L[eonard] Magruder Passano.

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Thomas Schley, settled in the neighborhood of Frederick.
This leader, an excellent schoolmaster and a devout man,
spared himelf no pains in working for the settlement. It was
he who built the first house in the town of Frederick, which
was laid out in 1745. From him is descended Admiral
Winfield Scott Schley, famous in the late war with Spain.



Hagerstown, also, was founded by (Germans. In 1739
Jonathan Hagar made a settlement there, and in 1769 the
town was laid out. He called the town after his wife,
Elizabeth Town, but almost from the beginning people gave
it the name of its founder.

These German settlers were thrifty and industrious. Not
only did they raise various crops on their farms, unlike the


exclusive tobacco growing of other parts of the province, but
also they found time to knit yarn stockings, to tan leather
and make harness, to make linen goods, to prepare honey,
apple butter, and other articles. They built up a trade of
importance with Baltimore, carrying their goods at first on
strings of six or eight pack-horses, and later in the large
covered carts called Conestoera wairons.



I. Absence of Indian Wars.

1. The Indians treated with fairness.

2. Troubles with the Susquehannoughs.

3. What has become of the Indians in Maryland .>

II. Character of the Settlements.

1. Unlike those in New England ; why?

2. Small towns and few.

3. Locate St. Mary's, Annapolis, Baltimore, Frederick, I lagers-


4. Tell about the founding of each.

5. Tell about the appearance of the towns and the life led in them.

III. Communication.

1. Chesapeake Bay the great highway.

2. Is it still so ? As much so as formerly ? Why ?

3. What were " rolling roads ? "

4. The first post route.

5. Hospitality in the colony.

6. Tell how trade was begun with the settlers in the western part of

the colony.

IV. Classes of Setii.ers.

A. Planters.

I. Describe an old Maryland manor.

B. Freemen.

1. Were farmers, as were also the planters.

2. Tliose who had a trade and those who had none.

3. The necessity for blacksmiths, carpenters, etc., in a new colony,

C. Redemptioucrs.

1. Came from various classes in the Old World.

2. Were servants bound out for a term of years. How many years ?

3. In the end became freemen.

4. How were they provided for after they hail served their time ?

5. Was their lot a hard o-.e ? ^^'oukl it have been harder in the

Old World?

6. Who was George Also]), and what was his ojiinion as to the lot

of the redemptioners ?


IV. Ci.ASSKS OK SK'rn.KRS {continued).

D. Convicts.
I. Not necessarily depraved or vicious persons.
z. Jacobite plotters ; who were they .'

3. Severity of punishments in those days.

4. Convicts' terms of transportation sevL-i\ or fourteen years.

E. N^egro Slaves.

1. IIow did their servitude compare with that of the vcdemptioners ?

2. IIow were they treated.''

Y . Rangers and Back7voodstueit.

1. Where and how did they live ?

2. IIow did they aid the growth of the colony?

G. Class Pistiitctions.

1. How did the planters differ from tiadesnien and sm;dl farmers?

2. Would a planter h.ave been treated in the same way as a trades-

man at an inn ?

3. How would they be treated now at a hotel ?

4. What led to the breaking down of class distinctions ?

V. SdCiAL LiKK, Products, etc.

1. Describe the houses and their furniture.

2. What kind of fuel was used? What kinds of lights?

3. Compare with the present use of coal, gas and electricity.
.). Food: game and fish.

5. Indian corn, its importance and various forms.


1. The chief product.

2. Its use as money, and the evils of such use.

3. The effort of I>ord Baltimore to replace tobacco money by coin.

Why did it fail ?

4. Supplanting of tobacco by wheat.

5. Do you know what is meant by rotation of crops?



Causes of Union and of Discontent. As we have seen, the
French and Indian War had partially united the colonies for
purposes of defense, and had paved the way for that closer
union which led at last to their independence. There were
many causes which acted to make the colonies dissatisfied
with England, and to bring them closer together. We have
already mentioned the Navigation Act,* and in Maryland

another of these causes was
the poll tax that everyone,
regardless of creed, had to
pay for the support of the
Church of England. Still
another — in the other col-
onies as w^ell as in Mary-
land — was the Stamp Act.
The Stamp Act. This
was an Act passed by the
British Parliament in 1765,
requiring that stamped paper
be used for certain specified
purposes. For example, the
tax on a license to sell wine
was twenty shillings ; the
tax on a deed was one shil-
ling six pence ; that on a
These taxes were of the same kind


Frotn a painting by Gilbert Stuart in the
State House at Annapolis.

newspaper one penny.

* See ante, p. 43.



as those laid by our own government in 1898 requiring a
two-cent stamp on every bank cheque, a one-cent stamp on
every telegram, and so on. But with this difference : we
recognize the present stamp taxes to be laid on us by our
own representatives for the expenses of our own government ;
while the colonists in 1765 looked upon their stamp taxes as


laid by others than themselves for the benefit of the British
government, and not for their own good. It was " taxation
without representation."

No Stamped Paper Allowed to be Sold. Zachariah Hood,
a Marylander, brought a lot of the stamped paper from Eng-
land and was appointed the officer to sell it in the colony.
When he arrived, however, the people would not permit any
of the paper to be sold, but shipped it back in another ves-
sel. In Baltimore, Annapolis, and other towns, effigies of


Hood were hauled in carts, a halter around the neck, were
tarred and feathered, whipped and hanged. His house in
Annapolis was torn down, and he had to make his escape to
New York to put himself under the protection of General
Gage. Even there he was compelled to resign his office and
promise never again to tr} - to sell the stamps.

Sons of Liberty. All classes of the people joined in the
opposition. Daniel Dulany, of Annapolis, who was then
one of the foremost lawyers of America, published a book
arguing that the Stamp Act was entirely illegal. Societies
called Sons of Liberty were formed in the various colonies
to oppose the Act, and in Maryland they compelled the
courts to transact all business without stamped paper. The
Maryland Gazette on Oct. lo was put into mourning, with a
skull and cross-bones in the place where the stamp should
have gone. The Assembly also acted, and appointed three
delegates, Edward Tilghman, William Murdock and Thomas
Ringgold, to the Congress held in New York, through which
the colonies petitioned the King and Parliament to remove
the stamp taxes.

Non-Importation Societies Formed. So much opposition
at length compelled Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act, but
almost immediately it laid a new tax on tea and many other
articles of import. All the colonies opposed these new taxes
as strongly as they did the Stamp Act ; and Maryland joined
the others in the agreement not to use any tea, or any other
articles on which taxes were laid, until the tax was removed.
Gentlemen even wore home-spun clothes instead of the silks
and fine stuffs they had been accustomed to. This agree-
ment Maryland kept until the war began, although the other
colonies had by that time abandoned it.

The Act of Parliament taxing tea was passed in 1767, and
from that date on to 1774 the intense feeling of opposition


to all taxes without the consent of the people had grown \vith
such rapid strides all over the colony, and particularly in
the section of upper and middle Howard and Montgomery
Counties, that it was " Liberty or Death," instead of " No
taxation without representation," that was discussed in the
Whig Club of that section. Major Charles Alexander
Warfield, of Bushy Park, was the president of that
club and the first man to propose a separation from the
mother country. His father, when warned by Mr. Car-
roll that such rash words might bring him trouble, re-
plied : " My son know s what he is saying, and I agree with

The Peggy Stewart and her Cargo of Tea, October 19, 1774.
Nevertheless, some merchants in the colony attempted to
evade the non-importation agreement. On October 15,
1774, the brig Peggy Stewart, with a cargo of tea for
Williams & Co., entered the harbor of Annapolis, and the
owner of the vessel, Mr, Anthony Stewart, a member of the
non-importation society, paid the duty. This so incensed
the people of Anne Arundel County that some of the more
violent among them proposed to tar and feather Mr. Stewart,
although he had already publicly apologized and confessed
that he had done wrong. He and Joseph and James Wil-
liams, the owners of the tea, signed a paper acknowledging
that they had insulted the people of the colony by their con-
duct and promising not only never to repeat the ofTense but
also to burn all the seventeen packages of tea. This, how-
ever, was not enough to satisfy the people. Major Warfield
called the members of his club around him and, mounting
their horses, they rode to Annapolis. They wore these
words on their hats, "Liberty or Death," They rode in
broad daylight with no disguises, through the country from
the uplands of what are now Howard and Montgomery



Counties, down through the lowlands of Anne Arundel into
Annapolis, and to the front of the residence of Mr. Stewart.
Captain Hobbs, who was one of the party, has handed down
the account of Major Warfield's actions and words. " Draw-
ing them in line before the house he called on Mr. Stewart
to accept one of two propositions : ' Vou must either go with
me and apply the torch to your own vessel or hang before

your own door.' " His
manner of expression,
though courteous, carried
the conviction that it
would be safer to accept
the former alternative.
Accordingly, on October
ig, four days after her
arrival, the Pegg)^ Stewart
was run aground on ^^'ind-
mill Point where Stewart
himself set fire to her, and
she with her cargo was
burned to the water's
edge. M a j o r Warfield
stood beside Mr. Stewart
when he applied the torch.
The Colonies Begin to
Unite. Almost a year be-
fore this in Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston, cargoes of
tea had been either destroyed or returned to England. King
George III. and his ministers were enraged at these doings
of the colonies, and looking upon Boston as a " hot-bed of
rebellion," determined to make an example of that city. They
thought the other colonies would not come to the aid of
Massachusetts, and that she would be afraid alone to offer








..M^^ ^^^^^^^^^K




J'roiH a painting; by Frank B. Mayer, in the State House at Annafolis.


resistance. Early in the year 1774, therefore, Parliament
passed an Act annulling the charter of Massachusetts and
closing the port of Boston. The port of Boston was closed
on June i,and on June 22 a convention of delegates from
every county of Maryland was held at Annapolis. The
convention passed resolutions denouncing the action of

Parliament and express-
ing sympathy for Bos-
ton. Subscriptions were
taken up throughout
the colony, and ship-
loads of corn, rye-bread,
and other supplies were
sent to relieve the poor
of Boston.

The people every-
where had begun to
collect arms and ammu-
nition ; not only to fight
for themselves, but to
help Boston, too, if it
should need help. The
Marylanders tho ug h t
that enough talking had
already been done and
that the time had come
for lighting. As Charles
Carroll of Carrollton wrote : " And do you think that our
pens are to settle this mighty question ? The people know
their rights — knowledge is resistance — and our only um-
pire is the ("lod iif battles ! " These men were disinterested
patriots. Charles Carroll was perhaps the w-ealthiest man in
the colonies, and if the Revolution had failed, his property

From 11 fiaititiiig in the State House at A>iua/>o!is.


most likely would all have been confiscated. Committees
of Correspondence had been organized in the different colo-
nies to keep them in touch with one another and to form
plans for better resisting the tyranny of England, and in
June, 1774, the Mary-
land committee h a d
written to thr.t of Vir-
ginia proposing that a
general Congress be
held in Philadelphia.
The colonies agreed to
this, and the Congress
met on September 5,
in Carpenter's Hall, in
Philadelphia. The dele-
gates sent by Maryland
were Robert Golds-
borough, William Paca,
Samuel Chase, a n d
Matthew Tilghman.

Maryland's Conser-
vatism. Our State,
like the other colonies,
had in the early part of
this struggle no idea of
becoming independent
of Great Britain, and
was striving and ready to fight only for what she consid-
ered her rights under that government. Maryland was con-
servative ; that is, she wanted to keep all she had that was
good until she felt sure that what was to take its place was
better. Moreover, the Proprietary government had been
wise and good on the whole, and Robert Eden, who was then

J'rotit a /•tiinthig in the State House at A tina/>olis.


Governor, had the respect and affection of everyone. There
was no British army invading her sliores and occupying her
towns as in Massachusetts, North Carolina and Virginia, so
that her desire for independence arose more from sympathy
with tlie other colonies than from her own needs. Thus she

was rather slow in join-
ing the other colonies
in declaring their inde-

Maryland Concurs in
Declaring the Independ-
ence of the Colonies, June
28, 1776. At length,
early in the year 1776,
Samuel Chase left Con-
gress and came to Mary-
land, where, aided by
Charles Carroll of Car-
nllton, he showed the
people that the time
had come when they
should free themselves
from the rule of the
mother country. A new
convention was elected
which, on June 28, 1776,
gave its delegates in
Congress power "to
concur with the other
United Colonies, or a majority of them, in declaring the said
Colonies free and independent States." Maryland was the
twelfth colony formally to concur in independence, and the
Declaration of Independence was signed on the part of

From a /utiiitiii^ in the State House at A iinapolis.



Maryland by Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone,
and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. This same State Con-
vention, on July 6, before it had heard of the Declaration
of Independence of
Congress, proclaimed
the independence of

First Constitutional
Convention, August 14,
1776. When Maryland
declared its independ-
ence of Great Britain,
the Proprietary govern-
ment was by that very
act destroyed. Mary-
land the colony no
longer existed, and
Maryland the State had
to proceed forthwith to
organize a new govern-
ment for itself. On the
first of August, 1776,
delegates were elected
throughout the State to
a convention for the purpose of drawing up a Constitution.
The convention met at Annapolis on the fourteenth of Au-
gust, and elected Matthew Tilghman president. The people
of Prince George's County had permitted " every taxable
freeman bearing arms " to vote at the election, but the law in
Maryland allowed only those owning a certain amount of
property * to vote. Differences of the same kind occurred

From a Jiaiiiliiig in the State House at Annapolis.

* A fit't'hold of fifty acres or a personal estate of forty pounds



J-VoiH the Orij^inal Paf>er in the State Home at Annapolis-



in Kent and Frederick Counties. New elections were or-
dered in those places, and the delegates then chosen took
their seats in the convention.

Constitution and Bill of Rights Adopted, November, 1776.
Early in the following November the Constitution was
adopted, after being thoroughly discussed by the convention
and the people. By this Constitution the Legislature of the
State, called the General Assembly of Marj'land, was divided
into two chambers, the Senate and the House of Delegates.
The chief executive of the State, the Governor, had no voice
in the making of laws and
had no veto power. In
order to have the right to
vote a man must have
been a resident of the
State for at least one
year, must be twenty-one
years of age, and must
own a freehold of fifty
acres in the county of his
residence, or property
within the State to the
value of thirty pounds.
By this law freemen were
allowed to vote whether
they were colored or
white. In 1802 the prop-
erty qualification was
abolished, but the fran-
chise was given to white persons only The required
length of residence was changed in 18 10, and the law
thus modified remains in force to the present day, ex-
cept that the franchise is now exercised without regard


From a f'aiuting in the State House at



to color.* The House of Delegates was composed of
eighty members ; four from each of the nineteen coun-
ties, and two each from Annapolis and Baltimore. The
Senate consisted of fifteen members, nine of whom were to
be residents of the Western Shore and six of the Eastern.
To be eligible as a Delegate a person must own an estate of
five hundred pounds ; as a Senator, must own property of
more than one thousand pounds in value. The Delegates were
elected directly by the people ; the Senators indirectly through
an electoral college composed of two members from each county
and one from each of the cities of Annapolis and Baltimore.
The Governor was elected by the Legislature on joint ballot,
and could not hold ofiice for more than three years in suc-
cession. To be eligible for Governor a person must be not
less than twenty-five years of age, and must own in the State
property of over five thousand pounds in value, of which at
least one thousand pounds must be a freehold estate.
The Delegates and the Governor were elected for one year,
t lie Senators for five years. The two houses of the Legis-
lature together elected each year five men as a Council
to the Governor ; the two houses also elected members cf
Congress. t Provision was also made for courts of law and
for the election or appointment of minor officers. Religious
freedom was assured in the Declaration of Rights.

First General Assembly of the State of Maryland, February
5, 1777. The first elections under the new- Constitution were
held in November and December, 1776, and the first meet-
ing of the General Assembly took place in the following
February. Thomas Johnson was elected Governor, and was
inaugurated at Annapolis on March 21 with great pomp.
After the ceremony there was a banquet at which thir-

* See p. 204, following. t See p. 148, following.



teen patriotic toasts were drunk, one for each State, and in
the evening a ball and illumination were given.

Effect of Independence on Ecclesiastical Affairs. One
curious result of the separation of the colonies from Great
Britain was that the Episcopal Church in America was left
without organization. It had formerly been a part of the
Church of England and was supported by government, but
after the colonies became independent, it was disestablished.
There were no bishops of the church in America, and con-
sequently candidates for the priesthood could not be or-
dained. In 1784, Mason
Weems, a young m a n
from MarN'land who was
a divinity student in Eng-
land, applied to several
English bishops for admis-
sion to holy orders, but was
refused. Finally the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury told
him that nothing could be
done without an Act of
Parliament, because all
clergymen had to take the
oath of Allegiance to the
King of England. Such
an Act of Parliament was
passed before long. When
the diocese of Maryland
was organized, Thomas John Claggett was elected its first
bishop. He was consecrated at New York, in 1792.

In the same year in which Weems was seeking to be
ordained, John Wesley sent Thomas Coke from England to
be superintendent of the Methodist societies in America,


f -' ■




From an ohl engrainiig.



and gave him authority to consecrate Francis Asbury to the
same otifice. This ordination took place at a conference
held at Baltimore in December, 1784. A few years later
the American Conference altered the title of " superin-
tendent " to " bishop," and the Methodist Church became
independent of the Church of England, but without the
approval of Wesley. In 1784 there were some twenty

thousand Catholics in
Maryland; in 1786 the
Pope appointed John Car-
roll, a cousin of Charles
Carroll of Carrollton, as
his apostolic vicar. He
was afterward made
Bishop of Baltimore and
Archbishop of the United
States. The other
churches have indepen-
dent organizations and no
bishops, so that such difh-
culties did not arise in
their case.

Maryland's Attitude
Towards Foreign Allies.
Now that the Revolution
was fairly begun, Mary-
land took an active part in it, and kept up the fame of
her old hospitality by giving banquets to nearly all the
distinguished foreigners who came to help the colonies.
She welcomed them in more serious ways, too, and Lafay-
ette speaks very warmly of all that Maryland and Balti-
more did for him. Count Pulaski raised a corps in Mary-
land, for the most part in Baltimore, which fought valiantly

From a fiithitiii.c tn the possession of the
Methotiist Historical Society, Baltimore.



under him until he was killed at the siege of Savannah. It
was this corps that carried the small banner of crimson silk
made and embroidered for Pulaski by the Moravian Sisters at
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Faded and worn the banner is
now in the rooms of the Maryland Historical Society.
Baron de Kalb commanded the Maryland Line until his
death at the battle of Camden, and it is said that while
dying he praised the bravery of the Maryland regiment and
its officers. The statesmen of Maryland saw the impor-
tance to their cause of foreign allies, and Samuel Chase was
the first man to move in Congress that ambassadors be sent
to France. He and Charles
Carroll were two of the three
commissioners sent by Con-
gress to Canada to persuade
her to join the colonics in
their struggle.

Washington Firmly Sup-
ported by Maryland. Mary-
land welcomed foreign allies,
but she was also true to her
leaders a:; home. It was
Thomas Johnson, first Gov-
ernor of the State of Mary-
land, who as a delegate to
the Continental Congress
when it met for the second
time in May, 1775, formally nominated George Washington as
Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. Maryland
stood by Washington throughout the war, in battle and in
the plots that were formed against him ; she was faithful to
him in success and in defeat, she furnished him with food
and supplies, and no State sent more troops in proportion to
its population to his army.




I. Causes of Union and Discontknt ok thk Colonie:^.

A. The Fre/nh and Indian War.

B. The A'avigation Act.

C. The Stamp Act.

1. What was the Stamp Act?

2. Explain the meaning of "taxation -without representation."

3. How did the Marylanders receive the stamped paper?

4. Was opposition to the Stamp Act confined to any class or

classes of the people ?

5. Who were the Sons of Liberty ?

6. What die' Parliament do about the opposition to the Stamp


7. Give some examples of stamp taxes in later times. For ex-

ample, the revenue stamps issued during the Civil War, the

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Online LibraryL[eonard] Magruder PassanoHistory of Maryland → online text (page 5 of 23)