Leonard Barron.

Roses, and how to grow them; a manual for growing roses in the garden and under glass .. online

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as they are discharged and will adhere
to any object which they may strike in their
flight.

The height to which the dark sacs are
thrown is fully ten feet; but there is a rapid
falling off" in the number upon any given
area when the height of two or three feet is
reached.

These specks, of course, may be upon any
plant that is within range; but they do no
further harm than the disfigurement thereby
produced. They are more often met with in
rose houses, because there the manure is
more frequently left upon the surface than
with other kinds of plants.

This extensive list of things which are pos-
sible sources of trouble to the rose grower,
should not be regarded entirely as 2 karri-



66 ROSES

cade to frighten the prospective beginner.
The diseases and the insects exist, and they
may at one time or another make an assault
on the rose garden or rose house. They are
not among the essentials of rose culture, but a
reasonable knowledge of how to identify the
one or the other and how to advance against
it is a great aid to success. As a rule, these
pests thrive best when the cultural conditions
under which the plants are growing are of the
worst. It is not true that they are the
creatures of neglect, but they are certainly the
fruits of neglect.

WHEN TO SPRAY THE GARDEN ROSES AND HOW

Dates based on an average season in New
York [Allow four days' difference for every
hundred miles of latitude].

Use the insecticides and fungicides at the
following strengths:

Sulphide of potassium in a solution of one-
half ounce to one gallon of water.

Arsenate of lead, five pounds to fifty gallons
of water.

PPhale-oil soap, one pound to eight gallons
of water.




A CLOSE VIEW OF THE ALTAI ROSE

This excellent shrubbery rose has larger flowers and seems better adapted
to our climate than the Scotch rose, of which it is a botanical variety.
Flowers white, about two and a half inches across



INSECTS, DISEASES AND SPRAYING ' 67

Do not use any poisons unless they are

really necessary.

Mid-April. Spray roses and neighbour-
ing trees with Bordeaux mixture.

Late April. Just before leaves open. Whale-
oil soap.

May loth. Leaves open. Potassium sul-
phide.

May I yth. Potassium sulphide.

May 2 1 st. Buds set. Whale-oil soap.

May 24th. Potassium sulphide.

June ist. H.P.'s begin to bloom. Potassium
sulphide.

June 7th. H.P.'s bloom in quantity. Arse-
nate of lead.

June I4th. H.P.'s bloom in quantity. Ar-
senate of lead.

June2ist. H.P.'s bloom in quantity. Whale-
oil soap (last application).

June 28th. H.T. and T. in quantity. Arse-
nate of lead.

July 4th. H.T. and T.; H.P.'s bloom ends.
Arsenate of lead.

July i ith. H.T. and T. in quantity. Whale-
oil soap.

July 1 8th. H.T. and T. in quantity. Potas-
sium sulphide.



68 ROSES



July 25th. H.T. and T.'s bloom ends.

Potassium sulphide solution.
August ist. Potassium sulphide solution.
August 8th. Potassium sulphide solution. '
August 1 5th. Potassium sulphide solution.



CHAPTER V
THE ROSARIAN'S CALENDAR

The following calendar of work in the rose garden is
based upon experience in the neighbourhood of New
York City, and of course is subject to the usual variation
of dates according to the distance north or south of New
York. The vagaries of the season must also be taken
into consideration. The dates given are relative, not
absolute.

March I5th. Finish the pruning of hardy
varieties already planted.

March 25th. Plant new hardy roses, prun-
ing new plants rather more severely than
those of the same varieties already estab-
lished.

April I5th. Finish the pruning of tender
varieties, as far as possible, without uncov-
ering completely. Give to all the beds and
to any neighbouring pear trees, grape vines,
or other plants subject to fungoid troubles,
a good spraying of Bordeaux mixture as a
preventive.



7O ROSES

April 20th-25th. Uncover tender varieties.
Plant any new ones received, giving these
slight protection of loose hay for a short
time over the tops, and a rather severe
pruning.

End of April. Roses generally in leaf. Give
a preventive spraying of whale-oil soap.
Final touches to pruning.

May 2Oth. Buds forming. Second spraying
of whale-oil soap.

May 25th. Earliest roses bloom (Scotch
followed by the Luteas). Apply liquid
manure to H.P/s.

June 5th. Hybrid Perpetual Roses in quan-
tity. Watch for rose bug.

June loth. Third spraying with whale-oil
soap. Rose bug. Treatment as neces-
sary. Apply liquid manure to H.T.'s
and T/s.

June 2Oth. Hybrid Teas and Teas in quan-
tity. Watch for rose bug and for mildew;
treat the latter with sulphide of potassium.

July ist. Last spraying with whale-oil soap;
Hybrid Perpetuals decreasing.

July loth. Rose bugs disappear. Com-
mence regular applications for black spot,
if a wet season; sulphide of potassium



THE ROSARIAN S CALENDAR JI

every week, or dilute Bordeaux mixture
every twenty-four days, this treatment
depending wholly on weather and appear-
ance of foliage, and lasting, if necessary, to
August 2Oth.

July 20th. Hybrid Teas and Teas decreasing.
Mulch beds by this date at the latest.

August joth. Hybrid Teas and Teas, second
bloom begins, lasting until frost.

September I5th. Second bloom of Hybrid
Perpetuals begins, but usually it is not
very plentiful.

October I5th. Prepare new beds for the
next spring planting. Remove from old
beds any of the mulch that cannot be
forked in.

November I5th. Commence placing manure
protection around roots, tenderest roses
first.

November 3Oth, or after a nip or two of
decided frost, cover up tender roses for the
winter.



CHAPTER VI
ROSES FOR CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS

Its importance The style of house Even span and
three-quarter span Iron and wood frame The cost
Benches or solid beds The benches Soil and
manures How to compost Soil preferences Filling
the benches Cleaning the benches Lime and sul-
phur wash Planting Watering Cultivation Im-
portance of ventilation Avoid changes of tempera-
ture To prevent mildew How to use sulphur The
cutical autumn period The early firing Tempera-
ture A combination of factors Time from planting
to flowers Prune when cutting Blind wood not of
importance Kinds that will grow together Roses
with carnations Manuring and mulching Manage-
ment in spring Professor Stuart's formula Quan-
tities of fertilisers to use Carrying over Treatment
of new plants Why buy from a dealer Propagation
Select flowering wood How to make a cutting The
sand for propagating Soil for young plants After
the cuttings strike Shifting into larger pots Sum-
mer plunging Spring care Flowering Tea Roses in
pots Hybrid Perpetuals in pots All about growing
American Beauty.

THE art of growing roses under glass has
been brought to its highest perfection in
72



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 73

America. The commercial importance of
this one branch of the florist's trade is already
enormous and the tendency is for its con-
tinued increase. About 2,000,000 square
feet of glass are used in the greenhouses
devoted exclusively to the production of roses
for the cut-flower market in one large "rose
factory" area within twenty-three miles of
New York City. Under this cover an army
of 450 men is continuously at work, and fully
$20,000 a year are paid for the carnage of the
floral burden from the growing districts to the
city market. These figures represent but one
district the most important one, it is true
but they should be doubled to be fairly rep-
resentative of the united sources of supply
for that one city. This will suffice to show
the immensity of the demand for good roses.
In these establishments the operations are
carried out upon a gigantic scale, but in their
details do not differ from what is necessary
for the private grower who desires to raise
roses under glass for home use. If it is
intended to grow roses at all, it will be worth
while to make one's plans to do the work
thoroughly. A " cheap" greenhouse may be
a continual source of worry and expense.



74 ROSES

THE HOUSE

A good house is essential. Without an
adequate structure full success cannot be
expected. But that statement need not deter
anyone from making the attempt in a reason-
ably well built and sufficiently lighted house
where the heat can be had. The type of
house most favoured for forcing roses was
formerly what is known as the three-quarter
span, in which one side of the roof was much
wider than the other. Nowadays opinion is
equally favourable to the even span. On a
hillside the former style of house is to be
preferred, as it possesses some structural
advantages. The long slope of such a house
is to be open to the south, so as to receive the
greatest amount of sunlight. All houses of
whatever pattern will, of course, be run east
and west. On a hillside such a house does
not have an excessively high wall on the north
side which it has, of course, when built on the
level. The three-quarter-span roof makes
the house very high in the centre, as a regular
pitch of seven and one-half inches to the foot
is maintained. The even-span house, in
which both sides of the roof are of the same



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 75

size and the ridge is in the centre, is perhaps
to be preferred, as it is cheaper to build and
costs less for repairs. On a private place the
advantages of the even span are still greater,
because of the better adaptation of such a
house to a variety of uses. Thus, if the
owner is tired of growing roses, or has had no
success, the house is well adapted for some
other plant.

Houses may be either of wood, or of wood
and iron combined (which is to be preferred).
This is sometimes referred to as iron or steel
frame, with a wood veneer to act as a cushion
for the glass. The iron house costs more,
naturally, but it lasts longer. It costs less for
repairs and admits more light, because its
framework is more slender and casts smaller
shadows. A house suitable for roses, even
span, 25 x 50 feet, six-foot sides, iron frame,
can be erected for about $2,200 without
masonry work, but covering cost of erection,
cement walks, iron frame benches with tile
bottom and glazed with i6x 24-inch double
thick glass; also boiler and an adequate
system of four-inch cast iron pipes to main-
tain a temperature of 55 to 60 in zero
weather and a cellar about ten feet wide



76 ROSES

across one end of the house. Such a house
should have two lines of ventilators, at the
ridge. If the house is to be built with a pos-
sibility of growing other plants at any time,
side ventilators may be provided also, to be
used when necessary. Certain fluctuating
charges on account of freight, cartage, ex-
penses of workmen, excavating and grading
would have to be added to the figure quoted.
The cost of these would vary according to
local conditions and might reach a total of
$700 more, and masonry work would consume
perhaps $1,000. Thus a sum of about $4,000
should be figured upon as necessary to build
a really first-class house of the most approved
modern type for roses, including American
Beauty, which requires more head-room and
more heat than the other varieties commonly
grown under glass. A house of the same
size built of sash bar, all cypress wood, and
without cement walks would cost about one-
third less. An iron frame house 20 x 50 feet
would cost about $1,900 for the superstructure
and $900 for masonry, including the cellar.
The height of the sides modifies the cost of
the house very materially, but necessitates a
greater expenditure to maintain the required



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 77

degree of heat. In fact the problem of what
house to use is to be looked at in the light of
adjustment to circumstances. The greater
the first cost, the less the after expense, and
as in all other things, the best, in the long run,
proves to be the cheapest.

BENCHES OR SOLID BEDS ?

As to whether benches or solid beds shall be
adopted there is a wide division of opinion.
The present-day trend is toward the latter,
especially for American Beauty. The Hybrid
Teas seem to flower more freely when planted
in beds; on benches they exhibit a tendency
to become dormant, and cease growth. Still,
benches are in very common use and give
abundant satisfaction, and in a private estab-
lishment the raised benches are usually the
more convenient to manage. Again, the
heating pipes will be run under the bench and
generally a neater appearance is presented.
The bed is certainly the more durable, and if
the plants are to be carried over for more than
the one year there is much to be said in its
favour.

The benches should hold about four and a



78 ROSES

half inches of soil and drainage may be pro-
vided by having the bottom pieces one-half
inch or even one inch apart. In solid beds
drainage material broken stone is filled in
for a space of fifteen inches and a soil depth
of six or seven inches allowed.



THE SOIL AND MANURE

The rose likes a rich soil. It is of prime
importance to have proper soil. Without it
the finest house will fail to produce good
roses, and with suitable soil one can get along
very well indeed in a make-shift sort of a
house. In many small places where it is not
practicable to give up one house entirely to
roses, it is nevertheless possible to attain a
tolerable result by paying strict attention to
the soil requirements. Much has been writ-
ten about soil for roses. That in certain dis-
tricts better roses are grown than elsewhere
nearby is abundantly true. All places are
not equally well suited to roses, and this local
adaptation is generally thought to rest upon
the soil rather more than upon the climate.
It is important that the amateur bear this in
mind.



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 79

WHAT SOIL TO USE

The soil should be procured in the autumn
before the planting season, in August or Sep-
tember, so that the winter may act upon it.
By preference get soil from an old pasture
that has not been cultivated for many years.
A heavy loam from grass land that has been
regularly grazed is the ideal basis of the com-
post heap for roses. A good, tough sod full
of roots is to be sought. It is not the grass
tops which the rose grower seeks, but the
fibrous mass of root below. Having the
soil, stack it just before winter in proportion
of three parts soil to one of cow manure,
layer upon layer, in a mound of convenient
height about five feet; it must not be too
high nor too broad for the frost to penetrate.
Let it remain here without any cover till
spring. In this composting fresh manure
can be used, but if the manure is added at the
time the soil is chopped down in the spring,
it must have been thoroughly rotted previ-
ously.

As soon as the weather in spring is "open"
and the soil sufficiently dried out to be worked,
the whole heap should be turned and allowed



8O ROSES

to remain fully a month, when it is turned
once more. Use a spade in these operations.
One month before the soil will be carried into
the house it should have the final turning,
when bone meal (one part to fifty) or other
fertiliser, as may be desired, may be added.

To a soil taken from a pasture yielding one
ton of hay to the acre one-fourth of its bulk
of manure may be added. Whereas a soil
from a pasture cutting two tons to the acre
will not need over one-eighth of its bulk of
manure. At the last turning of the compost
a dash of lime and bone meal may be given
but neither in large quantities. It will be
better perhaps for the ordinary person to
omit the lime which is given only when
there is an extra heavy soil and apply the
bone meal (or wood ashes) directly to the
soil in the beds or benches as a top dressing
before planting, at the rate of one bushel to a
hundred-foot house of the standard width of
twenty feet. Or figuring by weight, ten
pounds each of bone meal and wood ashes,
or bone meal and sheep manure, to two hun-
dred square feet of glass, mixed with the soil
in the bench or while turning outdoors, will
be sufficient. Some growers add powdered



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 8 1

mica to modify a light and gritty or too sandy
a soil.

VARIETY PREFERENCES

Different varieties of roses show prefer-
ences for different soils, but a soil prepared
as described above will be found to give the
best results with a majority. A soil that is
good for almost all varieties will, if taken and
rubbed between thumb and finger, have a
mellow, smooth feeling. Perle des Jardins,
La France, Duchess of Albany and Niphetos
succeed best on a lighter type of soil, while the
Bride, Bridesmaid, Catherine Mermet, Mad-
ame Hoste, Papa Gontier, Souvenir de Woot-
ton and American Beauty require a heavy
soil for their best development. It is obvious
from this that the varieties to be grown should
determine, in a measure at least, the nature
of the soil to be used. It is generally con-
ceded that roses grown on a clay soil produce
blooms of better colour and substance than
those grown on a lighter one.

PLANTING THE HOUSE WATERING

Planting is done any time from the early
part of May to the end of July. The aim



82 ROSES

should be to get all the roses housed by July
ist, so that they can make a good growth
during the rest of that month. Two weeks'
growth then is worth twice as much in Octo-
ber or November.

The soil as previously prepared, by com-
posting either in the autumn or spring, is
brought into the house and put into the beds
in benches which have been thoroughly
cleaned. It is well to line the bottom of the
bench with sod to hold in the soil, putting the
grassy side downward. This is especially
necessary when the boards of the bench are
placed an inch apart, as is sometimes the case.
Fill up the benches three inches of soil is
the proper depth for young roses and apply
such fertiliser as may be necessary, mixing it
in thoroughly with the hands, at the same
time picking out all stones and any other
rough material. Finish it by leaving the
surface of the bed rounded rather than level
to allow for any subsequent settling. Don't
pound the soil, and use a fork to break up
any lumps if you like, but the most practical
men use their hands as the levelling and
finishing tool.

The actual work of planting is easy enough.



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 83

By means of a line mark off the beds so as to
give the plants fifteen inches apart either
way, at least. The young plants being in
pots must be well watered a couple of hours
before they are to be planted; they will then
leave the pots readily and remain a solid
ball. They must not be allowed to dry out
at this time. Gently disengage the roots,
place the plants in position no deeper than
they were in the pots, and firm well by press-
ure on each side with the closed fist. The
larger plants should be placed in the back
rows. An essential detail in the planting
out from pots, whether it be a rose or any
other plant, is that the ball as it comes from
the pot be loosened and softened, being care-
ful not to break the roots. The object in
view is to get the soil of the ball and that of
the bench properly united so as to be as
nearly as possible of one texture. As soon as
they are all planted give them a good water-
ing and they will immediately begin to make
new feeding fibres. This watering is given
close around the plants individually rather
than over the whole bed. And this object
may be assisted by leaving a slight shallow
around the plant. After this they should



84 ROSES

never suffer for want of water, neither should
they be saturated at any time. Syringing
overhead two or three times a day on very
hot days is very beneficial, and all air possible,
top and sides, should be given, leaving an
approach for air on top at night. This treat-
ment will make a sturdy growth and solid
wood, which enables the plants to go suc-
cessfully through a winter forcing campaign.

DISINFECTING THE BENCHES

Preparatory to filling the benches with soil
it is necessary to disinfect the whole house.
Burn sulphur on a hot sunny afternoon, shut
up the house tightly as soon as the sulphur is
well lighted, and leave all snug until the next
morning. The benches must then be washed
and cleaned inside and outside, and be given
a good coat of hot lime wash. This will
destroy any insect or spores remaining in the
bench. This wash is prepared as follows:
To nine pounds of unslaked stone lime add
two pounds of powdered sulphur, and water.
Pour the water over the lime and, when it
commences bubbling, pour in the sulphur
and stir until the sulphur is dissolved; then



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 85

put it on the bench hot. This sulphur in the
bench will almost surely keep the roses free
from mildew. This wash helps to preserve
the wood of the benches and it kills any
insects that may be lurking in crevices. A
plain lime wash without sulphur may be used
if desired. The whole of the house, walks,
and under benches must be cleaned up and
made tidy after the planting.

If planting is done during July the plants
have to stand the strain of the hottest part
of the summer, and it is during their manage-
ment at this period that the foundation of
ultimate success or failure is laid. The rose
likes a moderately warm, moist condition,
which must be provided by the grower.

WATERING

From the day the young rose plants are
put into the benches they must be watered
frequently and systematically. Eight times
a day is not too often during the most trying
period of the summer. There are great dif-
ferences of opinion on the subject of watering,
and there are hardly two growers who treat
their plants alike. In cloudy, rainy weather
the most careful manipulation of ventilating



86 ROSES

and watering, coupled with the best judg-
ment, are necessary to maintain the vigour
and the health of the plants. It is not then
safe to syringe, but moisture can usually be
provided by dampening the walks.

One successful gardener on a private
estate thus tells of his method of watering:

"The first good syringing is given at about
7 A. M., under rather than above the foliage,
with the idea of removing any insect. The
other six are given above the foliage, more
to moisten the leaves and to stop too rapid
evaporation from them. The point is this:
Planted as they are under glass without
shade, the evaporation through the foliage
is more than the absorption by the roots.
By this method I have found that the plants
develop foliage more rapidly and of better
substance, consequently are less susceptible
to attacks of mildew."

Of course care must be exercised that the
beds are not made over-wet by this treatment.
If so much time as this needs is not easily
to be given, the number of syringings may be
reduced to two, but they must of necessity
be heavier and the water must be given
equally to the soil and to the foliage. It is




Killarney, a Hybrid Tea rose as grown under glass for winter flowers. This rose
is also one of the best for the garden



CUT FLOWERS UNDER GLASS 87

to be observed that in the case of the frequent
syringings the water is kept from the soil
as much as possible. The amateur is much
more likely to err on the side of giving too
little water than he is to make the mistake of
giving too much. The vigour of the plants
must be kept up.

After the plants have been in the benches
for two or three weeks they will be making
a good growth and can be watered more
freely. Keep the surface of the soil stirred
and clear of weeds. But don't work too
deeply half an inch is enough.

GENERAL CARE, VENTILATION AND
TEMPERATURE

From the time of planting, pay strict atten-
tion to the ventilation. The rose house must
be well equipped with apparatus so that the
required conditions may be kept up easily.
Open the entire system every day from early
morning until after sunset, when the house
should be half closed. Aim to keep the
temperature inside one or two degrees lower
than the outside air during warm weather.
To do this means to balance very nicely the
two factors of (i) watering overhead, and



00 ROSES

damping down the house generally; (2)
admission of air. With full air on and ordi-
nary conditions the desired effect is main-
tained by using the hose under the benches
and on the walks. Above all things during
the summer stage avoid letting the house
get too warm. Sudden changes of temper-
ature are most inimical and are sure pre-
cursors of disease. Although it may not be
safe to syringe during dull days, we must at
the same time watch for red spider, applying
the remedy water at once if discovered.

MILDEW PREVENTION

As a preventive of mildew (one of the


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Online LibraryLeonard BarronRoses, and how to grow them; a manual for growing roses in the garden and under glass .. → online text (page 4 of 9)