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Basin, west of Cumberland, between Dan's Mountain and
Savage Mountain. The county is rich in other mineral
deposits also — fire clay, cement, iron ore, Medina sand-
stone, etc. The George's Creek Coal Basin is a part of that
greatest of all coal deposits, the Allegheny field, which
extends from Pennsylvania to Alabama. In Maryland the
deposit is of a semibituminous variety, highly prized for its
peculiar qualities and unrivaled steam-making power. The
limestone and clay lands and the Potomac ''bottoms," in
parts of Allegany, are exceeding fertile and produce potatoes,
wheat, corn, buckwheat, oats and grass in large crops.
Fruits, especially apples, flourish on the mountain sides.
The county is very progressive and the standard of educa-
tion, particularly among the miners, is high. Vast sums of
capital are invested in Allegany industries, and some of
these are among the most extensive of their kind in the
United States. Tin-plate, leather, cement, lumber, ma-
chinery, flour, glass, and many other products of the county
are shipped far and near. Next to Baltimore, Cumber-
land, with a population of 17,128, is the largest city in the
State, and is constantly growing in material resources and
size. It is the business centre of a territory which extends
into Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is 178 miles from
Baltimore and 149 from Pittsburg, and is reached by the
Baltimore and Ohio, West Virginia Central (of which it is
the eastern terminus) and Cumberland and Pennsylvania
Railroads, the latter a part of the Pennsylvania system.



288 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal extends from Cumberland
to Georgetown, 13. C. Fort Cumberland, where Braddock
camped, was the starting point of the present city. Incident
and legend, dealing with Indian, British, French and Civil
Wars, cluster about Cumberland, and the topography and
nomenclature of this region are suggestive. Frostburg,
17 miles westward of Cumberland, is a city of 5,274 popula-
tion, on a plateavi at an elevation of 1,700 feet above sea
level. The second State Normal School is at Frostburg.
Lonaconing, a mining town of 2,181 population, is in south-
western Allegany ; Westernport, Midland, Barton, Mount
Savage, Ocean, Flintstone, Orleans, Pekin are other towns.





COURT HOUSE AT WESTMINSTER.



CARROLL.

Carroll County was forined in 1836 from the counties
of Baltimore and Frederick, between which it lies, with
Howard on the south and Pennsylvania on the north. The
county has an area of 437 square miles and was named
in memory of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, who died in
1832, the last survivor of the signers of the Declaration of
Independence. The surface is diversified, being level,
undulating or broken, watered by fine streams issuing from
innumerable springs which make up the tributaries of the
Potomac, the Monocacy and the Patapsco. These streams
furnish motive power for cotton and woolen factories, and
many flourishing mills. The soils being limestone, slate
and iron, are fertile and easily improved. These lands

289



290 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

respond bountifully to the efforts of the agriculturist, whose
products are corn, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, hay and
potatoes. In many sections grazing is fine, and dairy farm-
ing is profitable. Limestone is quarried in large quantities
for lime-making; and granite, marble and brownstone fur-
nish excellent building material. Iron, copper, soapstone
and flint are found in quantities sufficient to be worked with
profit. Ample facilities for speedy and satisfactory transac-
tion of business are furnished by fourteen banks, in which
the deposits amount to between two and three million
dollars. Westminster, with a population of 3,199 is the
county seat. Other towns ranging in population from
1,200 to 500 are Union Bridge, Taneytown, Manchester,
Hampstead, Sykesville, New Windsor and Mt. Airy. Carroll
was the first county in the United States to establish rural
free delivery of mail. In 1899 the system went into opera-
tion, and at present four wagons and forty-six carriers dis-
tribute mail in all parts of the county. The Western
Maryland, Baltimore and Ohio and Frederick Division of
the Pennsylvania are the Carroll railroads. The Western
Maryland College and the Westminster Theological Semi-
nary of the Methodist Protestant Church are at Westminster,
and New Windsor College, at New Windsor.




COURT HOUSE AT TLUICOTT CllV.



HOWARD.

Howard County, organized in 185 1, bears the name of
John Eager Howard, one of the most ilhistrious soldiers of
the Revolution, and afterward Governor of Maryland and
United Slates Senator. It is triangular in shape, lying be-
tween Baltimore, Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery, Prince
George's and Anne Arundel Counties, in the heart of the

291



292 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

Western Shore. The Patapsco forms its northern border,
and two small branches of the Patuxent extend into Howard
from the Anne Arundel line. Another branch of the same
river separates it from Montgomery. The main stem of the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the section of which from Balti-
more to EUicott's Mills was the first passenger railroad built
in this country, runs along Howard's northern border, and
the Washington Branch of the same road along its southern.
The corner-stone of the Baltimore and Ohio was laid July 4,
1828, by Charles Carroll, then upwards of ninety years old,
and he said of this act that he considered it second only to
his signing the Declaration, if " even it be second to that."
The area of the county is 250 square miles, and its topog-
raphy is hilly and broken, with heavy forests and fertile
hillsides and valleys, the arable land being especially adapted
to wheat, corn, and hay. As early as 1800 the iron ore de-
posits of Howard led to the building of the Avalon Iron
Works, and Howard ore is now the only Maryland product
of the kind being smelted. In granite, marble, and building
stones Howard is especially rich. Guilford and Woodstock
granites are known throughout the United States. Ellicott
City, the county seat, on the Patapsco River, fifteen miles
from Baltimore, is joined to the latter by an electric road.
EUicott's Mills, as it was known from 1774 until the latter
years of the past century, is noted in Maryland histor)'. The
manufacture of flour was begun here by the Ellicotts in that
year, and this industry is an important one in this section of
the State. The town has a population of 1,331. Rock Hill
College, a widely known educational institution, is located
here. Woodstock and St. Charles Colleges and the Ilchester
Redemptorist institution in Howard have made the county
known wherever the Roman Catholic faith is preached. At
Alberton and Savage are large cotton mills operated by



COUNTY HISTORIES.



293



water power. Howard has been the birthplace or the home
of many Marylanders noted in poUtical life, on the bench
and in the arts and sciences, and on her territory was first
heard in Maryland the demand for separation from tlie
mother country.





COURT HOUSE AT SALISHURY.

WICOMICO.

Wicomico County lies southeast of Dorset, the division
line between the two being the Nanticoke Kiver. Delaware
on the north, Worcester on the east, and Worcester and
Somerset on the south form the land l)oundaries of Wicomico,
and the Nanticoke River extends along its western side,
emptying into Tangier Sound. The area of the county is
365 square miles, and its name is taken from the river which
flows through its central section into Monie Bay. Salisbury,
the county seat (1732), is one of the most thriving commer-
cial towns on the Eastern Shore, and has a population of
4,277. It is incorporated as a city, and has numerous man-

21M



COUNTY HISTORIES. 295

ufactures, mostly associated with the extensive lumber inter-
ests of the county. Salisbury is noted for the beauty of its
situation and its substantial business buildings and modern
homes. Delmar, partly in Wicomico and partly in Delaware,
is a goodly sized town, and Tyaskin, Nanticoke, Powellsville,
Quantico, Pittsville, Parsonburg, Wango, Fruitland and
other villages are the centres of thriving communities. Agri-
culture is the occupation of many of the people, and fruit-
growing is largely and successfully engaged in, as is also
trucking. The melon crop is an important one. With its
fine transportation facilities, Wicomico, like Somerset, al-
though, perhaps, in a greater degree, is in competition with
the truck farmers of Virginia in the Northern markets.
Light, sandy soils, overlying stiff clays, are found in Wico-
mico, and there are areas of gum swamp land and of loams,
the " black loam " along the edge of Delaware being very
fertile. Mardela Springs, a village of several hundred in-
habitants, is well-known in history as the local location of
" Barren Creek Springs," the fame of whose medicinal waters
covers over a century. In the early days of the State, these
mineral springs were a favorite resort of persons from the
middle Atlantic coast territory. Francis Makemie established
a Presbyterian church in Wicomico (then Somerset) County
before the formation, in 1706, of the American Presbytery
in Philadelphia, and is called the founder of the Presbyterian
Church in America. The Baltimore, Chesapeake and At-
lantic Railway, and in New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk
Railroad, run through Wicomico.




COURT HOUSE AT OAKLAND.



GARRETT.

Garrett, the youngest of the counties of Maryland, was
carved out of territory belonging to Allegany County, in
1872, Its first election for county officers was held Janu-
ary 7, 1873. John W. Garrett, then president of the Balti-
more and Ohio Railroad, for whom the county was named,
was instrumental in its establishment. In area Garrett is
the largest county in the State — 660 square miles. It is
largely mountainous, lying in the great plateau of the Alle-
ghanies, and contains much uncleared land. It has rich
deposits of iron ore, hre clay, and other minerals, especially
coal ; but the chief industries are farming, stock raising, and
lumbering, Oakland, its county seat, is 2,800 feet above
sea level, and is noted as a summer resort. Mountain Lake
Park, widely known for its Chautauqua and camp-meeting,

2!»U



COUNTY IIISTORIKS. 2!>7

and Deer Park are also in Ciarrett. The people of the
county are purely American, there being few residents of
foreign birth, and only a half-hundred negroes. The rivers
and streams of the county abound in game fish — bass and
trout — and deer, pheasants, \\\\d turkeys, etc., make it the
same sportsmen's paradise it was in the days of Meshach
Browning, hunter and author. Occasionally, in the moun-
tain fastnesses, a bear is seen. Its deer shooting has long
attracted hunters from all over the country, and the glades
and uplands are yearly alive with pheasants and wild turkeys.
Wheat, potatoes, corn, buckwheat, and hay, are leading
Garrett crops. The maple forests of the county yield annu-
ally about a quarter of a million pounds of maple sugar.
Wild honey is abundant. The Baltimore and Ohio, West
Virginia Central, and Oakland and State Line are Garrett
railroads. The lumber industry in Garrett has long been
its chief manufacturing interest. The first saw mill — fore-
runner of the many that have leveled the primeval forests
of the county — was owned by Philip Hare, and placed in
operation near Grantsville about 1790. Valuable and pro-
ductive farms have been made of the fertile limestone lands.
Oakland* is 246 miles from Baltimore and 600 from Chicago.
Selbysport, Swanton, Accident, Grantsville, Friendship,
Keyser, Mineral Springs, Krug, Thayersville, Finzel, are
among the Garrett towns, and it is notable in physical geog-
raphy as the only Maryland county having rivers flowing
westward as well as eastward. The Youghiogheny rises in
Garrett and is a tributary of the Ohio.

* Population, 1,170.



APPENDIX



A.

A LIST OF THE GOVERNORS OF MARYLAND.

PKOPKIETAKV COVIZKXOUS. •

1633. Leonard Calvert.

1647. Thomas Greene.

1649. William Stone.

1652. Commissioners of Parliament; Richard Bennett and otiiers.

1654. Commissioners; William Fuller and others.

1656. Josias Fendall.

1660. Philip Calvert.

1 66 1. Charles Calvert.

1676. Cecilius Calvert, a minor; Jesse Wharton and Thomas
Notley, Deput}^ Governors in succession.

1676. Thomas Notley.

1679. Charles, Lord Baltimore.

1684. Benedict Leonard Calvert, a minor; the Council carried on
the government.

1688. William Joseph, President of the Council, Acting Gov-
ernor.

16S9. Convention of Protestant Associations.

ROYAL (iOVERXORS.

1692. Lionel Copley.

1693. Sir Edmund Andros.

1694. Sir Thomas Lawrence, President of the Council.
1694. Francis Nicholson.

1699. Nathaniel Blackiston.

1702. Thomas Tench, President of the Council.

1704. John Seymour.

1709. Edward Lloyd, President of the Council.

1714. John Hart.

299



300 APPKNUIX.

PROPRIETARY GOVERNORS.

1715. John Hart.

1720. Thomas Brooke, President of the Council.

1720. Charles Calvert.

1727. Benedict Leonard Calvert.

1 73 1. Samuel Ogle.

1732. Charles, Lord Baltimore.

1733. Samuel Ogle.
1742. Thomas Bladen.
1747. Samuel Ogle.

1752. Benjamin Tasker, President of the Council

1753. Horatio Sharpe-
1769 to 1776. Robert Eden.

THE REVOLUTION.

1774 to 1777. Convention and Council of Safety.

ST.VTE (;()VERNORS.

1777. Thomas Johnson.

1779. Thomas Sim Lee.

1782. William Paca.

17S5. William Smalhvood.

1788. John Eager Howard.

1791. George Plater.

1792. James Brice.
1792. Thomas Sim Lee.
1794. John Hoskins Stone

1797. John Henry.

1798. Benjamin Ogle.
1801. John Francis Mercer.
1803. Robert Bowie.

1806. Robert Wright.

1809. James Butcher.

1809. Edward Lloyd.

181 1. Robert Bowie.

1812. Levin Winder.

1S16. Charles Ridgely of Hampton.

1819. Charles Goldsborough.

1 81 9. Samuel Sprigg.



AT TEND IX. 301



1822. Samuel Stevens, Jr.

1826. Jo.seph Kent.

1829. Daniel Martin.

1S30. Thoma.s King Carroll.

1 831. Daniel Martin.

1 83 1. George Howard.

'833. James Thomas.

1836. Thomas Ward Veazey.

1839. William Grason.

1842. Francis Tiiomas.

1845. Thomas G. Pratt.

1848. Philip Francis Thomas.

185 1. Enoch Louis Lowe.

1854. Thomas Watkins Ligon.

1858. Thomas Holliday Hicks.

1862. Augustus Williamson Bradford

1865. Thomas Swann.

1868. Oden Bowie.

1872. William Pinkney Whyte.

1874. James Black Groome.

1876. John Lee Carroll.

r88o. William T. Hamilton.

1884. Robert Milligan McLane.

1885. Henry Lloyd.

1888. Elihu Emory Jackson.

1892. Frank Brown.

1896. Lloyd Lowndes.

1900. John Walter Smith.

1904. Edwin Warfield.



302



APPENDIX.

B.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, ETC.

POPULATION OF MAKVLAND.



Year.


Whites.


Negro Slaves. Fre


e i:lacks. Total.


'634


about






200


1638










700


1660










12,000


1665










16,000


1671










20.000


1701










30,000


1712


37,743


" 8,330






46,073


1715


40,700


9,500






50.2CO


1748


94,000


36,000






130,000


1756


107,963


46,225






154,188


1775


about








200.C0O


1782


170,688


S3/362 •






254.050


1790


208,649


103,036


8,043


3'9,728


1800


216,326


105.635


191587


341,548


1810


235.117


1 1 1,502


33,927


380,546


1820


260,222


107.398


39,730


407,350


1830


29 r, 108


102,994


52.938


447,040


1840


318,204


89. 737 <


52.078


470,019


1850


418,590


90.36S


74,077


583,035


i860


SIS';!'"!


87,189


^3,942


687,049


1870


605.497


. . . I


75.391


780,894


1880


724,693


. . . 2


0,230


934,943


1890


826,493


2


•5,657


1,042,390


1900


952,424


• • • 2_


35,064


1,188,044



I'OPUI.ATION OF BALTIMORE.



Year.


Population.

13.503
26,514

46,555
62,738


Year.


Population.


Year.


Population.


1790
1800
1810
1820


1830
1840
1850
i860


80,620
102,313
169,054
212,418


1870
18S0
1890
1900


267,354
332,3 '3
434-439
508,957



APPENDIX.



303



CENSUS OF THE SEVERAL COUNTIES AND THEIR ALLOTMENT

TO THE HOUSE OF DELEGATES UNDER

STATE CENSUS, 1901.



Baltimore City ....
Allegany County . , .
Anne Arundel County
Baltimore County . . .
Calvert County ....
Caroline County ....
Carroll County ....

Cecil County

Cliarles County ....
Dorciiester County . . .
Frederick County . . .
Garrett County ....
Harford County . . . .
Howard County ....

Kent County

Montgomery County . .
Prince George's County .
Queen Anne's County . .
Somerset County . . .
St. Mary's County . . .
Talbot County ....
Washington County . .
Wicomico County . . .
Worcester County . . .



Delegates.



304 APPENDIX.

T0\(7NS OF MARYLAND HAVING AT LEAST
2,500 INHABITANTS.

Baltimore City 508,957

Cumberland 17,128

Hagerstown ...,.., i3j59i

Frederick 9,296

Annapolis 8,525

Cambridge 5,747

Fro.slburg 5,274

Salisbury 4,277

Havre de Grace 3423

Westminster 3,i99

Crisfield 3,165

Easton 3,074

Chestertown 3,008

Elkton 2,542

THE VALUE OF THE PRODUCTS OF THE STATE
FOR THE YEAR 1 899.

Products of manufactories $242,552,990

Farm Products 29,046,607

Products of manufactories, l)y towns:

Baltimore City 161,249,240

Cumberland 3,526,422

Hagerstown 2,465,507

Frederick 1,727,094

Havre de Grace 1,372,420

Commerce:

Customs receipts from imports, 1902 4,699,116

Value of exports, 1902 74,097,708



APPENDIX. ;505

THE ORIGIN OF THE NAMES OF THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND,
mJH THE DATE OF THEIR FORMATION.

DATE OF
COINTV. ORICIX OK NAME, FORMATION.

vSt. Mary's — In iionor of the Virgin Mary. 1637

Kent — After the County of Kent in Enghmd. 1642

Anne Arundel — After Lady Anne Arundel, wife of Cccilius,

second Lord Baltimore. 1650

Calvert — The family name of the Proprietors. 1654

Charles — After Charles, Lord Baltimore. 1658

Baltimore — From the Proprietor's Irish barony; the Celtic

name meaning "large town." 1659

Talbot — After Lord Talbot, uncle of Lady Baltimore. 1661

.Somerset — After Lady Mary .Somerset, sister of Lord Bal-
timore. .J^^^



Dorchester — In honor of the Karl of Dorset.

Cecil — In honor of Cecilius, second Lord Baltimore.

Prince George's — After Princ^ George of Denmark.

Queen Anne's — In honor of Queen Anne of England.

Worcester — After the Earl of Worcester.

Frederick — In honor of Frederick, Prince of Wales.

Caroline — After Lady Caroline Calvert, sister to Frederick,

Lord Baltimore.
Harford — After Henry Harford, the last Proprietor.
Washington — In honor of George Washington.
Montgomery — After General Montgomery.
Allegany — After an Indian tribe, the Alligewi.
Carroll — After Charles Carroll of Carrollton.
Howard — After John P^ager Howard.
Wicomico — After the river of that name.
Garrett — After John W. Garrett.



668
674
695
706
742
74«

773
773
77C'
77^'
7S9
836
851
867
S72



306 APPENDIX.



C.

ARTICLES FROM THE CONSTITUTION OF 1864.

Article V. — The Constitution of the United States and the
laws made in pursuance thereof, being the Supreme law of the
land, every citizen of this State owes paramount allegiance to
the Constitution and Government of the United States, and is
not bound by any law or ordinance of this State in contravention
or subversion thereof.

Article XXIV. — That liereafter, in this State, there shall be
neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except in punishment
of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted ; and
all persons held to service or labor as slaves are hereby declared
free.



THE "IRON-CLAD" OATH.

I do swear (or affirm) that I am a citizen of the United State.s,
that 1 have never given any aid, countenance or support to those
in armed hostility to the United States; that I have never ex-
pressed a desire for the triumph of said enemies over the arms
of the United States, and that 1 will bear true faith and allegiance
to the United States, and support the Constitution and laws
thereof as the supreme law of the land, any law or ordinance of
any State to the contrary notwithstanding ; that I will in all
respects demean myself as a loyal citizen of the United States,
and I make this oath (or affirmation) without any reservation or
evasion, and believe it to be binding on me.



APPENDIX. 307

D.

A TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL DATES IN THE HISTORY

OF MARYLAND.

1579. George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore, born.

1606. Cecilius Calvert born.

1632. April 15. George Calvert died.

1632. June 20. Cecilius Calvert receives the charter of Maryland.

1633. November 22. The Ark and the Dove sail from England.

1634. March 25. The first settlers arrive in Marj'land.

1635. The first General Assembly.
1635. Seizure of Claiborne's ships.

1638. Kent I.sland awarded to Lord Baltimore.

1644. Claiborne and Ingle's rebellion.

1648. Claiborne and Ingle driven from the colony.

1649. April 21. The Toleration Act passed.
1649. Puritans settle in Maryland.

1649. Providence or Annapolis founded.

1654. Puritans get control of the government.

1655. The battle of the Severn.
1658. End of the Puritan revolt.

1675. November 30. Cecilius Calvert died.

1689. The Proprietary government overthrown.

1691. Maryland becomes a royal colony.

1695. First post route established.

1696. King William School founded.

1 7 15. The Proprietary government restored.

1727. First newspaper published.

1730. Baltimore founded.

1745. Frederick founded.

1760. Northern boundary agreed upon.

1763-67. Mason and Dixon's line surveyed.

1769. Hagerstown founded.

1771. Death of Frederick, the last Lord Baltimore

1774. October 19. The Peggy Stewart burned.

1776. June 24. The end of the Colonial Government.

177C. June 28. Maryland concurs in declaring independence.

1776. August 14. First Constitutional Convention.

1776. The Constitution adopted.



308 ATPENDIX.

1777. February 5. First General Assembly of the State of
Maryland.

1781. March i. Maryland ratifies the Articles of Confederation.

1782. Washington College founded.

1783. The importation of slaves forbidden.

17S4. The remainder of the northern boundary surveyed.

1785. St. John's College chartered.

1788. April 28. Maryland ratifies the Constitution of the United
States.

1795. Earliest labor strike in Maryland.

1796. Baltimore incorporated.

1802. The property qualification for the franchi.se abolished.

1S07. The University of Maryland chartered.

180S. Rise of home manufactures in Maryland.

1812. Chesapeake Bay declared blockaded.

1814. August 24. The battle of Bladensburg.

1814. August 30. The battle of Caulk's Field.

1814. September 12. The battle of North Point.

1825. Enfranchisement of the Jews.

1825. Beginning of the Public School system.

1S28. July 4. The corner-stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-
road laid in Baltimore.

1829. September 21. The first Public School in Baltimore

opened.

1830. First steam locomotive used on the Baltimore and Ohio

Railroad.

1835. The State invests in the stock of corporations.

1839. October 20. The Baltimore City College opened.

1842. Suspension of interest payments.

1844. The Baltimore Female High Schools established.

1844. The Maryland Historical Society founded.

1848. Resumption of interest payments.

1856. The Maryland Agricultural College founded.

1861. April 19. Baltimore mob attacks Federal troops.

1862. First invasion of Maryland by the Confederates.

1862. September 17. The battle of Antietam.

1863. Second invasion of Maryland.

1864. Third invasion of Maryland.

1864. Slavery abolished.

1865. The State Normal School founded.



APPENDIX. 309

1867. The rights of citizenship restored to Southern sympa-
thizers.

1867, The present State Constitution adopted.

1870. Colored men vote for the first time.

1876. February 22. The Johns Hopkins University opened.

1S77. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad strike.

1890. Adoption of the secret ballot system.

1904. Great fire in Baltimore.



810 APPENDIX.

E.

A LIST OF BOOKS FOR CONSULTATION.
Chapter I.

The Discovery of America. By John Fiske. Houghton, Mifflin

& Co.

Christopher Columbus and how he Received and Imparted the

Spirit of Discovery. By Justin Winsor. Houghton, Mifflin

& Co.

Narrative and Critical History of America. Edited by Justin

Winsor. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Vol. i, pp. xix-xxxvii.

Chapter II.

Maryland, the History of a Palatinate. By Wm. Hand Browne.

American Commonwealths Series. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.


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