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nic Institute, was added to the public school system of Balti-
more. In 1867 schools for colored children were added to



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS. 219

the system, and these now have primary and grammar
schools and a high school.

The Public School System. — Its Organization. n.s organ-
ized under the Public School Law, as amended to the year
1904, the public school system of the state is under the
general supervision of the State Board of Education. This
board is appointed by the Governor for a term of six years,*




THE WOMAN'S COLLEGE, BALTIMORE.

and at least two of its members must be from the political
party which at the preceding election for Governor received
next to the highest number of votes. Members of this
Board serve without salary. The Governor and the State
Superintendent of Public Education are ex-officio members of
the Board. Principals of the State Normal Schools and of

* Except ihe first Board, appointed under the law of 1904, two of
whose members were appointed for two years, two for four years, and
two for six years.



220



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



the normal departments of some other schools are cx-officio
honorary members of this Board, but with no vote. Educa-
tional matt'jrs in each county are under the control of a
Board of County School Commissioners, appointed by the




llALTIMORE CITY COLLEGK.

Governor for six years* and consisting, in some counties of
six members, in other counties of three. The same provision
is made for minority representation on these Boards as on
the State Board of Education. The counties are subdivided
into school districts, each of which is supervised b}' a Board



Except tliu first Board, ai)poiiUccl uiuler the law of 1904.



INSTITUTIONS AND SCHOOLS. 221

of District School Trustees composed of three persons
appointed by the County School Commissioners. The
Boards of County School Commissioners have the general
supervision and control of all schools in their respective
counties; they build and repair schoolhouses, purchase
text-books and appoint all assistant teachers. They elect a
County Superintendent of Public Education, who serves as
Secretary and Treasurer of the Board. They make an
annual report to the State Board of Education. The Dis-
trict School Trustees appoint a principal teacher, subject to
confirmation by the Board of County School Commissioners,
and must supervise and visit the schools in their district.
The General Assembly provides the money to furnish free
tuition and free text-books in all the public schools, and to
aid in the formation of district and traveling libraries.*

The public school system of Baltimore City is under the
control of a body of nine Commissioners appointed by the
Mayor, and is independent of the State system. In the city
there is a Superintendent of Public Instruction, with two
assistants.

An Early Kindergarten. It is interesting to know that,
before the days of kindergartens, a school of much the same
kind was started in Baltimore by a certain Mr. Ibbertson.
The following account of his school is given by Mrs. Trol-
lope : " We visited the infant school, instituted in this city
by Mr. Ibbertson, an amiable and intelligent Englishman. . . .
The children, of whom we saw about a hundred, boys and
girls, were between eighteen months and six years. The
apartment was filled with all sorts of instructive and amus-
ing objects ; a set of Dutch toys, arranged as a cabinet of
natural history, was excellent ; a numerous collection of large

* See antc^ p. 206, for two laws affecting the public schools, passed
in 1902.



222 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

wooden bricks filled one corner of the room, the walls were
hung with gay papers of different patterns, each representing
some pretty group of figures ; large and excellent coloured
engravings of birds and beasts were exhibited in succession
as the theme of a little lesson ; and the sweet flute of Mr.
Ibbertson gave tune and time to the prettiest little concert of
chirping birds that I ever listened to."* Mrs. Trollope
speaks in the same place of the neatness in dress of the boys
and girls, and of their bright and well-bred manners; so dif-
ferent, she says, from the manners of other American
children.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. Give an Account of Some of thi; PRiNcirAL Ixstitutions

Founded in Maryland.

II. Give an Account ok the ruBi.ic School System.

1. Its history.

2. Its present organization.

III. Tell Something Ahoit Mr. Ibbertson's School.



* " Domestic Manners of the Americans.'



CHAPTER XVI.

MARYLAND'S PROGRESS.

Baltimore Loses Much of its Trade during the War. It is

a fact which people do not fully realize that war costs money
as well as human lives. The Civil War left the United States
with a debt of about three thousand million dollars, but the



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VI KW OK r.AI.TIMORK HARBOR.

war had cost the country many times that amount. Through-
out the South, towns, railroads and factories had been de-
stroyed ; farms and plantations had been laid waste ; and all
business and industries were dead. During the war the regu-
lar trade of Baltimore had been much interfered with ; but,
on the other hand, the Confederates having blocked the Po-
tomac River, a very large amount of freight was carried to
Washington over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This
helped to take the place of the trade which was lost. The

223



224 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

Federal Government bought supplies in Baltimore, and sent
vessels there, and to Annapolis, to be repaired and fitted out ;
so that new trades began to replace the old ones. But the
condition of business for ten years after the war was bad.
Trade was depressed, merchants had trouble in borrowing
money to carry on their business, and one great market for
the country, the Southern States, was so devastated and im-
poverished that the people who were left there had very little
money to spend. They were glad if they could earn a bare
living. All classes of the people suffered from the bad times ;




OLD FORT CARROLL, ENTRANCE TO BALTIMORE HARBOR.

but the suffering fell, as it always does, heaviest on the labor-
ing classes.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Strike of 1877. Of course,
when trade is dull the railroads must sufTer. They carry
less freight and earn less money ; and if their income is
much reduced, they are compelled to pay their employees
lower wages. In July, 1877, the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-
road made a reduction of ten per cent, in the wages of all
its employees, following in this the example of the other
great railroads of the country. When they learned this the



MARYLAND'S rUOGRESS.



225



brakemen and firemen ^of the freight trains refused to work,
and before long the strike had spread to the other employees
and to other roads. In Baltimore no freight trains either
went or came.

Rioting and Bloodshed. There was rioting all along the
line of the Baltimore and Ohio, and Governor Carroll was
at length compelled to order the Fifth Maryland Regiment




IHi; NARROWS, AT CUMBERLAND.



to Cumberland, where the riots and disorder were greatest.
As the Fifth Regiment marched from its armory to Camden
Station it was met by a mob, which, by the time that the
comer of Lombard and Eutaw Streets was reached, was no
longer content to howl and jeer, but attacked the soldiers
with bricks and stones. At Camden and Eutaw Streets the
crowd was so thick and resolute that the soldiers could not



226



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



go farther, until, with fixed bayonets, they charged through
the mob into Camden Station. In the meantime three
companies of the Sixth Regiment, which were also ordered
out, were trying to make their way to Camden Station.
The Sixth Regiment Armory was surrounded by a mob of
two or three thousand men and boys, who attacked the




POSTOFFICE, BALTIMORE.



building with bricks and stones. When the three companies
detailed for duty tried to come out, they were several times
driven back. At length they fired on the mob, which then
made way for them. All along the march to Camden
Station the fighting continued between the mob and the
soldiers. The disorder was so great that the Governor



MARYLAND'S PROGRESS.



227



ordered the Fifth Regiment to remain in Baltimore. By this
time the crowd had increased to ten thousand persons. The
rioters had destroyed several locomotives and cars, and at
length set fire to Camden Station. Some of the fire engines
which answered the alarm were driven back by the mob,
others had their hose cut, but the police succeeded in
driving the rioters back and the fire was put out. Governor




THE COURT HOUSK, KAI.TIl\tORE.

Carroll called on the Federal Government for troops, but
before they could arrive, the mob had been broken up by
the police. Nevertheless, the President sent some two
thousand soldiers to Baltimore to act in case of further
disturbance. The rioters made other attempts on Camden
Station, but after about two hundred of the worst of them
had been arrested, the remainder quieted down. The strike



228



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



lasted only about a week in Maryland, but during that time
it had cost the State eighty-five thousand dollars. The
worst excesses were committed, not by the striking rail-
road employees, but by tramps, thieves and loafers who
made the strike an excuse for their own disorder ; and the




THE CITY HALL, BALTIMORE.

people, for the mo.st part, were in sympathy with the true
strikers.

Since that time the trade, commerce and manufactures
of Maryland have flourished,* although the State has suf-
fered with the rest of the countrj' from those periods of

* See Appendix B, p. 304, following.



MARYLAND'S PROGRESS.



229



business depression, tiiose '■ hard times " that come at
intervals to the modern world.

Baltimore Celebrates its Sesqui-Centennial, 1880. In the
year 1880, in honor of its being tlie one hundred and
fiftieth year since its foundation, Baltimore celebrated its
sesqui-centennial. From the tenth to the fifteenth of Octo-
ber the city was in holiday dress ; flags were flying, the
houses and public buildings were decorated with bright
colored bunting— gold and black, the Maryland colors,
predominating — and the streets were thronged with a gay
crowd of visitors, sightseers and masquers. Thousands of




ENTRANCE TO DRUID HILL PARK, RALTIMORK.

merchants with their families came to the city, and the
people of Baltimore did all in their power to welcome their
visitors and show them the advantages of Baltimore as a
place in which to buy. On Sundav, October 10, there were
religious celebrations in the churches ; on Monday there was
a procession, ten miles long, made up largely of floats repre-
senting tlie various trades and induL^tries of the city ; on



230 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

Tuesday, a parade of the Masonic Order and school chil-
dren ; on Wednesday, a military display ; on Thursday,
another parade of national societies and benevolent associa-
tions. Monday's procession was so long that it occupied
five hours in passing a given point. At night there were
brilliant displays of fireworks. In fact, we may say that, in
a modern way, the old-time hospitality, the old-time pleasure-




MOUNT VERNON PLACE AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT,
BALTIMORE.

loving and pleasure-giving spirit of the Marylanders shone
forth.

Maryland and her towns have kept pace with the rest
of the country in all modern developments. In Baltimore,
especially, electric and cable lines have replaced the old
horse-cars ; large and handsome public buildings have
been built ; parks and " squares " have been laid out and



MARYLAND'S PROGRESS. 231

made beautiful with flowers, shrubbery, fountains and
statues.

Disastrous Floods. Handsome new bridges have been
built over Jones' falls, and an embankment has been built
along the stream, so that there is no longer any danger
from floods such as those which did so much damage to
the city in early years. Periodically floods have fallen




RAILROAD PIERS IN BALTIMORE HARBOR.

upon Baltimore, causing loss of life and great loss of
property. That of 1786 caused a loss of about half a
million dollars, but the two most disastrous ones occurred
in 1837 and 1868. In the former some twenty persons
were drowned, and the destruction of property amounted
to two million dollars. This was exceeded by the damage
done in 1868, however, when property to the value of
three millions was destroyed. Jones' Falls overflowed its



232



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



banks, washed away bridges, and even carried away
houses in the tiood of waters. A street car full of pas-
sengers was lifted from the tracks and swept down the
street. In the region along the lower banks of the stream
the water rose in the streets and houses to a height of ten
feet. The high stone embankment which now borders the
P^alls confines the water even in time of flood to the bed




VIEW, T,OOKING EAST, IN BALTIMORE AFTER THE GREAT FIRK.

of the stream, and thus saves many lives and millions of
dollars' worth of property. There was another flood in
Maryland in the early summer of 1889. The Potomac,
Patapsco and Susquehanna Rivers all overflowed their
banks. Baltimore was protected, but on the upper Poto-
mac fifty lives were lost, several hundred families were
left homeless, and more than two million dollars worth



MARYLAND'S PROGRESS.



238



of property was destroyed. The upper waters of the
Chesapeake were covered with logs and debris brought
down on the Susquehanna Hood,

The Baltimore Fire of 1904. — But a greater calamity than
any of these, in the amount of property destroyed, was the
great conflagration which swept over the city of Baltimore




GfclNtlKAL V11.U Of lllK RUINS OF BALTIMORE A Fl KK THE
GREAT FIRE.

in the year 1904. The fire started in the wholesale dry
goods house of John E. Hurst & Co., German Street and
Hopkins Place, on the morning of Sunday, February 7, and
raged for thirty hours, destroying almost entirely the business
section of the city and causing a loss of not far from a hun-
dred million dollars, a loss unparalleled except by the great
Chicago fire of 187 1.



234



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



Before the alarm could reach the engine houses the whole
Hurst building was in flames, and ten minutes later an
explosion caused it to collapse and spread the fire to the
adjacent buildings in all directions. A fierce wind blow-
ing at the time spread the flames so rapidly that they got
beyond the control of the fire department. After a stubborn
fight the brave firemen had to confess that they were exhausted




VI KW OF RUINS AT IHK COKNKR OF liALTIMORK AND
CHARLES STRKETS AFTER THE FIRE.

by the strain, and aid from other cities was asked and was
cheerfully given. Engines and men came ivom Washington,
Philadelphia, Wilmington, New York and other cities. Even
then, with seventy engines, the flames could not be checked, but
burnt their way fiercely to the water front and to Jones Falls.
When it was found that the engines were powerless, dyna-
mite was used, and many buildings were blown up in the hope



MARYLAND'S PROGRESS. 285

that the flames could not leap across the vacant spaces left.
Too often this hope proved illusory, and before the fire was
checked twenty-two banks, eleven trust companies, the cham-
ber of commerce, the stock exchange, and all but one of the
newspaper offices had been wholly or partially destroyed.
Railroad offices and business buildings of every kind, whole-
sale and retail, and including many of the handsomest and
newest, were burned. Nor were historic buildings spared ;
among others the Maryland Institute and the Church of the
Messiah perished.

Fortunately the fire started on a Sunday, otherwise the loss
of life in the crowded business portion of the city would doubt-
less have been appalling. As it was, there were almost no
lives lost.

The Fourth and Fifth Maryland regiments and the Naval
brigade patrolled the streets and mounted guard in the
ruined district in order to protect the buried vaults, safes,
and valuables from thieves, many of whom, it is said, flocked
to Baltimore from other cities, only to be arrested by the
vigilant police and sent away again.

During the night of February 7 a company of regulars were
sent into the city from Fort McHenry to aid the police de-
partment in protecting life and property. They were with-
drawn the next day.

Later on the government at Washington sent a company
of regulars to the city to assist the police department by
guarding the government property in the city.

At no time during the fire, nor afterwards, in the exciting
days which followed, was the city under the control of any
other body than the legally constituted police department.
Governor Warfield issued a proclamation declaring a legal
holiday from Februarys to February 15. This was neces-
sary, as the banks and trust companies could not reach their



2:J(J iriSTfJKV OF MARYLAND.

vaults, buried in the debris, for days, because of the intense
heat. Many a merchant opened his buried safe at the end
of a week, only to find the valuable contents within burned
to ashes.

State and City Debt. In the State are schools for the
blind and for deaf mutes, and asylums for the helpless and
the insane. Thus the poor and the helpless are provided
for. All these things, of course, cost a great deal. To
pay for them both State and City have had to borrow
money; so that by the year 1904 the State had a debt of
about seven million dollars, while that of Baltimore City was
nearly forty millions.*

The War with Spain. Thus the history of our State is, for
the most part, a record of quiet progress. There have been
some stirring events, some wrangling with the rest of the
country, and some discord among ourselves. Of some of
the acts of her sons the State cannot feel proud ; but the
deeds of many, of most of tliem, must fill her with an honest
and noble pride. Maryland has taken her stand iirnily as
a part of the ITnion, ready at all times to give money and
life for love of the country. In the war with Spain, de-
clared in 1898, her young men were ready, and although not
many of them were sent into the thick of the fight as they
wished, yet they bore with sickness and with privation.
When the Pacific Squadron, under Admiral George Dewey,
destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, the cruiser Bal-
timore led the line of battle in the second attack. Lieu-
tenant-Commander John D. Ford, of Baltimore, was chief
engineer of the Baltimore at the time. After the battle he
became fleet engineer, and later Rear Admiral. The Marj -

* Funded debt of the State of Maryland on September 30, 1903,
$7,101,926.13; net debt, #2,616,704.23. Funded debt of the City of
Haltimore on January i, 1904,539,935,1^2.1)5; net debt, 58,935,182.95.



MARVLANirS PROCRKSS.



237



land Naval Militia, in the auxiliary cruiser Dixie, was in
active service in the West Indies and received the surrender
of Port Ponce, Porto Rico.

The engagement of the war of most interest from the point
of view of Maryland, however, was the battle of Santiago.
The Spanish fleet was blockaded in the harbor of Santi-
ago by a fleet under the command of Admiral W, T. Samp-
son, the officer second in command being Commodore
Winfield Scott Schley, of Maryland. Admiral Sampson
had left the blockading fleet for a conference and during his
absence, a short distance away, the Spaniards were captured.
Much bitter and unwarranted
controversy arose concerning
the question who had been in
command at the battle and
to whom the credit of the vic-
tory was due. Finally, at
Admiral Schley's request, a
court of inquiry was held to
investigate the matter and pro-
nounce judgment. The court,
composed of Admiral Dewey
and Rear-Admirals Ramsay
and Benham, with Captain
Samuel C. Lemly as judge-
advocate, condemned Admiral
Schley, except on the charge
of cowardice, with Admiral
was taken to President Roosevelt as Commander-in-Chief of
the Navy with a result unfavorable to Admiral Schley. In
the eyes of the people Admiral Schley was, without doubt,
the " hero of Santiago," and the whole matter can be safely
left as a question of history to the judgment of posterity.




WIXKIKI.D SCOTT SCMI.KV.



Dewey dissenting. Appeal



238 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

A Final Word. In reviewing the history of our State, let
us then remember ahvays the bravery, the steadfastness, the
honor, the hospitaUty, and the cordial courtesy of our fore-
fathers, and let us try to imitate them in these qualities. If
we remember their faults, let it be only to guard ourselves
against them. Let us remember that a good State is made
by good citizens. Above all, let us be ever ready, in war
and in peace, in sickness and in health, in poverty and in
prosperity, and for very love of her, to do all that we can for
the honor and well-being of our native State.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. Trade and Commerce.

1. What effect had the Civil War on the trade of Maiyland ?

2. What led to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strike?

3. Note that strikes occurred on many other railroads and in other

States at the time.

II. Give an Account of Some ok the Floods thai- Have
Visited THE State, and of Means Taken to Lessen the
Evils Resulting from Them.

III. Explain why it is that the State and (. itv of ISalti-

MoRE Have Contracted Debts.

IV. The Spanish "War.

1. The battle of Manila.

2. Tell what yon know of the engagement at Santiago.

3. Name some Marylanders who won distinction in tlie war.

V. Let Each Student Tell what he Thinks is the Most In-
teresting Event in Maryland History; the Most Imi'or-
tant ; Why he is Proud of Being a Marylander; Why
HE Loves his Native State.

VI. Let the Teacher Toint out now the Events Happening
from Day to Day are Making History to be Written
about in the Future, and not Merely such Events as
Wars and the Passing of Laws, but the Daily Life,
the Habits and Customs of the People.




EDWIN WARFIELD, GOVERNOR OF MARYLAND.



HISTORIES



OF THE



COUNTIESo^MARYLAND

FROM

THE TEACHERS' MANUAL.



BY
M. BATES STEPHENS,

STATK SUPERINTKNUKNT OK PUBLIC EDUCATION.




COURT HOUSE AT LEONARDTOWN.



ST. MARY'S.



This "mother county" dates back to 1634, and has an
area of 360 square miles. It was named in honor of the
saint whom the devout colonists took as their patron. It
forms the extremity of the southern Maryland peninsula,
lying between the Potomac and Patuxent Rivers, its lower
eastern side bordering on the Chesapeake. Historic Point
Lookout is at the wide mouth of the Potomac. St. Mary's
touches no other county except Charles, the Patuxent
making in between it and Calvert. There are highlands
along the waterfront and lowlands in the interior. Some of
the soil is sandy, with a clay subsoil, and productive loam is
found in parts of the county. Half the cultivated land is
occupied by tenants. Forest areas abound in white and red
oak, poplar, sycamore, pine and chestnut. Farms fronting

241



242 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

on the liay and rivers are generally large, and vestiges of
the old manorial life are numerous. Tobacco-growing chiefly
engages the attention of the farmers, and corn, wheat and
potatoes are also grown ; much live stock of an excellent
grade is raised. The construction of a railroad to Point
Lookout, traversing the county, is often urged. St. Mary's
only railroad, the Washington City and Potomac, runs from
Brandywine, on the Pope's Creek Line, in Lower Prince
George's, through eastern Charles and into St. Mary's as far
as Mechanicsville, twelve miles from Leonardtown, the
county seat, located about midway of the county. Steam-
boats from Washington and Baltimore touch at Points on the
Potomac, and the Weems Line vessels from Baltimore ply
the Patuxent. Leonardtown, named after the first Governor
Calvert, is one of the most interesting ancient colonial towns
of Maryland. Its population is 463. The site of St. Mary's
City is fourteen miles southeast of the county seat, on St.
Mary's River. A seminary for girls is established there, and
at the tomb of Leonard Calvert a monument has been erected.
Charlotte Hall Academy, above Mechanicsville, was estab-
lished by legislative enactment in 1774, and its aknnni in-
clude many famous Marylanders.



:.J




COURT HOUSE AT CHESTERTOWN.

KENT.

Kent, with an area of 315 square miles, Avas named after
the EngHsh shire from whence came many of its early
settlers, who saw in its smiling landscape a replica of the
fairest county of England. Kent claims the distinction of


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