

The tragedy contained some fine verses and interesting
situations; the Cardinal's political views, and the entire
scene in which he develops his plans for the aggrandize-
ment of Trance, are strikingly beautiful, and the incon-
sistencies of the piece might have passed unperceived if
it had been better performed ; but Talma, who played
Montmorency, was the only one of the corijs dramatique
that seemed to possess common-sense. Baptiste the elder,
Madame Petit-Vanhove, and more especially Vanhove the
father, were all out of their element. But Vanhove was



SNUTT-BOX OF LOUIS XIII. 3

admirably placed for producing laughter, which com-
pleted the despair of M. de Nisas.

Vanhove the elder had the trifling fault of getting
tipsy, not to say actually drunk, on the night of a first
representation especially. As he was a wretched per-
former habitually, it might be hoped that wine would
produce a happy effect upon him ; but not at all, he was
so much the worse. The day of the first representation
of Tlie Death of Montmorency, notwithstanding the most
careful supervision from his daughter, and Talma, who
was his son-in-law in 'petto, he drank a little to give him
courage, as he said ; but by the evening, when it was
necessary to assume something of a royal air, his spirit
was found mounted a little degree beyond courage.

Although Louis XIII. , the great personage he was des-
tined to represent, is not suspected of having been a snuff-
taker, there was no such thing as persuading him to give
up a round case containing a pound of snuff, which he
called his snuff-box. His daughter, already dressed for
the part of Anne of Austria, used every possible argu-
ment to prevent his appearing upon the stage with this
piece of contraband goods. He was thoroughly tipsy,
and had taken up a phrase from which there was no
driving him.

" Prove to me that Louis XIIL did not take snuff, and
I will lay down my arms : prove it to me. " " But, my
father — " said Madame Petit- Vanhove. " Prove to me
that Louis XIIL did not take snuff. "

And he so stuffed his unfortunate nose that it was
scarcely possible to hear his voice, while the fumes of
the snuff further increased his drunkenness ; and so com-
pletely did he parody some of his part that laughter
prevailed over both hisses and applause. M. de Nisas
came occasionally to our box, which enabled me to
observe a torment of which I should otherwise have had



4 MEMOIKS OF THE DUCHESSE D'ABRANTES.

no conception. At one period lie was ready to expire ;
pale, with suspended respiration, and his forehead steeped
in perspiration ; in fact, it was impossible to laugh —
that would have killed him outright. He looked with-
out seeing, and seemed to have but one sense in which
all the others were absorbed. What a terrible punish-
ment! I cannot imagine how any one can voluntarily
submit to such torture ! I think I should be more at my
ease in the water-trench of the holy tribunal.^

Setting aside the partiality of friendship, the play con-
tained some fine passages ; amongst others, I remember
the following, which was given with much effect: Mont-
morency, condemned to death, is about to be rescued by
the soldiers and the people ; his sister, his wife, and the
Queen who loves him, are listening with the utmost
anxiety to the issue of the attempt ; the Cardinal is re-
lating it, and concludes with these words : " In reply
to the mutineers, I threw them his head. "

The situation at this instant is admirable, and reminds
one of Iphigenia. The piece, however, failed, and failed
utterly, which proves that a man of genius may write a
bad tragedy ; and I fear this happens not unfrequently.

The Feydeau was one of the theatres at which I passed
my evenings with the greatest pleasure ; it boasted at that
time a degree of perfection which it has never recovered.
It possessed several admirable performers, and the chief
among them was Elleviou — a treasure, not only for his
own excellence, but because the other actors in perform-

1 In the prisons of the Inquisition in Spain three kinds of torture
were in use, of which that hy water was the most agonizing. The
patient lay extended in a kind of trench or coffin open at the feet and at
the head ; his face was covered with a wet cloth, on which water was
thrown, intended to filter drop by drop into the throat, and as the nose
and mouth could not breathe through this cloth, which intercepted at
once the air and water, the result was that on removing it the cloth and
throat were found full of blood from the small vessels which had burst.



THE ITALIAN OPERA. 5

ing with him were emulous of rising to his height; its
orchestra was complete, and its charming pieces were
played with perfection.

The charm which our native music — gay, brilliant,
and expressive — has for our French ears did not prevent
our enjoying the Italian Opera, which w^as established at
Paris in the year 1801. The company occupied at first a
small theatre, called the Olympic Salon, in the Paie
Chantereine. This theatre, not much larger than a salon
for private representations, drew together the best society
of Paris. Its open boxes, between high pillars, required
full dress, an obligation sufficiently agreeable to ladies ;
and I remember to have seen the first tier of boxes en-
tirely occupied by very elegantly dressed women, almost
all young; and, what was still more remarkable, all of
my acquaintance, except the inmates of two boxes.

My mother, who found a sovereign panacea for all her
sufferings in good Italian music, never failed to take her
place in my box on the night of the Opera Bouffe. The
Due de Mouchy frequently accompanied her. He was
then, and has ever since been, an excellent dilettante.
He was passionately fond of Italian music, and sang
charmingly in the bouffe style. I have often accom-
panied him and my husband in that duo from The
Clandestine Marriage — " Se fiato," etc. Neither of
them ever failed in note or time; and the harmony of
intonation and expression was perfect. The Duke had
a superb voice, a full and sonorous baritone, which it
was delightful to hear; Junot was far behind him, and
had no other merit than correctness and time. His voice
was harsh, because to the right aloutface, and hy fours to
the left, will not form a supple voice, even if it has the
good fortune to remain correct ; and my lessons were not
sufficiently vigorous to make him an accomplished
musician.



6 MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESSE D'ABRANXilS.

The Italian Opera naturally leads to some mention
of Cimarosa, who was scarcely fifty years old at his
death. He was born at Naples, and educated at the
Conservatory of Loretto, where the works of the incom-



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