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newly appointed ofhcers of registration were much more
liberal in applying the Registration Act than the former ones
had been. None the less, in the election of October, 1866,
for Mayor of Baltimore, only about eight thousand votes were
cast, and that in a city of two hundred and fifty thousand
inhabitants. At the election the Police Commissioners had
appointed as judges and clerks of election, and special
police, only persons belonging to their own political party.
In other ways they had disobeyed the law of elections, so
that thousands of citizens signed a petition asking Governor
Swann to remove them from office. The Governor examined
the evidence against them, found them guilty, and dismissed
them. They refused to give up their office and had the
newly appointed Commissioners arrested, but when the mat-
ter came before the courts, it was decided in favor of the new
Commissioners. This was one step in the direction of elec-
tion reform. The next step was taken by the people in the
November elections of the same year.

The Reform Movement Successful, 1866. For although
every efifort was made to elect the radical Union candidates,
and although there was much fraud practiced and many
citizens were not allowed to vote, nevertheless the Conser-
vatives, those in favor of repealing the Registration Act,
carried the State. They elected Oden Bowie Governor, and
a two-thirds majority in both branches of the Legislature.
Thus again the State threw olT the shackles of minority
rule.



POLITICAL HISTORY OF MARYLAND SINCE I8G0. 199




200



HISTORY OF MARYLAND,



In the course of the follo^^^ng year the rights of citizen-
ship were restored to those from whom these rights had
been taken by the laws passed during the war period. By
the provisions of the State Constitution adopted in 1867, a
voter can be required to make oath only as to the place and
time of his residence, and to his age. Public officials, before
taking office, must swear to "support the Constitution of
the United States" and to "bear true allegiance to the
State of Maryland."*

The contest in this last election had been between two







BUILDING OF THE NAVAL ACADEMV, ANNAPOLIS.

divisions of the Union or Republican party ; the Radicals,
those who still wished to keep all Southern sympathizers
from voting, being defeated by the more liberal Unionists,
who called themselves " Conservatives." The Democrats as
a party had no candidates in the field, but joined the liberal
wing of the Unionists and called themselves " Democratic



♦See p. 322, following. The Constitution, Article I, sections i
and 6.



POLITICAL ULSTOKY OF MARYLAND SINCE 1865. 201

Conservatives." The struggle between the two divisions of
the Unionists was very bitter, and the defeated Radicals tried
to get help from the Federal government. The Washington
authorities ordered investigations to be made in some of the
election districts of the State, but nothing came of it. So
bitter was the feeling at the time that it was even moved in
the National House of Representatives that the Naval




IN A CUMBERLAND COAT, MINE.

Academy be removed from Annapolis to some place in a
" loyal " State.

The Present State Constitution Adopted, 1867. In May,
1867, a convention was held at Annapolis which drew up a
new Constitution for the State, and in September of that
year the people accepted the new Constitution by a vote of
47,152 in its favor, and 23,036 against it. This Constitu-
tion, with some amendments, is still in force, and, as
amended, consists of a Declaration of Rights, and the Con-



202



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.




POLITICAL HISTORY OP^ MARYLAND SINCE I860. 203

stitution i^roper. The former declares the general rights of
the people of the State in their government, and their indi-
vidual rights to life, liberty, freedom of worship and of speech.
The Constitution and laws of the United States are made
the supreme law, but the State reserves to itself all powers
not specifically delegated to the United States nor prohibited
to the States. The latter part declares the form and details
of the government. The executive power is vested in a
Governor, elected by the people for four years. To be
eligible to the office of Governor a person must be not less
than thirty years of age. The Governor appoints a number
of important officials, and also minor officials whose appoint-
ment is not otherwise provided for. This is usually to be
done " by and with the advice and consent of the Senate."
The Governor is Commander-in-Chief of the land and naval
forces of the State ; he convenes the Legislature in special
session, and has the right of veto. The Governor appoints a
Secretary of State, who keeps the official records and has the
custody of the great seal.

The Legislature, called the General Assembly of Mary-
land, consists of two branches, the Senate and the House of
Delegates. Each county elects one Senator, the city of Bal-
timore four. The number of Delegates from each county is
in proportion to its population, and the city of Baltimore
elects four times as many as the most populous county.
Senators and Delegates are elected by the people. The
regular sessions of the Assembly are biennial ; that is, occur-
ring once in two years.

An Attorney-General, the legal adviser of the State, and a
Comptroller of the Treasury, who superintends the fiscal or
money affairs of the State, are elected by the people. There
IS a State Treasurer, a State s Attorney in each county and
in Baltimore City, a State Superintendent of Education, and
other important officials.



204 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

The State is divided into eight judicial districts, called cir-
cuits, with a chief and two associate judges for each, except
in the case of Baltimore City (the Eighth Circuit), which has
a special system of courts. The highest court in the State,
the Court of Appeals, is composed of the Chief Judges of
the first seven circuits and a judge, specially elected, from
the city of Baltimore. One of these is named by the Gover-
nor as Chief Judge.

Political Elections in the State. In 1870 the colored men
of Maryland voted for the first time.* The elections passed
off quietly, with a very large vote, although the Federal
Government supervised them ; that is, had its officers at all
of the polls to see that the negroes were not driven away, or
frightened into not voting. This election resulted in a vic-
tory for the Democrats, as did all the following elections
until the year 1895. In that, and the three years after, the
political position of the State was reversed. In 1895 a
Republican Governor was elected, in 1896 the State "went
Republican " in the Presidential election, in 1897 a Repub-
lican Comptroller was elected, and in 1898 four Republican
and two Democratic Representatives to Congress. Thus
the entire State Government was made up of Republicans,
and that party had also a majority of members in the State
Legislature. We have the remarkable spectacle, then, of a
State which for twenty-five years always gave Democratic
majorities, turning in the course of two or three years com-
pletely to the other party. One cause of this is not far to
seek. The adoption of a " free silver " platform by the
Democratic party in 1896 undoubtedly caused a large num-
ber of Democrats in Maryland, as in other States, to vote
for Mr. McKinley. Moreover, in the city of Baltimore there

* See ante, p. 91. There seem to have been a few cases of free
negroes voting in the first years after Maryland became a State.



POLITICAL HISTUKV OF MAK\ LAM) SINCE 1865. 205

is a large number of independent voters who do not belong
either to the Democratic or to the Republican party. They
vote sometimes with one, sometimes with the other, and
sometimes for candidates of their own choosing, thinking in
this way to act as a check on both political parties and to
aid m the election of the best candidates possible.

In the elections of 1899 the State returned to the Demo-
cratic ranks. In that year Governor John Walter Smith was
elected by the Democratic party. The Democrats had also




TOWKR OV FORT SKVKRN.
jV(»7(' itset/ ris the Naval A cadetny Gytnnasium,

a majority in each house of the State Legislature (1900).
Again, in 1903, a Democratic Governor, Edwin Warfield,
was elected.

Ballot Reforms. An important change in the election laws
of the State was made in the year 1890, when the " Austra'
lian ballot " system was adopted. In the old system the
voting tickets of the different political parties were printed
on separate slips of paper, and the agents of these parties
would stand along the street near the polls offering their



206 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

tickets to everyone wno came to vote ; and we have seen
that in one election, at least, tickets of a special color
were used by one party. In the new system the govern-
ment prints the names of all the candidates together on one
large sheet, sometimes called a " blanket " or " folder," and
all the tickets are in charge of an officer of election who
gives one out to each voter. The voter on receiving his
ticket goes to a little stall where no one can overlook him,
and marks the names of those candidates for whom he
wishes to vote. He then folds up his ticket again and it is
put into the ballot-box folded, so that no one can see for
whom he is voting. It is a much better system than the
old, and prevents a great deal of fraud and dishonesty in
the elections.

Another important ballot law was passed by the Assembly
in special session in 190 1. By its terms an educational test
is applied ; that is, no one can vote who is unable to read.
Formerly one who could not read might take someone with
him into the voting booth to assist him ; now, such an " illit-
erate " cannot vote at all. The names of all candidates are
printed in alphabetical order, and no party emblems, pic-
tures to show to which political party a candidate belongs,
appear on the ballot. Other changes tending to honesty in
the elections were made. In 1902, by a primary election
law similar to the law of 1901, primary elections, that is,
those held by the political parties to nominate or name their
candidates, were put virtually upon the same footing as the
general elections. These laws are in line with the election
laws of the most progressive States of the Union. In the
session of 1902 were passed also a compulsory school attend-
ance law, and a law providing a pension fund for teachers
in the public and normal schools. The former applies to
Baltimore City and Allegany County only. Under it chil-



POLITICAL HISTORY OF MARYLAND SINCE IHO"). 207

dren between eight and twelve years of age are compelled to
attend school, and there are other provisions regulating
child labor.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. Political Factions.

1. Ill-feeling towards Southern sympathizers.

(rf) Because of Lincoln's murder.

(/>) Especially marked in what portion of the country?

2. What was the status of the discharged Confederate soldiers?

3. What was the Registration Act of 1S65 ?

4. What was the nature of the questions it empowered the regis-

tration officer to ask ?

5. Explain how it led to minority rule in the State.

6. Public opinion forces the registration officers to interpret the

law more liberally.

7. How was the election law disobeyed in 1866?

8. How were the evils corrected ?

(a) By the dismissal of the guilty Police Commissioners.

(^) By the vote of the people in the elections of November,

1866.
(c) By an Act of the Legislature then elected.

II. A New Stair Constitution.

1. Ratified in 1867.

2. Negroes vote for the first time in 1870.

3. The secret ballot introduced, 1890.

4. E.xplain the method of voting under the old system; under the

new.

5. Describe the ballot law of 190T.

6. Describe the Primary Election Act of 1902.

It is suggested that at this point the class read the Constitution of
Maryland, and that the teacher explain the meaning of the several
clauses. It is probably not desirable that a class of young children
make a study of the whole Constitution, and the following selections
are suggested as embodying the portions most important for such
students.

Declaration of Rights. All the Articles. Compare Article ^6 with
the first Toleration Act (p. 30 of the History).



208



HISTORY OV MARYLAND.



II. A Nkw State Constitution {continued).

Constitution. Article I, Sections i, 2, 3, 6; Article II, Sections i, 5,
8, 9, 10, 17 (as amended), 19; Article III, Sections i, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10,
II ; Article IV, Section i ; Article XI, Sections i, 2.

In every case the technical language of the Act should be translated
colloquially by the teacher, amplified and explained, so that the pupil
may gain a clear understanding of the meaning.




T.tf ClLrtRT CO»T Of tRUS



C H A P T K R XV



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS.

Many Institutions Founded in the Second Half of the Nine-
teenth Century. The years following the Civil War were
marked by the fouiidation of a number of institutions in
Maryland. The corner-stone of tiie Peabody Institute in
Baltimore was laid as early
as April i6, 1859, but the
building was not finally com-
pleted until 1879. George
Peabody, the founder, was
born in Massachusetts, but
lived for some time in Haiti-
more. The Institute was
endowed by him with the
sum of Si. 400, 000, and con-
tains, in addition to a very
valuable library, an art mu-
seum, a conservatory of mu-
sic, and lecture halls where
courses of free public lect-
ures are given. Another
foundation is the McDonogh
Institute, which was es-

t;\blished by John McDonogh, a Baltimorean by birth, who
or. his death in 1850 left a large part of his fortune, about
$750,000, to found a school in Maryland. Owing to law-
suits over the property, however, the school was not opened

209




(;kokc;e pkaisouv.

From a painting in the Peabody Institute.



210



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



until 1873. It is situated on an estate of eiglVt hundred
acres within a few miles of Baltimore, and on this estate the
boys learn practical and scientific farming in addition to
the subjects usually taught in schools. The endowment has
increased in value, until now it is worth more than a million
dollars. Another school founded by the liberality of an




THE PEABODY INSTITUTE, BALTIMORE.

individual is the Tome Institute at Port Deposit, which was
opened in 1894. This school was endowed by the Hon.
Jacob Tome, originally, with $957,750, but the endowment
has since increased to $3,000,000. It is intended to embrace
all grades of schools, beginning with the kindergarten. A
sanitarium where sick children, especially young babies, of



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS.



211



the poor can be taken out of the hot city in the summer and
receive careful treatment and nursing, was founded by
Thomas Wilson in 1882. He bequeathed half a million




THE ENOCH PKATT FREE LIBRARY, BALTIMORE.

dollars for the purpose, and the sanitarium was built on a
farm of one hundred and seventy acres within a short dis-
tance of Baltimore. On January 21, 1S82, Enoch Pratt, of
Baltimore, ofifered that city the sum of $833,333.33, i" addi-



212



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



tion to buildings to cost $225,000 to found a free public
library, on condition that the city appropriate a perpetual
fund of $50,000 a year for the support of the library. The
gift was promptly accepted, and the library, known as the
Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore, was formally opened
January 4, 1886. Enoch Pratt, like George Peabody, was

born in Massachusetts, but
removed to Baltimore while
still a young man.

On February 22, 1S76,
the Johns Hopkins Univer-
sity was formally opened in
Baltimore. The founder,
Johns Hopkins, was born
in Anne Arundel County.
As a merchant and banker
in Baltimore he grew very
wealthy, and with his wealth
he determined to found a
university and a hospital.
On his death he left to the
University his countiy
place, " Clifton," of over
three hundred acres, and a
fund of three million dollars. To the Hospital he gave thir-
teen acres of land in Baltimore City as a site, and in addition
about two million dollars. Since the year 1893 the Johns
Hopkins Hospital has formed a part of the Medical School
of the University which was opened in that year. Miss
Mary Garrett, of Baltimore, contributed liberally to the fund
for founding the Medical School, on the condition that women
should be admitted to its courses of study on the same terms
as men. Dr. Daniel C. Gilman was selected by the trustees




JOHNS HOPKINS.

From a Painting in ike President's Office at
the University.



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS.



21S



as president of the liniversity, a position which he occupied
until the year 190 1, when he resigned and was succeeded by
Professor Ira Kenisen. To Dr, Oilman's efforts and ability
were largely due the successful organization of the Univer-
sity and its successful management. The fund left to the
University by its founder consisted for the most part of
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad stock, and when, about the
year 1890, the railroad ceased to pay dividends on its stock,
the income of the University was cut off. Twice the citizens




BIRD'S EVE VIEW OV JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVKRSITV.

of Baltimore raised liberal sums to pay the expenses of the
liniversity ; but this was only temporary relief, and at length,
in 1898, the Legislature voted to give the University the
sum of fifty thousand dollars a year for two years. Thus
Maryland followed the example of so many of her sister
States in giving aid to the great University within her bord-
ers. In the year 1901 William Keyser, William Wyman,
and other public-spirited citizens made a gift to the Univer-
sity of a tract of land valued at one million dollars, on con-
dition that the University raise another million for the
erection and maintenance of buildings. Afterwards, when



214



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



it was thought that this condition could not be compUed
with, it was removed. By 1902, however, the additional
million dollars was raised.

Older Institutions. A much older institution is St. John's
College, at Annapolis, which was chartered in 17S5 and be-
gan its work in 1789. The older King William's School was
merged in it at the time of its foundation. Three years
earlier, in 1782, near Chestertown, on the Eastern Shore,
was founded Washington College, and these two colleges to-




JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAT,, BALTIMORE.



gether were to constitute the University of Maryland. This
University existed in name until 1805, when the State dis-
continued its regular grants to the two colleges. The old
charter was never repealed, but the University simply died
out. The two separate colleges still flourished, however,
and have since received aid from the State. There is also
at present the University of Marj-land, chartered by the
State Legislature in 1807, and consisting of schools of law
and medicine, in which many of the foremost lawyers and



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS.



216



physicians of the State have received their professional
education.

The Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic
Arts, dating from 1825, owes its foundation to John H. B.
Latrobe, who first suggested the idea of forming a mechanics'
institute in Bakimore. The Institute was incorporated in




WKSTKKX MARYLAND COI,T,KGF,, WKSTMIXSTKR.

1850, and work on the building was begun in 185 1. Be-
sides its use for exhibitions and lectures, the building has
been the scene of some notable events. Receptions were
given there to Kossuth in 185 1, and to George Peabody in
1857 ; the body of Dr. Kane, the Arctic explorer, lay there in
state : and the first embassy from Japan to this country was
received there in i860. The hall has been several times
used for national conventions of different political parties.



210 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

An important part of the work of the Maryland Institute is
its art school, .in which are taught drawing, painting, model-
ing, and sculpture. The number of pupils attending the
school is nearly a thousand. This was one of the historic
buildings of Baltimore destroyed in the great fire of 1904.
The Maryland Historical Society, founded in the year 1844,
has its headquarters in Baltimore, where it has collected a
valuable library and many historic relics, manuscripts, and
pictures of the greatest interest and importance in the his-
tory of Maryland. Since 1884 it has been, by Act of the
I^egislature, the custodian of the archives of the Province of
Maryland, twenty-two volumes of which have been published
under the editorship of Dr. William Hand Browne. The
Society has published many other .valuable historical docu-
ments from the income of a fund bequeathed for that pur-
pose by George Peabody.

Other Schools and Colleges in the State. Maryland has
the honor of having founded the second agricultural college
in America. In 1856 the Legislature passed an Act estab-
lishing the Maryland Agricultural College, where practical
farming is taught and agricultural experiments are made.
The college is situated on a farm of over four hundred acres
in Prince George's County. There are also in the State
Mount Si, Mary's College, at Emmitsburg, founded in
1808; St. Charles' College, in Howard County, founded
in 1830 by Charles Carroll of CarroUton ; Frederick College,
at Frederick, chartered in 1830; New Windsor College, in
Carroll County, established in 1843 ' Loyola College, at
Baltimore, founded in 1852 ; Rock Hill College, near Elli-
cott City, chartered in 1865 ; Western Maryland College, at
Westminster, organized in 1867; The Woman's College of
Baltimore, chartered in 1885 ; Morgan College, at Balti-
more, first organized in 1866, and chartered in 1890; and



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS. 217

also a number of llieological seminaries and professional
schools.*

The Public School System — Its History. Throughout
the State are many other schools of high standing; but espe-
cially to be mentioned is the excellent system of public
schools, ranging from the primary and grammar schools to the
Baltimore City College and the State Normal Schools. The
first permanent fund for the support of free schools in the
State was appropriated in the year 1812, and four years later
nine School Commissioners were appointed for each county
to distribute this fund and supervise the schools. Lut the
present public school system dates from 1825, in which year
the " Primary School Bill " was passed. In the same year
the Legislature passed _an Act giving the Mayor and City
Council of Baltimore authority to establish public schools in
that city, and in 182S a Board of Commissioners of Public
Schools was appointed. On September 21, 1829, the first
public school in Baltimore was opened in the basement of
the Presbyterian Church, on luitaw between Saratoga and
Mulberry Streets. It was in charge of William II. Cofiin,
who was the first public school teacher in Baltimore. One
week later two more schools were opened, one for bo}s and
one for girls, on Bond Street, near Canton Avenue. For
twenty years the boys' schools were taught only by men, but
since then women also have been employed, and now the
greater part of the public school teachers are women. Dur-
ing the first year there were 269 pupils and three teachers.
The number of each has increased until, in the year 1902-
1903, there were in the schools of the State 224,004 pupils
and 5,036 teachers. In the city of Baltimore there were



* See the " History of Education in Maryland," by Bernard C.
Steiner.



218



HISTORY OP^ MARYLAND.



66,399 Pupils and 1,823 teachers. The school expenditures
in the State amounted to $2,687,797, and in Bahimore to

On October 20, 1839, the Male High School — a name
changed to the Baltimore City College in 1866 — was
opened. It has proved a school of high standing where
boys are excellently trained to enter upon business or pro-





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McDowell }iaij„ st. john'S college, annapolis.



fessional life. In 1844 the Eastern and Western Female
High Schools were established ; they were the first high
schools for girls only belonging to any public school system.
A State Normal School was founded by the Legislature in
1865, for the purpose of educating and training teachers, and
a second, at Frostburg, was established in 1902. In 1884 a
school of manual training, afterwards known as the Polytech-


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Online LibraryL[eonard] Magruder PassanoHistory of Maryland → online text (page 12 of 23)