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has been extensively mined. Although possessing such
excellent water facilities, marsh land is almost unknown.
The banks of the Susquehanna River rise abruptly to a
height of from 80 to nearly 600 feet. At Port Deposit
the granite banks rise almost perpendicularly 200 to 300
feet. The fisheries, as might be expected, are of much
importance. Elkton, the largest town, has 2,542 inhabitants,
followed by Port Deposit, Perry ville, Rising Sun, North
East, Chesapeake City and Cecilton. The scenery in
places is picturesque in the extreme. That along the Sus-
quehanna, near Conowingo, and on the Octoraro, near
Porter's Bridge, attracts artists from a distance, and com-
pares most favorably with the Wissahickon and other rugged
streams so often delineated by the painter's brush. The
county is about equi-distant from Philadel])hia and Balti-
more, is intersected by the Philadelphia, Wilmington and


Baltimore,* the Philadelphia division of the Baltimore and
Ohio, and the Baltimore Central Railroads ; also by the
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. Cecil County was one of
the first to engage in school work. In 1723 the Colonial
Legislature appointed a committee consisting of John Ward,
John Dowell, Benjamin Pearce and others to open free
schools, and they opened one. St. Stephen's Church,
organized in 1692, opened a public school about 1734.
The Friends' Meeting House at Calvert was organized by
William Penn in 1702, and soon after opened a school.
The Church of St. Francis Xavier was organized in 1704,
and afterward opened a school. The county in 1859
organized a system of free public schools, thus antedating
that of the State six years. Among the more prominent
private schools are the West Nottingham Academy, opened
about 1 74 1 by Rev. Samuel Finley, who afterward became
the President of Princeton University, It is situated near
Colora. The Tome Institute, most beautifully situated on
the bluff at Port Deposit, presided over by Dr. A. W. Harris,
with a corps of 63 teachers, and over 500 pupils, was en-
dowed by the late Jacob Tome with several millions of

* Now riiilatlelpliia, Ualtiiiioie and Wasliingtoii.



Prince George's County, named in honor of Prince George
of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne, was formed in 1695,
having been originally a part of Charles. The seat of local
government was first established at Mount Calvert, on the
Patuxent River, but it was soon removed to Upper Marlboro
(named for the Duke of Marlborough in 1706). The number
of white children of school age is 6,175, and the number of
colored children, 5,179. Prince George's is one of the most
progressive and prosperous counties of the State. Its growth
is promoted largely by its proximity to the national capital.
The resources of the county are mainly agricultural. In the
upper section, bordering ujion the District of Columbia,



trucking is followed to a large extent. In the niiddle and
southern sections corn, wheat and tobacco are cultivated —
the last named on an extensive scale, forming the staple prod-
uct. The annual output of the county is larger than that
of any other of the tobacco-growing counties. I'he principal
towns are Upper Marlboro, Laurel, Hyattsville, Bladensburg,
Forestville and Woodville. At Laurel there are cotton duck
mills, and a cereal mill has recently been established at
Hyattsvillj. Bladensburg has the distinction of having been
the scene of one of the most significant battles of the War of
1812, and of many noted duels. The academy at Upper
Marlboro, established in 1835, is managed by a board of
seven trustees, and lias always had for its orincipal a capable
teacher of the classics. Many persons who attained
eminence in public and professional life were educated r.t
this school. Even in colonial time. Prince George's County
was conspicuous for being the home of cultured and educated
people; and as early as 1745 l^ev. Dr. Eversfield, Rector of
St. Paul's parish, established a private school near his resi-
dence, which he continued until his death, in 17S0. He
taught Greek and Latin and furnished pupils with board at
$53 per annum. The Maryland Agricultural College is in
this count}^ The area of Prince George's is 480 square
miles, and its railroads are the Baltimore and Ohio, Baltimore
and Potomac, Pope's Creek, and Chesapeake Beach lines.
Back in the thirties the " Patuxent Manufacturing Company "
was incorporated and established the present cotton mill at
Laurel, the old name of the town being " Laurel Factoiy."
The iron industry in Prince George's dates back over a
century. The Snowdens, among the original settlers of the
county, established furnaces at various points in southern
Maryland. The Patuxent Furnace and Forge was long a
notable industry. The only iron works now in oi^eration in



the county, or in rural Maryland, is the Muirkirk Furnace,
on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, at Muirkiik. It was
erected in 1847 by Andrew and Elias EUicott and modeled
after a furnace at Muirkirk, Scotland. The population of
Laurel is 2,079, '^"'^ ^^ Hyattsville, 1,222.



Queen Anne's County wiis erected in 1706, and the bounds
of the four counties above the Great Choptank were de-
scribed and fixed by the Assembly of that year with

Queen Anne's takes in the territory between the Delaware
line and the Bay (including Kent Island) south of the Chester
and north of the Wye and Tuckahoe Rivers. Kent is its
northern and Talbot and Caroline its southern neighbors.
Agriculturally, the county is highly favored, the soil being
very fertile and the surface rolling. The area of the county
is 376 square miles. Kent Island is opposite Anne Arundel,
and its wooded shores are visible from the State House at
Annapolis. Although under cultivation for two and a half
centuries, the island is the delight of agriculturists, its rich
soil producing in profusion all the staple Maiyland crops.



Oysters, crabs, lish and water fowl are plentiful in Queen
Anne's waters. Practically all the arable land of the county
is under cultivation. The industrial establishments are
chietiy flour mills and canneries. The Queen Anne's Rail-
road runs from Love Point, on Kent Island, through the
southern part of the county to Lewes, Delaware, and the
Queen Anne's and Kent Railroad, of the Pennsjlvania
system, terminates at Centreville, the county seat (population,
1,231), to which point a spur of the Queen Anne's has been
extended. Steamboats bring the watersides of the county
within a few hours' trip of Baltimore City. Queenstown, on the
eastern waterfront, was the colonial county seat, and has an
interesting history. A school here attained some reputation
before the revolution. In provincial times Queen Anne's and
Talbot were favorite places of summer residence for leading
men of Maryland, who cultivated broad estates in these
counties in the intervals between their official duties at
Annapolis or participation in its social gayeties. Queen
Anne's rivals St. Mary's as the favorite field of writers of
historical romances.



Worcester County was formed in 1742 and originally in-
cluded, with the shadowy county of Durham, all the Mary-
land territory lying on the Delaware from the fortieth parallel
to the ocean. The centre of settlement in that Worcester
was "the Horekeele " — the present Lewes. Mason and
Dixon's Line gave Worcester its now northern boundary.
Chincoteague, Sinepuxcnt, Isle of Wight and Assateague
Bays take up a considerable part of the county's area of
487 square miles. Its name recalls the loyalty of the Pro-
prietaries to the royal house of Stuart. Snow Hill, the
county seat, was one of the " townes and ports of trade "
erected in 1686, It is at the head of navigation on the
Poconioke River, and on the Delaware, Maryland and Vir-
ginia Railroad, and its manufactures are locally important.
At Pocomoke City millions of baskets and crates for the



fruit and vegetable trade are made annuall}', and the build-
ing of oyster boats and other craft is an important industry.
The population of the town is 2,124; that of Snow Hill,
1,596, and of Berlin, 1,246. Smaller towns are Ironshire,
Girdletree, Whaleyville, Bishopville, Newark, Box Iron,
Stockton, Klej Grange. Worcester is the only county in
the State which borders on the Atlantic Ocean, and it has
in Ocean City a thriving and prosperous seaside resort,
which has been of great advantage to truckers on the main-
land near there, and which has added materially tn the
taxable basis. The principal industries are agriculture,
manufacturing of lumber, and the oyster and other fisheries.
The people are chiefly of English descent. The soil varies
from a light sand to a heavy clay, the majority of it being a
good loam, with some clay. The principal products are
cereals, fruits, truck and timber. The lower part of the
Sinepuxent Bay in Worcester is one of the most fertile oyster
fields to be found. During the season there are shipped
from the railroad station at Girdletree about 30,000 barrels,
and from Hursley about the same number, beside those that
are consumed locally or are shipped by vessels. At Ocean
City a fish company has been formed and annually ships
thousands of barrels of the finest fish to Northern markets.

■ •■■ iiiMf^-i^^ "^^




Frederick County was organized in 1748, named after the
Prince of Wales, and has an area of 633 square miles, being
the second largest Maryland county. Its topography is
agreeably diversified by valley, plain, rolling land and moun-
tain. Many of the early settlers were Germans. The county
has always furnished its full quota of soldiers and sailors
in war time, from colonial days to the war with Spain. The
author of " The Star-Spangled Banner " was born here, and
his remains rest in Mt. Olivet Cemetery, in the city of



Frederick, beneath the monument erected by the Key
Monument Association, and unveiled August 9, 1899. On
November 23, 1765, the judges of the Frederick County
Court repudiated the Stamp Act passed by the British Par-
liament, and Repudiation Day was made a county holiday
in 1894. Agriculture is the leading industry, the soil being
fertile and producing large crops of wheat, corn, rye, oats
and potatoes. The mountain districts still supply a good
quality of oak, chestnut, walnut, hickory and other timber.
The railroads are the Baltimore and Ohio, the Western
Maryland, Pennsylvania, and an electric road runs from
Frederick to Myersville. Iron ore and copper are found in
different parts of the county, the most extensive deposits of
the former being in the northern section, near Thurmont,
where a large smelting plant is located — the Catoctin Fur-
nace, hrst put in operation in 1774. Near Libertytown
copper mines are worked on an extensive scale. Frederick
City, sixty-one miles from Baltimore, has a population of
9,296, and is the county seat. A female seminary, Frederick
College, and other important private educational institutions
are located there, as is also the Maryland School for the
Deaf. Manufactured products of the county include lumber,
flour, fibre brushes, fertilizer, furniture, harness, hosiery,
crockery-ware, lime, proprietary articles, etc. Frederick
towns include Brunswick, Emmitsburg (near which is Mt.
St. Mary's College), Thurmont, Walkersville, Middletown,
Buckeystown, Adamstown. Point of Rocks, Creagerstown,
Wolfsville, Urbana, Libertytown, New Market, Ijamsville,
Sabillasville, Woodsboro, Knoxville, Mt. Pleasant, Jefferson,
Graceham, Myersville, Harmony, Johnsville, Ladiesburg,
Unionville, Lewistown, Attica Mills, Burkittsville.



Harford County was formerly part of ]>altiniore County.
After the removal of the county seat of the latter from
Joppa (which is within the present limits of Harford) to
Baltimore Town on the PataiDsco, a petition for the forma-
ticn of a new county was granted by the Legislature of 1773.
The Proprietary of the Province of Maryland at this time
was Henry Harford, and from him the county took its name.
The first county seat was Harford Town, or Bush, but as
the settlements gradually extended farther and farther from
the river and Bay section, the people desired a more con-
venient location. As the result of an election in 1782, the
county seat was removed to Bel Air, where it has remained.
The physical features of the county being so varied, the in-
dustries are of many kinds. From the tidewater region in
the southeastern part there is a gradual elevation, the high-
est point being 750 feet above the sea. In the spring much



fishing is done along the Susquehanna and upper part of the
Chesapeake. Sportsmen come from, afar to take advantage
of the duck-shooting here afforded. In the upper part of
the county are found quarries of slate and limestone. Roll-
ing fields of unsurpassed fertility give the tiller of the soil
tirst place in the industries of the county. The pasture land
in the valley of the streams makes dairying profitable, and
the canned goods industry has been encouraged to such an
extent by the packers and brokers that Harford ranks
among the first of all the southern counties in this respect.
The facilities for shipping are good, the Baltimore and Ohio
and the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore * Railroads
traversing the entire southern part of the county, the JMary-
land and Pennsylvania running through a great portion of
the central part in a north-and-south direction, while just
across the river, along the eastern border, is the Columbia
and Port Deposit Road. The citizens of Harford have
always taken an active part in both State and national his-
tory. As the first county seat lay on the main highway
between Virginia and the Northern colonies, the ideas of
Washington and Jefferson and Patrick Henry were easily
disseminated. More than a year before Jefferson's famous
instrument was adopted, thirty-four of Harford's representa-
tive sons, duly elected by the people of the county, signed a
resolution in which they heartily approved of the " Resolves
and Associations of the Continental Congress and the Re-
solves of the Provincial Convention," and solemnly pledged
themselves to each other and the country to perform the
same at the risk of their lives and their fortunes. This is
known as the famous Bush Declaration of March 22, 1775.
In the Court House at Bel Air are portraits of many of the
distinguished citizens of the county who have left their im-

* Now Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington


press upon the State and nation. Among them are found
William Paca, signer of the Declaration of Independence and
twice Governor of the State ; Dr. John Archer, a member of
the first Constitutional Convention of the State, and Edwin
Booth, one of the greatest of the world's actors, Abingdon,
aptly termed the " Mecca of the Methodists," is noted as
being the seat of the first Methodist college (Cokesbury)
founded for higher education. Havre de Grace, named by
Lafayette because of the resemblance of its location to that
of the French Havre, is the largest town in the county, its
population being 3,423. It figured in the War of 18 12.
Bel Air has a population of 961, and Aberdeen and other
towns have from 100 to 800 inhabitants.



Caroline is one of the smaller Maryland counties and is
the most inland of those on the P>astern Shore. Wicomico
alone excepted, it is the only one in that section not having
an extensive bayside border. The Delaware line bounds it
on the east, Dorset on the south, Great Choptank and Tuck-
ahoe Rivers on the west, and Queen Anne's on the north.
The area of the county is 320 square miles, and it was named
in honor of Lady Eden, and its county seat was first called



Eden-Town, after Governor Eden, It was erected in 1773.
The soil is of sand and clay, adapted to a variety of crops,
from wheat to berries. Eruit-growing is a prominent in-
dustry, and canneries are operated in every section of the
county. A local industry is charcoal-burning. The Queen
Anne's Railroad has done much to develop the central sec-
tion of the county and to quicken village growth. The
Delaware and Chesapeake Railway runs through the north-
western part, and the Cambridge and Seaford line through
the extreme southeast. On the Choptank, steamboats ply
daily to Denton. The population of Denton is 900.
Ridgely (population, 713) and Greensborough are important
fruit shipping stations, and the next largest towns. Federals-
burg (population, 539), on the northwest fork of the Nanti-
coke, has several local industries, and Preston, on the
Baltimore, Chesapeake and Atlantic Railway, which curves
through southwestern Caroline ; Hillsborough, Burrsville,
Choptank are progressive towns. Hillsborough Academy
was noted among the classical public schools of the post-
Revolutionary period. One of the first acts of the people of
this county was the promulgation of the " Caroline Resolu-
tions of 1774," pledging resistance to the arbitrary measures
of Parliament. The county was distinguished in the Revo-
lution. At Ridgely is an extensive basket and berry-cup



Washington County was established on the same day as
Montgomery and was taken from Frederick, originally in-
cluding Allegany and Garrett. It is bounded on the north
by Pennsylvania, on the east by South Mountain, which sep-
arates it from Frederick ; on the south and southwest by the
Potomac River, dividing it from Virginia, and on the west
by Sideling Hill Creek, which separates it from Allegany.
It is nearly triangular in shape. The county is abundantly
watered by the Antietam, Beaver, Conococheague, Israel,
and other creeks tributary to the Potomac. The principal
products are wheat, corn, oats, hay, rye, potatoes, wool, live
stock, butter and honey. The county seat is llager.stown,



with a population of 13,591, and an admirable location as
a railroad centre. It lies on Antietam Creek, 86 miles from
Baltimore, and a seminary of high order and other private
institutions are among its educational facilities. The Balti-
more and Ohio, Western Maryland, Norfolk and Western,
and Cumberland Valley Railroads traverse the county, and
all pass through Hagerstown. The manufacturing establish"
ments of the city are numerous, and some of their products
are bicycles, gloves, organs, building materials, agricultural
implements, cigars, flour, carriages, etc. Williamsport has a
population of 1,472, and is a commercial and industrial
centre. Sharpsburg, Hancock, Clearspring, Boonsboro,
Smithsburg, Leitersburg, Funkstown, Keedysville, and others,
are thriving villages. The county ranks high among wheat-
producing counties of the United States, and is noted for its
mountain-side peach orchards. The population is remarkable
for intelligence, industry and thrift. Its area is 525 square
miles. Germans, English, Scotch, Swiss and French from
the border provinces of Alsace and Lorraine were among the
original settlers. A number of families were established in
the county as early as 1735, and from 1740 onward the
numbers rapidly increased. Washington has been the
mother of a long line of distinguished men in every walk of
life, who have left their impress not only upon Maryland, but
upon other States and the nation. The county may lay claim
to no inconsiderable share in the construction of the first
steamboat built in the United States (1785-86). General
Washington and Governor Thomas Johnson were patrons of
the experiment of James Rumsey, and parts of his steam-
boat were made at the Antietam Iron Works on March 14,
1786. Sharpsburg and vicinity was the scene of the most
terrible and bloody battle of the Civil War, and in the Antie-
tam National Cemetery here lie buried 4,667 Union dead.



The Delaware and Catawba battle-ground, at the mouth of
Antietam Creek, the limestone or subterranean curiosity from
which Cavetown derives its name, and old Fort Frederick,
near Clearspring — the last remaining visible vestige of the
French and Indian War — and Maryland Heights, rendered
conspicuous in 1861-65, together with Antietam battlefield,
dotted with monuments and tablets, make the county forever
memorable in song and story.



On September 6, 1776, the county of Montgomery was
formed out of the " Lower District of Frederick," and named
in honor of that ilhistrious hero, General Richard Montgom-
ery, killed at Quebec in the previous year. The county
furnished a conspicuous part of the Maryland Line during
the Revolution, also troops in every subsequent war in which
the country has been engaged, Montgomery has given the
State at least nine members of the national House of Repre-
sentatives, one United States Senator, one Chief Judge of



the Maryland Court of Appeals, three Presidents of the
State Senate, and has had one Cabinet officer. The late
United States Senators Edwards, of Illinois, Davis, of Ken-
tucky, and the brilliant commoner, Proctor Knott, of the
same State, were natives of this county ; and the ancestors
of the southern Laniars and of Thomas H. Benton, of
Missouri, were from Montgomery. The first school of any
reputation in the county was a seminary for young men,
established toward the close of the Revolution, and memo-
rable as the alma mater of William Wirt. The Rockville
Academy (1809) and Brookeville Academy (18 14) were next
chartered and liberally endowed, and have been in operation
ever since their foundation. Many private institutions of
learning have since been established, and those now existing
are at Rockville, Sandy Spring, Darnestown, Poolesville and
Forest Glen. The Metropolitan Branch of the Baltimore
and Ohio Railroad runs diagonally through the county,
available to nearly every section, and several electric roads
enter the southeastern part, reaching various towns. The
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal borders on southern Montgom-
ery, from the District line to Monocacy. There are numerous
circulating libraries, and the proximity of the county to the
national capital offers the best facilities to students and
information seekers. Braddock's army encamped for a night
within the present limits of Rockville. In the early history
of the county corn and tobacco were the staple products of
the soil, until it became so exhausted that Montgomery lost
by emigration to the new country beyond the Ohio large
numbers of her population. In 1790 this was over 18,000,
and fifty years later, 15,456. By the introduction of guano
in 1845 by the Society of Friends, a wonderful advance was
made in the growing of cereals and grass, and the value of
land and farm products materially enhanced. In the last


twenty-five years the fertility of the soil has been greatly in-
creased by the use of lime and phosphates. The Great
Falls of the Potomac is said to be the largest available water
power, perhaps, in the world, and the county has many
natural advantages. Gold has been found in Montgomery
in small quantities, and there are extensive deposits of gran-
ite. Rockville, the county seat, has a population of i,iio,
Kensington of 477, Takoma of 756, Gaithersburg of 547.
The area of the county is 508 square miles.




Allegany County derives its name from an Indian word
— AUigewi, a tribe name, or Oolik-hanna, meaning " fairest
stream." Its area is 442 square miles, and it lies between
Garrett and Washington, with the Potomac River separating
it from West Virginia on the south. Its northern line is the
Pennsylvania boundary. In this county is found the nar-



rowest part of the State, and it is conspicuous by reason of
the fact that coal mining and manufactures give occupation
and support to the great majority of its people, whose
number places Allegany next to Baltimore County in popu-
lation. The coal fields cover 64,000 acres in what is known
as the George's Creek (named after Washington) Coal

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Online LibraryL[eonard] Magruder PassanoHistory of Maryland → online text (page 15 of 23)