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those who were to decide
whether it was to become a
law or not. Furthermore, it
was provided that the votes
of soldiers ser\'ing in the
Federal Army outside of
the State should be tnken on the question of adopting the
New Constitution. Three of the most distinguished lawyers
of Maryland, Reverdy Johnson, Thomas S. Alexander, and
William Schley, declared that these two last-named provis-
ions were contrary to the Constitution and contrary to law.
Nevertheless the elections were held in the way prescribed,
with the following result :

* See Appendix C, p. 306, following.




KKVKRin' JOHNSON.



I'OI.ITTCS IN MARYLAND, 18(51 TO 1864. 181

For. Against.

Vote in the Stale 27,541 29,536

Soldiers' vote 2,633 263

Total 30.174 29,799

The New Constitution Adopted. This gave a majority
in favor of the new Constitution of only 375 votes, and if
the " soldiers' vote " had not been counted, the Constitution
would have been rejected by a majority of 1,995. ^'^^
number of slaves set free by this new law was between
eighty and ninety thousand, and their value has been esti-
mated at over thirty millions of dollars.

Summary of the States Position. This is the story of
Maryland during the Wwv of Secession, a story pleasant
neither to tell nor to hear. On the questions at issue, the
people of the State were divided. On the question of sla-
very, a majority of the people probably sympathized with
the South ; but, on the other hand, probably a majority of
the people were opposed to secession. The number of
slaves in the State was decreasing, and most of the people
believed that slavery should be gradually done away with ;
but, on the other hand, they were opposed to emancipation
all at once and without payment to the slave-owners. Speak-
ing generally, of the counties on the Western Shore, the
northwesterly ones, beginning with Carroll County, were in
sympathy with the North, while the northern, central and
southern counties were in sympathy with the Confederacy.
On the Eastern shore a majority of the people favored sla-
very and the Confederacy. In the election held in Novem-
ber, 1864, Lincoln, the Republican candidate for President,
received, counting the absent soldiers' vote, 40,171 votes,
while McClellan, the Democratic candidate, received 32,739.
In Baltimore city the vote was: Lincoln, 14,984; McClellan,



182 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

2,953 If we bear in mind that many citizens were dis-
qualified because they were known to be in sympathy with
the South, and that many others were absent fighting in the
Confederate Army, it will be seen that the State was very
nearly exactly divided in opinion.



TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. The Baltimore Riois.

1. Caused by the passage of Federal troops.

2. Describe the riots.

3. Opposition was made by the mob and not by the government.

4. Tlie rioting occasioned the stationing of troops at Baltimore.

II. Military Occupation of the St.\te.

1. Objected to by the citizens.

2. A measure of self-defense by the Federal government.

3. The military rule becomes oppressive.

4. Arbitrary arrests; relate the case of John Merryman.

5. What is a writ of habeas corpus?

6. The Act of Habeas Corpus suspended in certain cases; by

whom .''

7. Was this constitutional ? Why not ?

8. The police department of the State assumed by the Federal

government.

9. Fears of Maryland's secession the cause.

10. Why was the secess.on of Maryland dreaded?

1 1. What measures were taken to prevent the possible secession?

12. Federal interference in the elections of 1861.

(rt) Made in order to elect Union candidates.

(b) To prevent a vote of secession.

if) Southern sympathizers arrested and not allowed to vote.

(d) The votes suppressed were those of " rebels," so-called.

(e) How was the question as to the right of secession settled ?

13. The State government ready to sujiport a war for the Union,

but not a war for abolition.

14. Petty annoyances of the military government.



POLITICS IN MARYLAND, 1801 TO 1804. 183

III. The Aruitr.vry Use of Power.

1. 'I'lie punishment of wrong-doers should be by law and not

arbitrary.

2. Secretary Seward responsible for the policy of the Federal

government in Maryland,

3. The release of political prisoners ordered by Lincoln.

IV. The Constitutional Convention ok 1S64.

1. The Act authorizing the convention passed by a Legislature

that was fraudulently elected.

2. Emancipation of the slaves was the crucial question.

3. Provisions of the new Constitution.

(


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Online LibraryL[eonard] Magruder PassanoHistory of Maryland → online text (page 11 of 23)