L[eonard] Magruder Passano.

History of Maryland online

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brother Samuel was Paul Jones' lieutenant in the famous
fight between the Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis,
and was made a captain. A third brother, John, also was a
captain in the Continental Navy. Maryland fitted out
several other vessels, which did good service, and she kept
quite a fleet of smaller boats in Chesapeake Bay. In 1776
Congress passed resolutions permitting privateers to be
fitted out, and Maryland was foremost among the States in
doing so. In six years about two hundred and fifty of these
vessels sailed out of Chesapeake Bay.

I. TiiK 15i:oi.NNiNr. of tuf. War.

A. Cresaf's Riflemen.

1. Were tliey regular troops?

2. Describe their arms and dress.

3. Who was Michael Cresap ?

B. j\rarylaud Troops.

I. Why were the Maryland troops the favorites of Washington ?
1. How did Maryland compare with the other States in sending

troops to the army ? In the number of troops sent ?
3. Tell about Gist and his Marylanders at the battle of Long



I. The Beginning of the War {continued).

4. How many were in his band ? How many survived the action ?
C. Tories.

1. Who were the Tories?

2. What Marylander of prominence was a Tory ?

3. Were there many of them in the State ?

4. Why did Sir William Howe think there were many ?

5. Describe how the British army and fleet advanced to Phila-


6. Where was Fort Mifflin ?

7. Describe its defense.

8. Why was Washington unsuccessful in his attack on the British

after they evacuated Philadelphia ?

9. Tell how Colonel Ramsay saved the army from being routed.
10. Where was this battle fought ?

II. The War in the South.

A. To the Battle of Camden.

1. After the surrender of Charleston, what was Clinton's plan?

2. In what condition were the Americans to opjiose it ?

3. Describe the battle of Camden.

4. Name some commanders of the Maryland troops in this battle.

5. Tell of de Kalb's relations to the Maryland troops and of his


6. After the battle, did Clinton's plan promise to succeed ?

7. How did General Greene plan to oppose Cornwallis ?

B. To the Surrender of Cornwallis.

1. Tell about the battle of the Cowpens.

2. Describe Howard's and Williams' mode of fighting at the Cow-

pens, Guilford and Eutaw.

3. What was the general result of the campaign in the South ?

III. The British in the Chesapeake.

1. Why did the enemy wish to bring the war into Maryland ?

2. Lafayette sent to command the army in Maryland.

3. How did the Maryland women help him ?

IV. Peace.

I. Describe how the country received the news of Cornwallis'


IV. Peace [continued).

2. How did the war affect the State's finances?

3. How many survivors of the Maryland line were there ?

V. Tell about the Naval Affairs of the Revolution and

Name Some Maryland Commanders who Won Dis-

*:- '..



The State Threatened with Bankruptcy. The end of the
War of Independence found Maryland face to face with
bankruptcy. The State had spent all its money in helping
to carry on the war, and had issued large amounts of paper
money. Congress, too, in the name of the thirteen States,
had put out much paper, for her share of which Maryland
was responsible. Now paper money is only ■,\ ftoi/iise to pay,
and if people think the promise cannot or will not be kept,
they of course take as little of the paper money as possible,
and it becomes of very little value. In the United States at
the present day the Government keeps in the Treasury a
large amount of gold which anyone who wants it can get in
exchange for " greenbacks." But during the Kcvolution
and after, Maryland had no gold to give in exchange. The
gold had all been spent in providing for the war, and if the
war had ended in victory for the British, then the State's
paper money would have been worth just nothing at all.
If, on the other hand, the colonies should win in the struggle,
then they might be able to redeem their promises to pay.
But a government has no money except that which it gets
in taxes from its citizens, and the citizens of Maryland who
were not fighting in the army had to give all they could
earn to supply the needs of those who were, and of their
families. Thus the State had become quite poor, and there
was much doubt as to whether Maryland — and Congress,
too — would ever be nble to make good her promise to pay.

Depreciated Paper Money. Sj it was that the paper money

118 ^


became worth less and less, until in 1781 a pair of boots
was worth six hundred dollars, a handkerchief one hundred
dollars, a skein of silk ten dollars, in paper money, and
other things in proportion ; while these same articles, if one
had gold to pay with, could be bought for about sixteen
dollars, three dollars and thirty cents, respectively. This
worthless Continental money gave rise to the expression, " not
worth a continental," meaning absolutely of no value what-

From a />,iiiiiing.

ever. In spite of all this there was still, as late as 1786, a
oarty in the State in favor of issuing more paper money.
More than once a bill was passed by the Delegates to issue
more of it but each time the Senate rejected the bill.

Maryland Refuses to Join the Confederation. In the year
1781 the Confederation of the American Colonies had been


formed, after much delay and argument. By 1779 all of
the States except Maryland had agreed to the Articles of
Confederation, The larger States, especially Virginia and
New York, claimed vast tracts of land to the westward as
having been granted to them by their charters. Now Marj'-
land contended that it was only just that these western lands
should be given up to the Confederated States as common prop-
erty for the benefit of all, seeing that the smaller States had
done as much towards independence as the larger ones, if not
more. As these latter refused to give up their claims to the
western lands, Maryland refused to join the Confederation.

Ratifies the Articles, March i, 1781. At length she yielded,
for fear that her refusal might do harm to the American
cause, and signed the articles in 17S1. Her opposition,
however, had opened the eyes of the other States, and
within the next twenty years all the " western lands " had
been ceded to the United States. In this wiy was created
a national domain, and the possession of such a common
property made it much easier for the States to form the idea
of a Federal Union and to carry that idea into execution.
The great credit of this is due to Maryland, but at the time
her course was looked at in so different a light that it was
even threatened that she should be divided up between the
neighboring States and her name wiped from the map.
Within her own borders, lands that had formerly belonged
to the Proprietor, lying in the western part of the State,
Maryland used in part by dividing them up into farms with
which she rewarded her soldiers who had served in the war.

Maryland Consents to Pay Federal Taxes. In order to pay
off the large debts, including paper money issues, made to
carry on the war. Congress now wanted to lay taxes in all
the Slates. At that time the Federal Government had
much less power than it now has, and could lay no taxes





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Online LibraryL[eonard] Magruder PassanoHistory of Maryland → online text (page 7 of 23)