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THE



WORKS



LEONARD WOODS. D.D.,



LATELY PROFESSOR OF CHRISTIAJSf THEOLOGY EST THE
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, ANDOVER.



IN FIVE VOLUMES.






VOL. in.



BOSTON:
JOHN P. JEWETT & COMPANY,

1 7 & 1 9 CORNHILL.
1851.



TH-^ N/:W YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

862217 A

ASTeW. LEr;OX AND

■TILBEN f'0iJiNl3ATI©NS

B. 1936 L



Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1850, by

LEONAKD WOODS, D.D.,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.



andover:
JOHN D. FLAGG,

BTBEEOTTPER AND PEINTEE.



V' " 2 •";



CONTENTS.



LECTURE LXXXVn.

4 Page.

\ Regeneration. Direct agency of the Spirit, . 1 — 10

LECTURE LXXXVm.

Regeneration. Direct agency op the Spirit consistent
i with moral agency, 11 25

Physical influence and change, ....... 14

Why should ministers preach ? . . . . . . . 18

Duty of sinners to become holy, ...... 21

LECTURE LXXXIX.
Directions to inquiring sinners, .... 26—43

LECTURE XC.
Evidences of Regeneration, 44 — 55

LECTURE XCL
Nature of Christian virtue, . . • , . 66—67

LECTURE XCn.
Repentance, 68 — 78



)^9.a



IV CONTENTB.

^ LECTURE XCm.

Faith, in the general sense, • 79 — 92

Faith in Christ, 85

LECTURE XCIV.

Faith — can it be described ? 93 — 104

Practical influence, 98

LECTURE XCV.

Prayer — its nature, design, and efficacy, . . 105 — 113

LECTURE XCVI.

Efficacy of prayer subject to limitations, . . 114 — 120

LECTURE XCVn.

Prayer of faith, ' 121 — 129

LECTURE XCVm.

Prayer of faith continued, 130 — 141

LECTURE XCIX.

Definite views of the influence of prayer, . . 142 — 155

Practical remarks as to the duty, 149

LECTURE C.

Justification explained, lf»6— 170

LECTURE CI

Justification — its nature and ground, . . 1. ■*— 191



CONTENTS.



LECTURE Cn.

Justifying Faith. Its nature,

Are justification and sanctification identical?
Final justification of the believer, . .

Propriety of praying for forgiveness,
Imputation of Christ's righteousness,



192—207

196
198
200
201



LECTURE cm.

Paul and James reconciled,

The orthodox doctrine promotive of obedience.



208—219
213



LECTURE CIV.

The FEB8EVERANCE OF SAINTS, .



220—230



LECTURE CV.
Objections to the doctrine of perseverance,



281—249



LECTURE CYI.



Resurrection,



250—266



LECTURE CVn.

Endless Punishment defended against the objections

OF Foster, "... 267—291



LECTURE CVm.
Review of Foster continued, .



292—307



LECTURE CIX.

Christian ordinances. Baptism,



308—316



Vi CONTENTS,



LECTURE ex.

Infant baptism, 817 — 326

Precautions and directions, . • • • • • • 317

Kind of evidence, ....«•••• 320

Want of express command, . . . • • . . 822



LECTURE CXI

Infant baptism, ........ 827 — 337

A previous rite applied to Infant clalldren, . . . . 327

The same rite for parents and children, ..... 333

LECTURE CXn.

Infant baptism, ....... 888 — 350

Christianity founded on the Old Testament, .... 338
New Testament Implies infant baptism, ..... 342
Baptism of proselytes, ........ 346

LECTURE CXin.

Infant baptism, ....... 351 — 368

Commission of the apostles to proselyte all nations, . . . 351

Instructions of Christ favorable to infant baptism, . . . 355

I
LECTURE CXIV.

Infant baptism, 869 — 883

Household baptism, . . . . . . • • 370

1 Cor. 7: 14, considered, 372

LECTURE CXV.
Infant baptism. Collateral evidence, . . . 884 — 893

LECTURE CXVL
Infant baptism. Proof from history, . . . 394 — 414



CONTENTS.



vu



LECTURE CXVn.



Baptism and circumcision, . .

Import of Infant baptism,

Utility,

Relation of baptized children to the church,
Duty of parents and the church,



415—443

429
432
487
440



LECTURE CXVm.
Form of Christian baptism, . . .



444—465



LECTURE CXIX.



The Lord's Supper,



466—474



LECTURE CXX.
The Lord's Day, or Christian Sabbath,



475—487



LECTURE CXXL

Church government. Prelacy,

The claim of bishops, from Matt. 18: 18, .
Christ's promise to be with his apostles considered.



488—501

494
496



LECTURE CXXn.

Church government. Prelacy,

Nothing favorable to prelacy in the Acts of the Apostles,
Nothing in the epistles, ......



602—520

502
505



LECTURE CXXm.

Church government. Prelacy,

Testimony of the ancient fathers.
Testimony of Chrysostom and JeromO) .
Reason for establishing prelacy, .
Litroduction of prelacy, . . ,



521—585

523
524
529
583



VUl



CONTENTS.



LECTURE CXXIV.
Church government. Prelacy,



Apostolic succession,
Remarks of Whately,
Usher, ......

Gospel ministry a divine appointment,
Illustration from civil government, .
Prelacy of hurtful tendency, .



536—552



536
539
540
541
542
549



LECTURE CXXV.



Liturgy,



553—571



Imposes unscriptural restrictions on the clergy, . . . 553

Baptismal service, ......... 559

Liturgy retains superstitious additions from the Romish church, 567



LECTURE CXXVL



Popular form op church government, .

Congregationalism and Presbyterianism compared,

Principles of Congregationalism,

Things necessary for Congregationalists, .



572—583

572
574
577



LECTURE CXXVn.

Personal religion necessary to ministers,

Duties of ministers, .....

Trials and difficulties of ministers, .



684—590



685
588



LECTURE CXXVm.



Personal religion continued,

Necessary to a minister's usefulness.
Necessary to his enjoyment, .



591—596

591

594



LECTURE LXXXVII.



DOES THE HOLY SPIRIT IN REGENERATION ACT DIRECTLY ON
THE sinner's mind ?

Our next inquiry will be, whether the Spirit of Grod in regene-
ration acts directly on the mhid itself, or on something which is
extraneous to the mind, and which is employed as a means of pro-
ducing the effect.

In a general view, what can be more congruous to the nature
of the subject, than the doctrine, that the eternal, all-powerfd
Spirit has a direct access to the minds which he created and sus-
tains, and that he influences and governs them as he pleases ?
It is clear that ive have access to the minds of men only through
the medium of signs and bodily organs. Such is the design of
our Creator. The sphere of action and the degree and manner
of influence assigned to us, correspond with our nature and rela-
tions. But the influence which God exercises over the minds of
men is, in all respects, infinitely superior to ours. To suppose
that his power is subject to such conditions and limitations as those
which regulate the power belonging to us, would be to lose sight
of his perfections, and to make him like ourselves. The God of
the universe must be free from all the hinderances and restrictions
which appertain to the exercise of the power imparted to us, and
must be perfectly able to turn and guide, to regulate and purify
every mind, and all minds, according to his pleasure. This is
involved in the very idea of his Godhead and his complete do-
minion over created beings. It is involved in many passages of
Scripture, in which he is expressly declared to have exercised

VOL. in. 1



Z DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT.

such supreme power. If any one thinks that God cannot exert
this unUmited control over the minds of men, I ask, what hinders ?
Is not infinite power sufficient to control finite power ? Has not
the Creator and Upholder of all things power over those who live
and move and have their being in him ? If he has not this
power, how can he maintain his dominion, and do all his pleasure ?

But I shall not stop with this general view. There are par-
ticular considerations which bear upon the subject, and which I
shall now lay before you.

The first consideration which occurs to me is this ; that as the
effect produced in regeneration is in the mind itself, so must the
influence be ivhich produces it. The disorder to be remedied lies
in the heart ; and where but to the heart is the remedy to be ap-
plied ? As to the truths of religion, there is nothing which needs
to be altered in any of them. All that we are required to be-
lieve is true ; all that we are required to love is excellent and
amiable ; and all that we are required to do is reasonable and
just. There is no fault in any of these objects. There is nothing
faulty anywhere, except in the mind itself. The whole evil to be
remedied lies there. And the change to be eifected must be
effected there. Man's disposition — the state of his affections —
is opposed to spiritual things. His heart is depraved. The divine
Spirit must act upon the heart itself; must so alter man's moral
state that, when holy objects are presented to view, holy affections
■will spontaneously arise ; must take away moral obliquity, and
give uprightness. The sum of my remarks under this head is,
that as man's moral nature or heart is the subject of the evil to be
removed and the renewal to be experienced, it must be the subject
of that divine influence which removes the evil and produces the
renewal.

Secondly : no one can conceive it to he otherwise. You
may employ such a phraseology as will invest the subject with an
ambiguous generality, and will thus hold 3^our minds in an inde-
finite, obscure contemplation of it, and make it difficult to know
what to believe and what to disbelieve. But if you bring the sub-
ject near, and take a distinct view of it, you will find it incon-



DIllECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT. d

ceivable that the Spirit of God in renewing the sinner, should act
upon anything but the mind itself. Upon what else can he act ?
Do you say he acts upon the truths of religion, so as to render
them effectual ; that he imparts power to motives, so that they
excite and persuade the sinner to repent and believe ? Let us
examine this notion. The divine Spirit, you say, acts upon the
truths of religion. But what are the truths of religion, but pro-
positions, written, spoken, or contemplated, respecting God and
man, and other moral objects ? These propositions, which are
contained m the Scriptures, are immutable. Nothing can be
added to them, or taken from them. They are just what they
should be. The Spirit has fully revealed these truths, and in this
respect his work is perfectly accomplished.

Eut you say that the Spirit of God imparts clearness and power
to divine truth, so that it may be rightly apprehended, and may
produce its proper effect : as in natural things, an object may be
taken from a misty, obscure atmosphere, and placed in a clear
light. I agree that there is an obscurity, -which prevents the
truth from being rightly apprehended by the sinner. But where
does the obscurity lie ? In the truth itself, or in the mind of the
sinner ? And in order to remove this obscurity, is it necessary
that any alteration should be made in the truth ? When we say
that the Spirit of God imparts clearness to divine truth, we speak
of an operation and an effect produced m the mind itself, the truth
remaining perfectly the same. To give clearness to revealed
truth, is to give clearness to the minds of those who contemplate
it ; or, as the Apostle expresses it, " to open the eyes of their
understanding." Every object is in the dark even at noon-day,
to one who is blind. There is light enough, and surrounding ob-
jects are, in themselves, sufficiently illuminated. But if you
would make them clear to the man who is blind, you must open
his eyes. The illumination needed respects his organ of sight.
No change is required in external objects. The Christian is often
heard to say, " In my unconverted state, the character of God
and Christ, and the great truths of the gospel, were all dark to
me. But when the Spirit of God visited my heart, all became



4 DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT.

light." To give clearness to the truth, is to enlighten the mind
to behold it.

And Tshat is it to give foioer and efficacy to the truth ? Is
divine truth in reality weak and inefficient ? If so, how does it
come to have such power over those who are sanctified ? Does
sanctificalion make an alteration in the truth itself, or in the mind
■which contemplates it ? Take the truth, that God so loved the
world as to give his Son to die for us. How great is its power
over believers ! It moves all their faculties. It controls their
hearts and their lives. But to the proud and unbelieving, the
same truth is powerless. Whence the difference ? The text,
John 3: IG, is before the eyes of the believer and the unbeliever.
They both read it, and read it alike. But the effect is different,
and that effect is in the mind. The precise difference is this :
the believer discerns the excellence of the truth, and loves it, but
the unbeliever does not. The believer contemplates the com-
passion and grace of God in the gift of his Son, with pious wonder
and gratitude, and with a hearty resolution to live no longer to
himself, but to him who died for him. The unbeliever hears the
proclamation of mercy, but hears not ; he sees the light of the
gospel, but sees not. He is ahve to the world, but dead to
spiritual things. The poiver of divine truth over the believer is
precisely this, he feels powerfully towards it — or has a strong
affection for it — loves it intensely. And the Spirit of God gives
power to the truth by causing the mind to discern it clearly, to
believe it firmly, and to exercise powerful affections in view of it.
He makes the truth efficacious by bringing the heart effectually
to love and obey it. To suppose that the Spirit in the work of
sanctification acts upon anything extraneous to the mind, would
be utterly inconsistent with the nature of the subject.

Do you say, that the influence of the Spirit affects not the
mind itself, but its actions — beginning and ending with them ?
But here again we must take care not to be imposed upon by
mere sounds. Actions imply an agent. They cannot exist by
themselves, away from the agent. To influence the actions of the
mind, is to influence the mind in acting. To cause right actions
is to cause the mind to act right.



DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT. 5

Finallj, the current language of Scripture implies, that the di-
vine Spirit operates upon the mind or heart itself, " The heart
of the king is in the hand of the Lord, as the rivers of water ; he
turneth it whithersoever he will." " The Lord opened the heart
of Lydia, that she attended to the things which were spoken
of Paul." " A new heart will I give you, and a new Spirit will I
put within vou." God enlightens the heart, renews and purifies
the heart, sheds abroad his love in the heart. And where it is
said that God influences the actions of believers, it is still said that
the influence is upon and in the agents. He works in them, and
right wilhng and acting is the eflect. And when Christians pray
intelligently for the influence of the Spirit, they have, I think,
no other conception, than that the Spirit is to act upon the mind or
heart itself, and to produce the desired eflect there. They are
sensible that the divine influence is needed there, and there only ;
and that if their hearts may be made pure, all things will be pure
to them.

But there is another class of texts which must be considered,
namely, those which speak of God as renewing and sanctifying his
people bi/ the truth. " Sanctify them through the truth : thy
word is truth." Believers are " born again, not of corruptible
seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and
abideth forever." And the Apostle says to the Corinthians, " I
have begotten ^^ou through the gospel." And the Psalmist says,
the word of God enlightens and converts men.

In these and other hke texts, the inspired writers, it is said,
plainly teach that, in the work of conversion and sanctification,
the divine Spirit acts on the mind, not directly, but indirectly, that
is, through the medium of the truth.

In reference to these texts, and their bearing on the present
subject, I wovild suggest the following things :

In the first place, it will be found, that those writers and preach-
ers, who hold most decidedly to the direct and eflicacious influence
of the Spirit upon the mind, entertain as high an opinion, as any
others, of the importance and necessity of divine truth in the work
of sanctifymg sinners, and are as active in teaching and defending

1*



b DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT.

it. In all this thej find no practical difficulty ; nor are they aware
of any inconsistency. Edwards argued, I think very conclusively,
that the influence of motives, is perfectly consistent with the effi-
cacious influence of the Spirit in renemng the heart ; — in other
words, that the doc^-ine of God's direct and eflectual agency on
the heart in sanctification, and the doctrine that he makes use of
means in sanctification, are entirely consistent with each other.
There is no more inconsistency here, than in any case where God
in his providence employs means in the accomplishment of his
designs.

Any one who carefully considers the subject must be satisfied, that
the use which God makes of means in the diSerent departments of
bis administration, does not detract in the least from the reality or
the greatness of the power which he exercises. Surely he does not
resort to the use of means because of any deficiency in the meas-
ure of power which he possesses, or because he is weary of exer-
cising it. God's appointing means arises from the perfection of
his wisdom, not from his desire to avoid the necessity of exerting
his omnipotence. This remark applies particularly to the sancti-
fying influence of the Spirit. The use which God makes of divine
truth, whether in the commencement or in the progress of sancti-
fication, does not supersede the agency of the Holy Spirit, nor in-
terfere with its direct bearing upon the heart. That agency may
evidently be as real, and as great, and may come to man's moral
nature as directly, as though no means were employed. God may
choose to sanctify his people by means of the truth, not because
this method of sanctification requires a less powerful and direct
agency of his Spirit, but because it is more suitable to the nature
of rational beings, and more agreeable to his wisdom, — and be-
cause it is more adapted to make his agency manifest to his crea-
tures. If the use of the truth as a means of sanctification super-
sedes the necessity of a direct and efficacious operation of the
Spirit upon the heart, it must be because the trutli has, in itself,
an efficacy to reach the heart and accomphsh its renovation, in-
dependently of divine agency. But nothing is made more certain
by experience and the word of God, than the utter inefficacy of



DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT. 7

truth to originate holiness in tlie minds of the unrenewed, or to
continue it in the minds of Christians, ivithout the ojjeration of the
Moly Spirit.

Do YOU ask, why divine truth is used at all as a means of regen-
erating and sanctifying the heart, if it has in itself no power to
accomplish the work ? I reply, that there are evidently very im-
portant reasons for the use which is made of the truth, though in
itself, independently of the influence of the Spirit, it is utterly
powerless. Some of these reasons have been already suggested.
Man is a rational and moral being, and it seems plainly to follow
from his very nature, that the exercise of holiness from its com-
mencement, must take place in view of some portion of divine
truth. How can it be conceived that the Holy Spirit, be his agency
ever so direct and powerful, can originate holy exercises, when no
holy object is presented to the mind ? How can love, or faith, or de-
sire be excited, while a person sees nothing to love, nothing to believe,
and nothing to desire ? The presence and influence of suitable ob-
jects is implied in the very nature of holy affection. So that if holy
affection is ever actually to exist, it must exist in view of proper
objects ; in other words, it must take place, while some portion of
divine truth is contemplated. To suppose that any one loves,
without having before his mind an object of love, would be palpa-
bly absurd. But you will see in a moment, that divine truth,
however clearly presented to the mind of a man while unregener-
a'e, must fail of exciting any right affection. Divine truth is holy.
The objects it presents, for example, the character of God, his
law, and his gospel, are all holy. The heart of the unrenewed is
unholy. And who does not know what takes place, when those
holy objects are pressed upon the attention of an ungodly man,
and when he is required to love with all his heart a God, whose
character is totally opposed to his disposition ; to receive a Saviour
who has no beauty in his view ; and to render a willing obedience
to a law which stands against those interests to which he is su-
premely attached ? And how is this settled aversion of his heart
to holy objects to be displaced, and cordial love to be elicited, but
by the renewing of the Holy Spirit ? Three things are here quite



» DIRECT INFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT.

obvious. First, God's effectual agency. He gives a new heart.
He regenerates. Second, tlie use of means. Divine truth is
placed before the mind. Holj objects are looked at. In other
words, motives to holy affections are exhibited. Third, the rec-
tified agency of the regenerated person. He loves. He believes.
He obeys. He puts forth right affections and forms right purposes
in view of divine truth. Divine truth has this influence upon him.
And it has this influence upon him, he loves, believes, and obeys
in view of divine truth, because the Spirit of God has renewed
his heart. A renewed and holy heart loves what is holy, beheves
what is true, and does what God commands. Divine truth must
then be held to be a means of sanctification as developed in holy
exercises, because this instrumentahty of the truth is involved in the
very nature of holy exercises. God's people cannot be actually
sanctified, that is, holy affection cannot be produced and strength-
ened in them, in any other way than through the truth. The
new heart, Avhich is given in regeneration, cannot be developed
and become a matter of observation or of consciousness, except
through the truth.

But there is another reason why the truth is made the means
of sanctification, though it has in itself no power to sanctify.
The reason is, that this mode of sanctifying makes it manifest,
that the work is God's — that the power which sanctifies is the
power of his Spirit. Thus it is represented, that God chose the
apostles, the first preachers of the gospel, who were but earthen
vessels, as instruments of turning men from darkness to light.
And we are expressly informed why he did this, namely ; " that
the excellency of the power might be of God, and not of man."
The more weak and inefficient, in themselves, the instruments or
means which were employed, the more evident it was, that the ef-
fect was to be ascribed to God. Accordingly the Apostle teaches
the utter inefficacy, the nothingness, of him who planteth and of
him who watereth — that is, of those who in different ways labor
to propagate divine truth and to save souls, and declares that all
the success comes from God. And let it be remembered that this
is one of the truths employed as a means of sanctification. Thus



DIRECT i:srFLUENCE OF THE SPIRIT. if

divine truth and those who make it known, are manifestly Jit
means — means well adapted to accomplish the great object in-
tended, that is, to glorify God by fixing all eyes and all hearts
upon him as the supreme source of spiritual blessings. If any
means should be used to promote the salvation of men, which
would be, or appear to be, in themselves, adequate to produce the
effect, and which would thus, more or less, set aside the necessity
of divine agency ; that would certainly be a very unfit means.
For nothing can be more important, than that God should be
brought into view, and his glory illustrated in the salvation of sin-
ners. Any mode of proceeding, therefore, which would tend to
obscure his glory, would be altogether unsuitable. Keeping thia
principle in view, we shall perceive the striking fitness of divine
truth as a means of converting sinners, while their conversion is
still considered as resulting from the work of God's Spirit on their
hearts. It is not only true that the two things are compatible,
but that the one clearly involves the other. If God should carry
on the work of renewing and sanctifying men without the light



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