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appeared to be growing less friendly. An inquiry into the
causes of this through an interpreter, a certain Captain
Henry Fleete, disclosed that the Indians had been told that
the newcomers were Spaniards, whom they hated, and not Eng-
lishmen. This might
have led the Indians to
go on the warpath and
massacre the settlers at
St. Mary's. Claiborne
was accused of having
told the Indians this
story, but it is not very
probable that he did
so. However, Lord
Baltimore was alarmed,
and as Claiborne still
refused to submit and
continued to trade with-
out the required license,
it was ordered that he

should be made a prisoner, and that possession should be
taken of Kent Island.

Claiborne's Ships Captured with Bloodshed. In 1635 one of
Claiborne's ships was seized and sold, with lier cargo, for
trading without a license. Claiborne at once armed another




TRIM TV CHIRCH, SITK OK ST. MARV S.

Built in 1824, 0/ the bricks of the first State

House, ivhiih stood nearly on this sf>ot.



26 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

vessel, the Cockatrice, and sent it out to capture any Mary-
land ships it might meet. Lord Baltimore met this move by
fittir.g out two vessels which presently captured the Cocka-
trice, after a figlit in which several men were killed and
wounded. This occurred on April 23, 1635, in the Poco-
moke Ri\'er. On May 10 there was another fight and more
bloodshed near the same place.

The Dispute Settled in Lord Baltimore's Favor, 1638. The
next chapter in the story is that disputes arose between
Claiborne and the merchants to whom he sent the furs he
got in trade. Claiborne had to go to London to settle mat-
ters with them, and in his absence Leonard Calvert took
possession of Kent Island, and Palmer's Island, at the head
of the Chesapeake. He found there two leaders who kept
the settlers from submitting, John Boteler, who was Clai-
borne's brother-in-law, and Thomas Smith. The latter had
gone northward to the settlement on Palmer's Island, where,
he thought, he had passed the limits of Lord Baltimore's
colony. There, it was said, he had persuaded the fierce
Susquehannoughs to attack St. Mary's. Governor Calvert
took both these men prisoners, and they were both tried for
piracy and condennied. Boteler, showing a good disposi-
tion, was pardoned, and was afterwards appointed com-
mander of the militia of the island. He remained faithful
to the government from that time on. It is not known what
became of Smith. This happened in February, 1638, and
two months later, in April, the whole dispute was finally
settled in England in Lord Baltimore's favor by the Board
of Commissioners for the Plantations.

The "Plundering Time" of Ingle and Claiborne. Clai-
borne, however, bided his time. Six years later he invaded
Maryland and took Kent Island. At the same time, one
Richard Ingle, a tobacco trader and agent of Parliament,



SETTLEMENT AND EARLY HISTORY. 27

captured St. Mary's with an armed force. For a year or
more Ingle and his followers sailed about the Chesapeake,
seizing tobacco, corn, cattle and other goods. The Gov-
ernor took refuge in Virginia until, in the end of the year
1646, with a force of Marylanders and Virginians he suc-
ceeded in driving out both Claiborne and Ingle. During
these disturbances the great seal and the official records of
the colony were lost or stolen. The latter could not be re-
placed, but the former Lord Baltimore replaced by a new
seal much like the old one. At various times since other
seals were adopted, but in 1876 Lord Baltimore's design was
'"estored and is now the one in use.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. George Cai-vert.

!. Give the dates of his birth and death.

2. Tell about his character and his rehgious belief.

3. About his rank and the ofifices he filled.

4. Was befriended by King James I

5. His first colony in America.

6. Why the settlement of Avalon was a failure.

7. His new charter. Did he receive it ''

8. Ti.e origin of the name of Maryland.

II. CECI1.1U.S Calvert.

I. Was born in what year? Died when ?

7.. How related to George Calvert ?

3. Why did he never visit his colony ?

4. His character.

III. The Maryland Charter.

1. Maryland a " palatinate " ; explain what this means
?. What is meant by the " Lord Proprietor? "

3. Explain the relations of the King of England to the govern-

ment of the colony.

4. The relations of Lord Baltimore to the government of the col-

ony and to the King



28 HISTORY OF MARYLAND,

III. The Maryland Charter (continue.^.

5. In what sense were the colonists Brilis- subjects ?

6. How were their rights safeguarded ?

7. Compare the governments of Virginia anu Massachusetts witli

that of Maryland.

IV. TiiK First Exi'kditiun.

1. When did it sail, and what were the names of ^e ships it

sailed in ?

2. Was composed of how many and what kinds of persoi.-. •*

3. Where did they land in Maryland, and wlien ?

4. Tell about the oldest city and tirst capital of the colony?

5. How was the land for its site obtained ?

6. Why were the Indians friendly toward the set'lemant ?

7. Compare the settlement of Si. Mary's with that i>i Avalon.

V. Enemies of the Colony.

1. \'irginia; give three reasons for her hostility.

2. The Kent Island station ; its history.

3. Who was William Claiborne, and what was his connection with

Virginia.''

4. Lord Baltimore's fairness to Claiborne.

5. Instructions to his brother, Leonard Calvert, on the question.

6. Was Kent Island a part of Maryland or of Virginia?

7. Tell about ralnier's Island and its tlaimants.

8. Fears of Indian outbreaks.

9. How was the dispute with Claiborne settled?

10. The "I'lundering Time," why so called?

1 1. Who was Richard Ingle ?

MISCKI-I.ANEt^US QUESTIONS.

Was it an easy voyagj from England to America at the time when
the colonists first came to Maryland? How large were the vessels of
the first expedition ? Why did not Lord lialtimore pay the Indians for
their land in mon.ey ? What is a trading post ? What is meant by the
records of the colony? hy could not they be replaced? What is
the great seal of Maryland used for?



C H A P 1^ E R II I



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED.

Death of Leonard Calvert. Leonard Calvert died s -ion
after, in June, 1647, naming Mistress Margaret Brent 1 is
executrix. She was a woman of strong character. Wit.'i
her sister Mary she liad
brought nine colonists
to Marjdand, had re-
ceived a manor, and
managed affairs as well
as any man. She even
asked to be allowed to
vote in the Assembly.
but this the Governor
refused.

Missionary Stations
Broken Up. During the
Claiborne and Ingle dis-
turbances the missionary
stations which had been
established among the
Indians were broken up,
and the Jesuit priest,
Andrew White, who had
been one of the iirst
party of settlers and was
now grown old, was sent
in irons to England, monument to i.koxard calvert,
charged with treason.

29




SITE OF ST. MARY'S.



so HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

He was tried and found innocent, but never returned to
Maryland. He died in 16560

The "Toleration Act" Passed, April 21, 1649. In the
meantime the troubles between the King and Parliament
had arisen in England, and these troubles affected all the
colonies. In 1648 William Stone, a Protestant and a
supporter of Parliament, was appointed Governor of Mary-
land. At the same time changes were made in the Council
which gave the Protestants a majority of its members. It
was under this Governor and Council that the famous " Toler-
ation Act" of Maryland was passed, in 1649, the year
in which Charles I. was beheaded. This Act decreed,
among other things, that it be " ordered and enacted . . .
that noe person or persons whatsoever within this Pro-
vince, . . . professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from
henceforth bee any waies troubled, molested or discoun-
tenanced for or in respect to his or her religion." Re-
ligious freedom had been Lord Baltimore's policy from the
beginning, and this " Act Concerning Religion," the liberal
features of which were doubtless due to himself, simply em-
bodied his policy in the law. The law was lived up to by
all the Proprietors, and it was only at such times as their
power was overthrown that men were persecuted for religion's
sake.

The Assembly Becomes Representative: The "Hundred."
As we have said (page 20, footnote), the Assembly until 1638
was a primary assembly, that is, one in which all the free-
men of the colony took part, either in person or by individu-
ally giving someone authority to vote for them. Persons
having such authority were called " proxies." After that
date the Assembly was representative, that is, the freemen
living in a certain district would elect some one of their
number as a member of the Assembly to look after their



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED.



31



interests. These districts were called '• hundreds," and were
political divisions smaller than counties. The name arose
from the fact that in early times in England, whence the
colonists brought their political ideas, the hundred was such
a community as could furnish one hundred men for military
service. In course of time the name passed out of use and
the county, divided into election districts, became the
political unit.

Disputes as to the Initiative in Making Laws. The second




RESTORATION OF THE FIRST STATE HOUSE IN MARYLAND, AT

ST. MARY'S.

From " C/:ro>:iclcs of Colonial Jif'irylaiid," by permission of the iiuthor,

Jas. II'. Thotnas.

Assembly, which met in 1638, and those immediately fol-
lowing had already passed laws for governing the colony.
There was some discussion with the Lord Proprietor as to
whether he or the Assembly should have the right to make the
laws. The charter said that the Proprietor could make laws
which the Assembly might either accept or reject ; but the
colonists \vere not satisfied with this arrangement. The
Assembly of 1638 had rejected a body of laws sent out by
the Proprietor in the caie of Secretary John Lewger, and had
itself drawn up a small code, altered slightly from that of



32 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

Lord Baltimore, wliich was sent to England for the Pro-
prietor's assent. These laws were probably the work of
Secretary Lewger, a man of much ability and deeply learned
in English law. However, these laws did not go into effect
either, probably because Lord Baltimore did not assent to
them. Before long Lord Baltimore agreed that the Assembly
might take the initiative, and that the laws they passed should
take effect at once, on the Governor's approval, without
waiting for the Proprietor's assent. This was done because
the voyage to England and back took so long a time. How-
ever, before the Acts of the Assembly finally became the
law of the colony they had to be approved by Lord Balti-
more ; and if he disapproved them, vetoed them, they did
not become the law at all.

Puritans Settle in Maryland, 1649. Good men make good
laws and good men obey them ; but there are always some
people who are ready to squabble and fight and take ad-
vantage of their power. Thus the wise and just Toleration
Act could not altogether prevent trouble in l\Liryland. The
people of Virginia thought it very wrong that King Charles
had been beheaded and would not let anyone remain in their
colony who thought otherwise, so that a number of Puritans
who had been living there were driven from their homes.
In the year 1649 about three hundred of them came to
Maryland, where they were kindly recei\'ed by Governor
Stone. He permitted them, and about seven hundred more
who came during the next few months, to settle on the
Severn River at a place which they named Providence.

They began to make trouble almost immediately. A
memorial was sent to Parliament, complaining of the Jesuits
in Maryland and that the Protestants were ill-treated. Vir-
ginia had declared Gharlcs IL King on the death of his
father; and when, in 1651, Parliament sent a fleet to over-




(E O O



5 f



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. 33

come the revolt in that colony, the enemies of Maryland,
among them William Claiborne, whom we already know, and
Richard Bennett, one of the Puritans who had fled froir.
Virginia to Maryland, succeeded in having Maryland joined
with Virginia as being in revolt. It was also urged that the
two be made into a single colony. The Puritans at Provi-
dence seemed to wish that their colony might be entirely
independent of Lord Baltimore's government.

Puritans Get Control of the Government, 1654. In the year
1654 they got control of the government, by excluding all
Catholics fron. office and allowing none of them even to
vote. They forced Governor Stone to resign, and named
Captain William Fuller Governor in his stead. Forgetting
that they had been welcomed by a Catholic when they fled
from persecution in Virginia, they passed a law which said
that every person might worship as he pleased, except
Catholics, Episcopalians, and those who, " under the pro-
fession of Christ, hold forth and practice licentiousness."
This last expression could be made to mean anyone who did
not worship in the Puritan way.

The Battle of the Severn, 1655. Acting on Lord Balti-
more's orders, Governor Stone, with a small force of one
hundred and thirty men, advanced to tlie settlement at
Providence, Avhere he arrived March 24, 1655. He was
met by Fuller and a force of one hundred and seventy-five
men. A fight followed between the two little armies, in
Avhich Fuller won the victory with the help of two merchant
vessels, one from London and one from New England.
Governor Stone being promised quarter surrendered, but
Fuller condemned him and nine others to death by court-
martial. Four were executed, but Stone and the remainder
were saved by the soldiers and women. The victors now
look possession of the great seal and records of Maryland



34 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

and the property of those who opposed them. But in
the meanwhile Parliament had been overthrown by Crom-
well, and Cromwell took Lord Baltimore's part. When
the Puritans learned this they gave up the struggle, and in
March, 1658, the authority of Governor Josias Fendall, who
was appointed by Lord Baltimore, was acknowledged by
every one. The name of the Puritan settlement was changed
to Anne Arundel County, and the city which later grew up
there was called Annapolis.

Fendall's Rebellion. Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, and
for nine months England was without king or ruler, until
Charles IL came to the throne. Governor Fendall and the
Puritans thought that as Lord Baltimore had been befriended
by Cromwell he would not be favored by King Charles.
Therefore they persuaded the lower house of Burgesses,
elected by the people, to declare that they were independent
of Lord Baltimore and to do away with the upper house, or
Council, most of who.'e members were supporters of the
Proprietor. Fendall surrendered his commission from Lord
Baltimore and then received the governorship anew in the
name of the Assembly, thus entirely throwing off the Pro-
prietor's authority. Philip Calvert, who was the Secretary
of the colony, objected to all this, but could do nothing, as
the other party was stronger than his. Thus Fendall and
his followers had their own way until King Charles declared
that every one in Maryland should obey Lord Baltimore.
Philip Calvert was appointed Governor and was ordered to
hang Fendall, his chief helper William Fuller, and any
others whom he saw fit to execute. However, the new Gov-
ernor, meeting with no resistance, put no one to death, but
contented himself with banishing some and confiscating
their goods. lie afterwards decided to allow even thc^se to
remain, and they were only fined and deprived of the right



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. 35

to vote. Thus the rebellion ended, and in 1661 Lord Balti-
more's son Charles was sent over as Governor, while Philip
Calvert was made Chancellor. Charles took his family
with him to the New World, and we find mention in his
letters of a gift of two wildcat skins sent by " little Cis " (his
son Cecilius) to his grandfather in England ; and of a cap,
feather, sword and belt sent by the grandfather to little Cis.

The Quakers Find a Refuge in Maryland. It was while
Fendall was Governor that the Quakers, or, as they call
themselves. Friends, first settled ii\ Maryland. They had
been persecuted in Massachusetts and Virginia, and so came
to a colony where they might worship in their own way. In
Maryland they were not molested because of their religion ;
but it was thought they ought to be willing to act as soldiers,
to serve on juries, and do other duties of that kind where
there were so few men to do all that was needed to make
the settlement a success. Governor Fendall had called to-
gether all the men of the colony between sixteen and sixty
years of age, and had selected the fittest of them for soldiers.
This militia had been formed into two regiments, the Gov-
ernor commanding one and Colonel Nathaniel Utie the
other. The Quakers not only refused to serve in the militia
themselves, but tried to persuade others to refuse. They re-
fused, too, the promise to be faithful to the government,
saying "they were to be governed by God's law and not by
man's law." Of course such conduct could not be permitted,
and therefore a decree was issued, ordering all the " vaga-
bonds and idlers," called Quakers, to leave the colony. If
any ventured to return they were to be whipped out of the
colony. However, the law was not enforced and was soon
done away with.

The Swedes and the Dutch. In the year 1638, a party of
Swedes had founded a colony on the west bank of the Dela-



86 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

ware River, where Wilmington now stands. Seventeen years
later the Dutch from Manhattan (New York) conquered the
Swedish settlement and made two provinces of the land
thereabout. Colonel Utie was sent to tell them that they
had settled in Maryland and would have to live under the
government of that colony. Word of this was taken to Peter
Stuyvesant at Manhattan, who sent two men, Augustine
Herman and Resolved Waldron to discuss the matter with
the agents of Maryland. Waldron went back to Stuyvesant
to tell him that no agreement could be come to, while Her-
man went on to Virginia to try to get help from that prov-
ince. While traveling through Maryland he was so pleased
witli the country that he offered to make a map of the prov-
ince if Lord Baltimore would give him a manor. Lord
Baltimore agreed to this proposal and Herman received a
grant of five thousand acres (afterwards increased to twenty
thousand) on the Elk River. He named his place Bohemia
Manor.

The First Naturalized Citizen. In 1666 Herman and his
family were naturalized ; that is, an Act was passed saying
that they, though foreigners by birth, were made citizens of
Maryland witli all a citizen's rights. He was the first for-
eigner naturalized in Maryland, and probably the first in
America. His map of the province, which was engraved in
London in 1673, and is now in the Ihitis.h Museum, was a
very good one for those days ; but en the northwest corner
of it he marks the Alleghany Mountains near Cumber-
land, and says: "These mighty high and great Mountaines
... is supposed to be the very middle Ridg ( f Northern
America." So little was then known of the great continent
lying to the west of the settlements.

Original Boundaries of the Province. The Maryland that
was given to Lord Baltimore was larger than the present



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. 37

State. It included all of the State of Delaware, was bounded
on the east by the Delaware Kiver, and on the north by a
line drawn above the city of Philadelphia, But a part of
the land extending south from Wilmington was given by
King Charles II. to his brother, the Duke of York, in 1664,
and in 16S1 Pennsylvania was granted to William Penn.
Disagreement arose almost immediately between Penn and
Lord Baltimore, as the former claimed the land fpr some
distance south into Maryland. After endless disputes the
sons of William Penn succeeded in persuading Lord Balti-
more to give up to them a large slice of some four thousand
square miles off the northern part of Maryland. This agree-
ment was made in 1732, and in 1760 the boundary was fixed
accordingly.

Mason and Dixon's Line. The northern boundary of
Maryland, Mason and Dixon's Lme, was marked a few years
later. The Proprietors of the two colonies employed two
English surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, to
fix those parts of the boundary which the agreement of 1760
had left uncertain. Starting from the northeastern corner of
INIaryland in 1763, ihey had carried the line westward for
two hundred and forty-four miles from the Delaware River
by 1767. Fear of the Indians prevented them from going
farther. The boundary was marked by mile-stones having
Lord Baltimore's coat-of-arms cut on one side and that of the
Penns on the other. The remaining thirty-six miles of the
boundary were surveyed by Colonel Alexander McClean, of
Pennsylvania, and Joseph Neville, of Virginia, and the line
permanently marked in 1784.* Penn himself had indeed
tried hard to take from Lord Baltimore the land as far south
as the head of Chesapeake Bay, but failed in this attempt.

* A resurvey of Mason and Dixon's Line was begun in 1900 by the
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey.



38



HISTORY OF MARYLAND.



He even proposed that Lord Baltimore should give him this
big strip of land in the north and himself take enough from
Virginia in the south to make up for it.




KIVK-MII.E STONE, MASON' AND DIXON'S LINE.
From the original in t/ie foisession of the Maryland Historical Society.

Then too, in the west, Maryland was to be bounded by the
Potomac. This river divides into two branches, and it was



EARLY HISTORY CONTINUED. 39

a question whether the south or north branch were the true
river. Virginia declared for the northern branch and Mary-
land for the southern ; and although, later on, Maryland was
proved to be in the right, Virginia refused to yield. In the
year 1852 the Maryland Assembly yielded to Virginia all the
lands in dispute, about half a million acres, upon certain con-
ditions. These conditions Virginia did not fulfill, and the
matter now awaits the decision of the Supreme Court of the
United States.

TOPICAL ANALYSIS.

I. The Toleration Act.

1. By whom passed, and when ?

2. Its provisions.

3. Ceciliiis Calvert probably its author.

II. The Assembly.

1. Was a primary assembly at first.

2. \Vhat does this mean ? What is a proxy ?

3. What is a representative assembly ?

4. Each hundred, later, elected a Delegate to the Assembly.

5. Tell what you know about the " hundreds."

III. The Initiative in Making Laws.

1. What did the Maryland charter say on this point .>

2. The colonists refuse to accept its provisions.

3. Were any laws passed ? E.xplain.

4. The Proprietor yielded in the dispute Why?

IV. The riRiTANs.

1. Where did the Puritans in Maryland come from? Why did

they come ?

2. Their settlement at Providence.

3. Their memorial to Parliament, its object.

4. Name two men actively hostile to Lord Baltimore's government

V. Puritan Government of the Colony.

1. How did they get control ?

2. Who was their leader ?



40 HISTORY OF MARYLAND.

V. Puritan Government of the Colony {continued).

3. Describe their law of religious toleration.

4. The battle of the Severn.

5. How did they treat the defeated party ?

VI. Fendall's Rebellion.

1. Cromwell and Lord Baltimore.

2. Who was Josias Fendall ?

3. Compare the Burgesses and the Council.

4. How did Fendall overthrow the Proprietor's authority?

5. Charles II. and Lord Baltimore.

6. How did the rebellion end ?

VII. The Quakers.

1. Why did they come to Maryland?

2. Their attitude towards the government and the laws.

3. How were they treated?

VIII. The Swedes and the Dutch.

1. Tell what you know of their relations with Maryland.

2. Who was Augustine Herman?

3. What service did he render Lord Baltimore, and how was he

paid ?

IX. Boundaries of the Province.

1. What were the boundaries of the province granted to Lord

15altimore r

2. Tell about Lord Baltimore's disputes with the Penns.

3. Mason and Di.xon's Line.

4. Why was the boundary between Maryland and Virginia un-

certain ?

5. Are the boundaries of Maryland now definitely fi.xed?

MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS.
Who was Margaret Brent? Who was Father White ? Who were
the Puritans ? What is a naturalized citizen ? Why was it necessary
for the colonies to have laws? Were the Quakers right in refusing 10


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