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I was leaving behind me. I was in the most painful
state of feeling that I ever experienced, and yet few lives
have been more chequered with misfortune than mine.
My mind was completely subdued by the misery of this
first banishment, for such I considered it; and yet the
future which unfolded itself before me was not altogether
devoid of consolation.

I was going with the title of Ambassadress to a foreign
Court, and the Emperor had directed Junot to travel
through Erance with all the state required by his new
dignity. In every town through which we passed we
were saluted by the firing of cannon or musketry, and
received addresses from Mayors, Prefects, Sub-Prefects,
etc. Junot was the first Ambassador whom Napoleon



DIFFICULTY OF FINDING A EESIDENCE. 289

had sent abroad since he had been made Emperor, and he
wished to give to the mission the utmost possible eclat.

On our arrival at Bayonne, Junot left me and my little
daughter under the charge of the gentlemen who accom-
panied him in official capacities, and proceeded to Madrid
on horseback, accompanied by Colonel Laborde. It w^as
somewhat extraordinary for an ambassador at that period
to ride two hundred leagues on horseback. I followed
him, escorted by MM. de Eayneval and de Cherval.

As it had been determined before our departure from
Paris that we should make a tolerably long stay at
Madrid, Junot made inquiries where I could be suitably
lodged during the five or six weeks that we should con-
tinue there. At that time there was but one posada (the
Croce di Malte), which was neither a suitable place for
me nor a comfortable abode for any one.

We could not reasonably throw ourselves upon the
hospitality of the French Ambassador, for Junot's suite
formed a complete colony ; and, besides, my husband had
a sort of pride which prevented him from placing himself
under such an obligation to the man whom he was, in
some measure at least, temporarily to supplant. It was
originally the Emperor's intention that we should put up
at the Hotel of the Embassy.

We were one day talking over this difficulty of pro-
curing accommodation at Madrid, and Junot, who was
one of those people who always cut a knot where they
cannot untie it, talked of sending me to Lisbon without
stopping longer than two or three days in Madrid. This
was not at all to my taste, for I was anxious that the
journey, since I v/as obliged to undertake it, should afford
me materials for study and observation, and, besides, to
make this sort of flying visit to Madrid appeared to me
not conformable to the wishes of the Emperor.

We were discussing this embarrassing subject, when

VOL. III. — 19



290 MEMOIRS OF THE DUCHESSE D'ABRANTfeS.

one of our friends, Alphonso Pignatelli, the younger
brother of Count Armando de Fuentes, entered to pay me
his morning visit, which he never failed to do. " If, "
said he, " you choose to incur the inconvenience of being
lodged in a bachelor's house, I shall be proud to offer you
the use of mine in the Calle del Clavel, at Madrid. I
would not take the liberty of making such an offer, but
that I know the difficulty you will experience in procur-
ing an abode. However, I promise you you will be
poorly accommodated ; there are two or three beds, a few
chairs and tables, and one or two of the windows, I
believe, are provided with curtains. But, after all, if
you will condescend to encamp in my hermitage, bad as
it is, you will find it better than the Croce di Malte. "

I laughed at his description, and very gladly accepted
his offer. He immediately despatched a letter to his
steward, giving directions that the hrasero should be
ornamented with olives, and that some other preparations
might be made to prevent my forming as unfavourable
an idea of Spain as he entertained, for both he and his
brother hated the country. I set out from Bayonne,
where I had passed three days very agreeably at the
house of our banker, M. Dubrocq, and I entered Spain.
The scene totally changed. The characters, it is true,
were sometimes the same, but even they seemed to be
performing on another stage, with new dresses and
decorations.



A LIST OF
SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT TITLES

CONFERRED BY

ISTAPOLEOIS',

EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH, KING OF ITALY,

PROTECTOR OF THE CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE,
MEDIATOR OF THE HELVETIC REPUBLIC.



King of Bavaria, 1806 (formerly Elector), Maximilian

(Joseph).
King of Etruria, 1801-3 (Louis of Parma).
King of Etruria, 1803-7 (Charles of Parma).
Queen of Etruria, 1801-7 (Marie Louise Josephine de

Bourbon).
King of Holland, 1806-10 (Louis Bonaparte).
Queen of Holland, 1806-10 (Hortense Eugenie de Beau-

hamais).
King of Naples, 1806-8 (Joseph Bonaparte).
King of Naples, 1808-14 (Joachim Murat).
Queen of Naples, 1806-8 (Marie Julie Clary).
Queen of Naples, 1808-15 (Caroline Bonaparte).
King of Rome, 1811-14 (Napoleon Francis Charles

Joseph Bonaparte).



292 LIST OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT TITLES

King of Saxony, 1806 (from Elector), Frederick Augustus.
King of Spain, 1808-13 (Joseph Bonaparte).
Queen of Spain, 1808-13 (Marie Julie Clary).
King of Westphalia, 1807-13 (Jerome Bonaparte).
Queen of Westphalia, 1807-13 (Frederica Catherine of

Wirtemburg).
King of Wirtemburg, 1806 (from Elector).

[Napoleon II., Emperor of the French, 1814.]
Vice-Reine of Italy, 1805-14 (Princess Augusta Amelia

of Bavaria).
Viceroy of Italy, 1805-14, Eugene Beauharnais.
Madame M^^re, 1805, Madame Letizia, Mother of the

Emperor.

Elector of Baden, 1803 (formerly Margrave).

Grand Duke of Baden, 1806 (from Elector).

Grand Duchess of Berg and Cleves, 1806-8, Caroline

Bonaparte.
Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves,^ 1806-8, Joachim

Murat.
Grand Duke of Berg and Cleves, 1809-14, Charles

Napoleon Louis Bonaparte (nephew of the Emperor).
Duchess of Guastalla, 1806-14, Pauline Bonaparte.
Duke of Guastalla, 1806-14, Prince CamiUe Borghfese.
Elector of Hesse Cassel, 1803 (from Landgrave).
Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, 1806.
Prince of Lucca and Piombino, 1805-14, Felix Pascal

Bacchiochi.
Princess of Lucca and Piombino, 1805-9, Marie Anne

Eliza Bonaparte.
Duke of Nassau, 1806 (from previous title).
Elector of Salzburg, 1803.

1 a title now borne by Prince Alfred of England.



CONTERRED BY NAPOLEON. 293

Geand Duchess of Tuscany, 1809-14, Marie Anne

Eliza Bonaparte.
Geand Duke of Tuscany, 1809-14, Felix Pascal Bac-

cliiocclii.
Geand Duke of Waesaw, 1807-13, Frederick Augustus,

King and Elector of Saxony.
Electoe of Wietembueg, 1803 (from Margrave).
Geand Duke of Wuetzbueg, 1805.
Peince of Benevento, 1806-14, Charles Maurice de

Talleyrand Perigord.
Peincess of Bologna, 1807, Josephine Beauharnais

(daughter of the Viceroy of Italy, and afterwards

Crown Princess of Sweden).
Peince of Eckmuhl, 1809, Marshal Davout.
Peince of Essling, 1810, Marshal Massdna.
Peince of Feankfoet, 1810, Eugene Beauharnais.
Geand Duke of Feankfoet, 1806, Dalberg.
Peince of Leyen, 1806 (formerly Count Leyen).
Peince of the Moskowa, 1813, Marshal Ney.
Duke of Neufchatel, 1806 ) ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^.^^^
Peince of Neufchatel, 1806 )

Peince of Ponte Coevo, 1805, Marshal Bernadotte (after-
wards King of Sweden).
Peince of Venice, 1807, Eugene Beauharnais.
Peince of Wageam, 1809, Marshal Berthier.



294 LIST OF SOME OF THE MOEE IMPORTANT TITLES



THE DIGNITARIES OF STATE APPOINTED BY
NAPOLEON.

The Akch-Chancellok of the Empike, Cambaceres,

1804-14.
The Akch-Chancellor of State, Eugene Beauharnais,

1805-14.
The Akch-Treasueer of the Empire, Le Brun, 1804-14.
The High Constable of France, Louis Bonaparte,

1804-14.
The Vice-Constable of the Empire, Berthier, 1807-14.
The Grand Elector of France, Joseph Bonaparte,

1804-14.
The Vice-Grand Elector of France, Talleyrand Peri-

gord, 1807-14.

The High Admiral of France, Joachim Mnrat, 1805-14.

The Kegent of France, the Empress Maria Louisa, 1814.

rp n T i Eegnier, 1802-13.

The Grand Judge ] _^«=.^ '_._ , .

( Mold, 1813-14.

The Master of Horse, Caulaincourt, 1804-14.

The Chief Kanger, Berthier, 1804-14.

The Lord High Almoner, Cardinal Fesch, 1804-14.

[ Talleyrand Perigord 1804-9.
The Grand Chamberlain SAuatole de Montesquieu,

( 1809-14.
The Grand Marshal of j Duroc, 1804-13

the Palace j Bertrand, 1813-21.

The Master of the Ceremonies, Sdgur, 1804-15.
Governess to the King of PtOME, Madame de Montes-
quieu, 1811-15

^ Talleyrand.

Minister for Foreign Affairs << ^^^^^:

I Caulamcourt.

\ Champagny.



CONFERRED BY XAPOLEON. 295

MiXISTEE FOE WaK | J^f ^'^'®^-

( Clarke.
The Peesident of the Couxcil of State.
MiXISTEE OF Maeixe, D(^crfes.

C Fouchd.
MiXISTEE OF Police 4 Dubois.

'^ S a vary.

Mastee of the Posts, Lavalette.

Peesidext of the Ixstitute of Feaxge.

VicEEOY OF Italy, Eugene Beauliarnais, 1805-14.

The Chaxcelloe of the Kixgdom of Italy, Melzi
D'Eril, 1805-14.

The othee Mixistees and Couxcilloes of State.

The Ambassadoes of the Empiee axd Coxsulate:
Generals Macdonald, Diiroc, Sebastian!, Lucien Bona-
parte, Joseph Bonaparte, Lauriston, Lannes, Junot,
Saint Marsan, Gardanne, Caulaincourt, Savary, Bour-
rienne, Tallien, etc.



THE EESTOEATIOX OF AECHBISHOPS AND
BISHOPS OF THE CATHOLIC CHUECH.



THE MARSHALS OR GENERALS HAVING LOCAL

COMMANDS.

Spain (divided). The lUyrian Provinces.

Portugal. Poland.

Holland. Rome.

Hanover. Switzerland and the Home

Hanseatic Towns. commands.

Prussia.



296 LIST OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT TITLES



THE TWENTY- SIX MARSHALS OF THE EMPIRE.

1804. Kellermann, 69, Duke of

Soult, 35, Duke of Dalmatia, Valmy.

Massdna, 48, Prince of S^rurier, 62, Count.

Essling. Perignon, 50, Count.

Davout, 34, Prince of Eck- -oq-t

^^^^^^- , , Victor Perrin, 43, Duke of

Ney, 35, Prince of the Mos- Belluno.

kowa.

Lannes, 35, Duke of Monte- 1809.

■bello. Macdonald, 44, Duke of

Augereau, 47, Duke of Cas- Tarentum.

tio'lione. Marmont, 35, Duke of

Murat, 37, King of Naples. Eagusa.

Mortier, 36, Duke of Treviso. Oudinot,42,Duke of Pteggio.

Jourdan, 42, Count. -j^g-j^-j^

Lefebvre, 49, Duke of Dant- ^^^^^^^ ^^^ -^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^

fera
Bessiferes, 36, Duke of Istria.

Berthier, 51, Prince of Neuf- 1812.

ci^^^tel. ^^^^^ ^y^' ^^' Count.

Bernadotte, 41, Prince of 1813.

Ponte Corvo. Poniatowski, 51 [Prince].
Moncey, 50, Duke of Cone-

gliano. 1815.

Prune, 41, Count. Grouchy, 49 [Marquis].

The figures following the names give the age of the
Marshal on receiving the hdton, the dates above the names
are those of creation.



CONFERRED BY NAPOLEON. 297

THE DUKES OF born died

Abrantes, 1808, Andoche Junot . . . 1771—1813
Albufera, 1812 (da Valencia), Louis Gabriel

SucHET 1770—1826

AuERSTADT, 1807, Louis Nicolas Davout . 1770—1823

Bassano, 1811, Hugues Bernard Maret . 1763—1839

Belluno, 1810, Claude Victor Perrin . . 1764—1841
Cadore, 1810, Jean Baptists Nonpere de

Champagny 1756—1834

Castiglione, 1809, P^re Francois Charles

AUGEREAU 1757 — 1816

Conegliano, 1808, Bon Adrienne Jeanot de

MoNGEY 1754—1842

Dalberg, 18 — , Emmeric von Dalberg . 1773 — 1833

Dalmatia, 1808, Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult 1769 — 1851
Dantzic, 1807 (not the First Creation of

Nobility by Napoleon), Fran(jois Joseph

Lefebvre 1755—1820

D^gres, 1813 (Admiral Denis), D^cres . 1765—1820

Elghingen, 1808, Michel Ney 1769—1815

Feltre, 1809, Henry James William Clarke 1765—1818
Friuli, 1809, Gdraud Christophe Michel

DuRoc 1772—1813

Gaeta, 1809, Michel Charles Gaudin . . 1756—1844

IsTRiA, 1809, Jean Baptiste Bessieres . . 1768 — 1813

LoDi, 1807, Count Francesco Melzi D'Eril 1753—1816

Massa, 1809, Claude Antoine Eegnier . . 1746—1814

Montebello, 1808, Jean Lannes .... 1769—1809

Otranto, 1809, Joseph Fouch^ ... j YL^'t ] 1820

Padua, 1808, Jean Toussaint Arrighi . . 1773 — 1853
Parma, 1806, Jean Jacques Eegis de Cam-

BAC^Rfes 1753—1824

Placentia;1806, Charles FranQois Le Brun 1739—1824



298 LIST OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT TITLES

THE DUKES OP (continued) born died

Eagusa, 1808, Auguste Frdddric Louis Viesse

de Marmont 1775 — 1852

Eeggio, 1809, Nicolas Charles Oudinot . 1767—1847

EivoLi, 1808, Andr^ Massena 1758—1817

EoviGO, 1808, Anne Jean Marie Een^

Savary 1774—1833

Tarentum, 1809, Stephen James Joseph

Alexander Macdonald 1765 — 1840

Treviso, 1807, Edouard Adolphe Casimir

Joseph MoRTiER 1768 — 1835

Valengin, 1806, Louis Alexandre Berthier 1753—1815
Valmy, 18 — , Francois Christophe Keller-

MANN (father of the Comte de Valmy of

Marengo) 1735—1820

Vicenza, 1808, Armand Augustin Louis de

Caulaincourt 1773—1827



THE COUNTS.



" Counts that were worth the Counting."

Madame Campan.

d'Aure. Boudet, 1807.

Baraguay d'Hilliers. Bougainville, 1808.

Barbd-Marbois, 1806. Boulay de la Meurthe, 1808.

Barrois. Broussier.

Baste. Brune (Marshal).

Belliard. Bruyferes.

Berthollet. Cambronne.

Bertrand. Cambronne, 1815.

Beugnot. ' Carnot, 1815.

Bondy. Caulaincourt, 1810.

Bordesoulle. Cessac, 1808 (Lacu^e).



CONFERRED BY NAPOLEON.



299



THE COUNTS (continued).



Champmol, 1808 (Cretet).


Gerard, 1813.


Chanteloup ) - oao


Girard.


Chaptal )


Gregoire.


Charpentier.


Grenier.


Clapar^de.


Grouchy, 1809 (Marshal).


Clausel, 1813.


Gudin.


Compans.


Guilleminot.


Corbineau, 1813.


Guyot.


Curial.


Harispe, 1813.


Danthouard.


d'Hautpoul.


Daru, 1811.


H(^douville, 1805.


Defrane.


Huber.


Dejean.


Hunebourg, 1808 (Clarke),


de Laborde, 1808.


Jourdan, 1814 (Marshal).


Delfanti.


Klein, 1808.


Deseve.


Lac(^pede, 1808.


Desgraviers-Berthollet.


Lacoste (Freval).


Desaix.


Lagrange, 1808.


Donzelot, 1807.


Lamarque.


Duhesme, 1814.


La Pagerie, Tascher de.


Dumas.


Laplace, 1808.


Durutte.


Lariboissi^re.


Ebl^.


Lasalle, 1808.


d'Erlon (Drouet).


Las Cases.


d'Espagne.


Latour Maubourg.


Fontanes, 1809.


Lauriston, 1808.


Eournier-Servolesi, 1809.


Lavallette.


Foy, 1811.


Lefebvre-Desnouettes.


Franceschi.


Legrand.


Friant.


Lemarrois.


Gambler.


Lemoine.


Gassendi, 1813.


Lepic, 1815.


Gazan, 1808.


Lobau, 1810 (Mouton).



300



LIST OF SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT TITLES



THE COUNTS

Loison.

Maison, 1813.

Mejean.

Me jean (Maurice).

des Micliels.

Milhaud.

Miot de Melito.

Missiessy, 1811.

Mold.

Molitor, 1808.

Mollien, 1806.

Montalivet, 1809 (Bachas-

son).
Montbrun.
Montholon.
Morand, 1805.
Mouton-Lobau, 1809 (see

Lobau).
Muraire, 1808.
Nansouty.
Ornano.

Oudinot, 1808 (Marshal).
Pagol, 1814
Partouneaux.
Pelusium (Monge).
Perignon, 1811 (Marshal).
Pino.
Portalis.
Eampon.
. Eapp, 1809.
Eegnault de Saint Jean

d'Angely.



{continued).

Kegnier, 1809.

Reille, 1808.

Roederer.

Roguet.

Saint Croy.

Saint Cyr (Gouvion), 1808

(Marshal).
Saint Hilaire.
Saint Marsan.
Sanson, 1808.
Sebastiani, 1811.
Sdgur.

S^rurier, 1808 (Marshal).
Sieyfes.
Songis, 1808.
Sorbier, 1808.
Sortin.
Souham.
Soul^s, 1808.
Suchet, 1808 (Marshal).
Siissy, 1808 (Collin).
Truguet, 1814.
Uneboiirg, 1812 (General

Vandamme).
Valde, 1814.
Valence (Timbrune).
Valmy (Kellermann).

[Vandamme — see Unebourg — not
to be confused with Hunebourg.]

Verdier, 1808.



CONFERRED BY NAPOLEON.



301



SOME OF THE BARONS CREATED BY NAPOLEON.



Albert, 1809.


Compere.


Gauthier.


Alix.


Corbiueau, 1808.


Gerard.


Almeras.


Corvisart.


Gifflenga.


Ameys.


Costaz.


Girard.


Aubrey.


Couloumy.


Grabowski.


Augereau.


Coutard, 1811.


Grandeau.


Aulard.


Dalton.


Grandjean.


Avy.


Daumesuil, 1812.


Grandorge.


Bachelu.


Delantre.


Grniot.


Bailly de Montliion,


Delonne.


Guilleminot.


1808.


Delort de Glion.


Guyou.


Bauduin.


Delzons.


Guyot.


Bechaud.


Denon.


GuyotdelaCour.


Berckheim.


Desgenettes, 1812.


Habert.


Bernard.


Des Michels.


Haxo.


Bigarr^, 1810.


Desvaux.


I'Hdritier.


Bignon.


Dode.


Heyligers.


Blamont.


Dommarget.


Houard.


Bonami.


Domon.


Huber, 1813.


Bourdesoulle, 1813.


Donop.


Jacquard.


Breissard.


Doumerc.


Janin.


Cacault.


Dunesme.


Jaquinot.


Cambronne, 1810.


Duperrd, 1810.


Jeaiinm.


Campredon, 1815.


Dupres.


Keramelin.


Castex, 1808.


Ebld, 1804


Labddoyfere.


Caulain court.


Esclavin.


Lacroix.


Chamorin, 1809.


Excelmaris, 1812,


Lafitte.


Chastel.


Fain.


Lahoussaye.


Chouard.


Fischd.


Lamotte, Paultre


Coehorn.


Fontane.


de, 1808.


Colbert.


Fouchd.


Lanabfere.



302 IMPORTANT TITLES CONFERRED BY NAPOLEON.



Lancliartin.


Nagle.


Saint-Geniez.


Larrey.


Norvins.


Saint-Germain.


Latour du Prd.


Ouvrard.


Senarmont.


Laurency.


Pajol, 1808.


Sicard.


Le Camus.


Pampelone.


Simmer.


Ledru.


Pecheux.


Soult (brother of


Lefol.


Penne.


the Marshal).


Letort, 1808.


Percy.


Subervie.


Levy.


Pernetti.


Teste.


Louis.


Petit, 1813.


Tharreau.


Mallet.


Pird.


Thiry.


Marbot.


Plauzonne.


Thomiferes.


Marcognet, 1808.


Poltre (? Paultre


Triaire.


Marion.


de Lamotte).


Val^e, 1811.


Maureillan (Poite-


Eeiset.


Valentin, 1809.


vin).


Eicard.


Van Marizy.


Meneval.


Richmont.


Vial, 1811.


Merle.


Rioult d'Avenay.


Vichery.


Mermet, 1809.


Romeny.


Villata.


Mortemart.


Eoussel.


Wathier.


Mouton-Duvernet.


Saint Charles.





ALSO



THE KNIGHTS OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR.



CONTEMPOEAEY EULERS.



France. — 1774, Louis XVI. 1793, Louis XVIL— The

Eepublic. 1802, The Consulate. 1804, Napoleon L

1814, Louis XVIIL 1815, Napoleon. 1815, Louis

XVIII.
Monaco. — 1814, Honorius V.
England. — 1760, George IIL (1812, Prince of Wales

Eegent). 1820, George IV.
Spain. — 1788, Charles IV. 1808, Ferdinand VIL

1808, Joseph (Bonaparte). 1814, Ferdinand VII.
Portugal. — 1777, Maria and Peter IIL (1786, Maria

only.) 1791, John Prince Eegent (Eetirenient to

the Brazils). 1816, John VL
Italy (Pope). — 1775, Pius VI. 1800, Pius VIL 1823,

Leo XII.
Naples (and Sicily). — 1759, Ferdinand IV. 1806,

Joseph (Bonaparte). 1808, Joachim (Murat). 1815,

Ferdinand I. (and IV.).
Sardinia. — 1773, Victor Amadeus IL 1796, Charles

Emmanuel II. 1802, Victor Emmanuel I. (until

1805). 1814, the same restored.
Italy (King of). Napoleon I., 1805 to 1814.
EOME (King of). Napoleon IL, 1811 to 1814.
Etruria (established 1801). — Louis I. 1803, Louis II.
Tuscany (Grand Duke).— 1790, Ferdinand IIL 1808,

(Grand Duchess) Eliza (Bonaparte - Bacchiochi).

1814, Ferdinand IIL



304 CONTEMPORARY RULERS.

Turkey. — 1789, Selim III. 1807, Mustapha IV. 1808,

Malimoiid VI.
Egypt. — Mehemet All.
Algiers.
Prussia. — 1786, Frederick William II. 1797, Frederick

William III.
Germany (Austria).— 1790, Leopold II. 1792, Francis

II. 1806, Francis I.
Holland (Netherlands). — 1757, William IV. (to

1795). 1806, Louis (Bonaparte) to 1810. 1814,

William Frederick.
Poland. — 1764, Stanislaus 11. (Partition of Poland,

1795).
EussiA. — 1762, Peter III., Catherine IL 1796, Paul L

1801, Alexander L 1828, Nicholas L
Sweden. — 1792, Gustavus IV. 1809, Charles XIII.

1818, Charles XIV.
Norway (with Denmark to 1814; with Sweden after

1814).
Denmark. — 1766, Christian VIL (1784, Frederick

Prince Eegent.) 1808, Frederick VI.
Bavaria. — (Elector) Charles Maximilian, (King) Maxi-
milian I.
Hanover. — George III. (of England), George IV. (of

England), William IV. (of England), Ernest

(King of Hanover), 1837.
Saxony. — (Elector until 1806) Frederick Augustus III.

(and L). 1827, Antony Clement.
Westphalia. — 1807, Jerome (to 1813).
WuRTEMBERG. — (Elector 1803, King 1805) Frederick II.

(and L). 1816, William I.
Persia. — 1795, Aga Mohammed. 1797, Fatah Ali.

18 , Mohammed.



CONTEMPORARY RULERS. 305

India. — 1772, Warren Hastings. 1785, Sir John Mac-
pherson. 1786, Lord Cornwallis. 1793, Lord Teign-
mouth — (Lord Cornwallis, for a short time, followed
by Sir Alured Clarke for a few weeks). 1798, the
Marquess of Wellesley. 1805, Lord Cornwallis —
(Sir George Barlow). 1807, Lord Minto. 1813,
Earl of Moira. 1823, Lord Amherst.

China.

United States. — 1789, George Washington. 1797,
John Adams. 1801, Thomas Jefferson. 1809,
James Madison. 1817, James Monroe.

Hayti and Saint Domingo. — 1794, Toussaint. 1804,
DessaHnes. 1807, Christophe (Hayti). 1807, Petion
(St. Domingo).

Bkazil. — Pedro I.

Mexico (see Spain).



VOL. III. — 20



(See vol. iv. p. 183.)

" During the sitting of the Congress, the First Consul learnt that
the Government couriers conveyed to favoured individuals in
Paris various things, but especially the delicacies of the table,
and he ordered that this practice should be discontinued. On
the very evening on which this order was issued Cambaccr^s
entered the salon, where I was alone with the First Consul, who
had already been laughing at the mortification which he knew
this regulation would occasion to his colleague : ' Well, Cam-
baceres, what brings you here at this time of night ?' 'I come
to solicit an exception to the order which you have just given to
the Director of the Posts. How do you think a man can make
friends unless he keeps a good table] You know very well
how much good dinners assist the business of Government.'
The First Consul laughed, called him a gourmand, and, patting
him on the shoulder, said, ' Do not distress yourself, my dear
Cambaceres ; the couriers shall continue to bring you your dindes
aux tritffes, your Strasburg 2^c%tes, your Mayence hams, and your
other tit-bits.'

" Those who recollect the magnificent dinners given by Cam-
baceres and others, which were a general topic of conversation
at the time, and who knew the ingenious calculation which was
observed in the invitation of the guests, must be convinced of
the vast influence of a good dinner in political affairs. As to
Cambaceres, he did not believe that a good Government could
exist without good dinners ; and his glory (for every man has
his own particular glory) was to know that the luxuries of his
table were the subject of eulogy throughout Paris, and even
Europe. A banquet which commanded general suffrage was to



CAMBAC^RfeS. 307

him a Marengo or a Friedland." — Bourrienne's Memoirs of
Napoleon, vol. ii. p. Q^.

" Cambaceres never suffered the cares of Government to distract
his attention from the great object of life. On one occasion, for
example, being detained in consultation Avith Napoleon beyond
the appointed hour of dinner — it is said that the fate of the
Due d'Enghien was the topic under discussion — he was ob-
served, when the hour became very late, to show great-symptoms
of impatience and restlessness. He at last wrote a note which
he called a gentleman usher in waiting to carry. Napoleon,
suspecting the contents, nodded to an aide-de-camp to intercept
the despatch. As he took it into his hands, Cambaceres begged
earnestly that ho would not read a trifling note upon domestic
matters. Napoleon persisted, and found it to be a note to the
cook containing only the following words, ' Gardez les entremets
— les rotis sont perdus.'

" When Napoleon was in good humour at the result of a diph)-
matic conference, he was accustomed to take leave of the Pleni-
potentiaries with, * Go and dine with Cambaceres.' His table
was, in fact, an important State engine, as appears from the
anecdote of the trout sent to him by the municipality of Geneva,
and charged 300 francs in their accounts. The auditor of the
Imperial Cour des Comptes, having disallowed the item, was
interdicted from meddling with similar municipal affairs in
future." — Hay ward's Art of Dining, p. 20.

" "When I was sent to administer the Grand Duchy of Berg,
Cambaceres said to me, ' My dear Beugnot, the Emperor ar-
ranges Crowns as he chooses : here is the Grand Duke of Berg
(Murat) going to Naples ; he is welcome, I have no objection,
but every year the Grand Duke sent me a couple of dozen hams
from his Grand Duchy, and I warn you I do not intend to lose
them, so you must make your preparations.' I never once omit-
ted to acquit myself of the obligation, and if there were any
delay, his Highness never failed to cause one of his secretaries
to write a good scolding to my house steward ; but when the
hams arrived exactly, his Highness never failed to write to



308



CAMBAC:fcRfeS.



my wife himself to thank her. This was not all : the hams
were to come carriage free. This petty jobbery occasioned dis-


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