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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



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EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON

PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY IN

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY



YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES



YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES



BY

LEONARD WOOLSEY BACON

II

AND

CHARLES ADDISON NORTHROP

BOTH OF

NORWICH, CONN.




flew lorfe

LENTILHON & COMPANY

150 FIFTH AVENUE

1000



33



COPYRIGHT, 1900,
BY LENTILHON & COMPANY



CONTENTS.



PART I. HISTORICAL.

PAGE

CHAPTER I. LEND-A-HAND CLUBS 17-22

Tendency of Nineteenth Century Christian-
ity to Organize on a Large Scale, 17; Many
Forms, 17, 18; Dr. Male's "Ten Times One is
Ten," 19; The Resulting Clubs, 20; and Mag-
azine, 21.

CHAPTER II. THE INTERNATIONAL ORDER OF

THE KING'S DAUGHTERS AND SONS 22-27

First Circle of "The King's Daughters," 22;
"Declaration of Independence," 23, 24; Per-
mitted Co-operation, 24, 25; Order Opened to
Men and Boys, 25; Wonderful Growth in Ten
Years, 25, 26; Periodical, Constitution and In-
clusiveness, 27.

CHAPTER III. THE YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETY OF

CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR 28-33

Independent Beginnings, 28; Organization
of the First Society, 28; Growth in Succeeding
Years,2Q-3i; The United Society, What It Is,
and How Managed, 31, 32; Its Periodical and
President, 32; Dr. Clark's Four Trips Abroad
in the Interest of C. E., 32, 33; Christian En-
deavor Principles, 33. (See also, 223-225.)

CHAPTER IV. SOME KINDRED SOCIETIES 33-44

1. The Epworth League, Why Formed, 34;
How Formed, 35; Modification in the Ep-
worth League, South, 35; Liberal Policy of
the Canadian Leagues, 36; a Like Compre-
hensive Organization in Other Orders, 36, 37;
Official Information, 37.

2. The Baptist Young People's Union of
America, "General Basis of Organization," 37
(see also, 225-227) ; Relation of Union to the
Local Societies, and Official Information, 37.

3. The Luther League, Special Reasons for



192621



Vlll CONTENTS.

PAGE

its Existence, 38, 39; Its Uniting Bond, its
Extent, its Official Information, 39, 40.

4. The Young People's Christian Union of
the United Brethren, its Affiliation With the
Y. P. S. C. E., 40; Circumstances of its Origin,
and Official Information, 40, 41.

5. The Young People's Christian Union of
the Universalist Church, a Lineal Descendant
of the Y. P. S. C. E., 41; Its Management and
Liberal Attitude, 42; Scope of its Work, 43;
Official Information, 44.

CHAPTER V. THE BROTHERHOODS 44-55

1. The Brotherhood of St. Andrew; Doublt
Reason for its Organization, 45; Its Growth,
Conventions, Policy and Official Information,
46; Declaration of its Essential Principles, 46
(see also, 228, 229).

2. The Daughters of the King, Like the
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Confined to the
Protestant Episcopal Church, 47; Not to be
Confounded With "The King's Daughters,"
48; Its English Chapters, 48.

3. Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip, First
Chapter, in the Reformed Church, 48; Other
Denominations Admitted, 49; Growth and
Statistics, 49; Brotherhood Committees in
Other Orders, 50.

4. Brotherhood of St. Paul, a Methodist
Order of the Fraternity Type, 50; Supplements
the Work of the Epworth Leagues, 51;
Objects and Principles, 52; Scope of Work,
53; Its Influence and Official Information, 54,
55-



PART II. PRACTICAL.

CHAPTER VI. TYPES OF CONSTITUTION 56-60

How Shall We Organize, 56; For Unselfish
Service, the Lend-a-Hand Club, 56; If Evan-
gelical Basis is to Be Emphasized, The King's
Daughters and Sons, 57; For Self-improve-
ment, Church Co-operation, and Enthusiasm
of Members, the Original or Specialized
Forms of the Y. P. S. C. E., 57; For Exclu-
sively Denominational Purposes, the Brother-
hood of St. Andrew, and the Daughters of The



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE

King, 57; For Still Narrower Specialization,
With Wide Interpretation, the Young Wom-
en's Christian Temperance Union, or the
Boys' Brigade, or the Knights of King Arthur,
58; these Distinctions Not Exclusive, 59;
Good Deeds, and Good Heart Presuppose
Each Other, 59, 60.

CHAPTER VII. PLEDGE, COVENANT OR Vow 60-65

The Pledge Constitutive, Whether Informal
or More Specific, 60; The Y. P. S. C. E.
Pledge as Type, 61; Its Solemn Nature, 61;
Not to be too Specific, nor too Extra-Scrip-
tural, 62; the Terminable Pledge, 63; the
Christian Endeavor Pledge, a Full Testimony
of Christian Faith, 63; Why Those Who Take
it Need Not All be Church Members, 64; Why
They Probably Should Be, 64; Tendency in
This Latter Direction, 64, 65.

CHAPTER VIII. SAVING ONE^S OWN SOUL 65-68

Our Master's Warning (Matt, xvi, 25, 26),
65; Its True Meaning, 66; the Two Principles
of Young People's Societies, Objective Truth,
and Altruistic Service, 67; the Edification of
Scripture Quotations, 68.

\/ CHAPTER IX. PRAYER 68-74

"The Prayer-meeting of Old," 68, 69; Its
Defects Due to Decay of Faith, 69; Some
Uses of Prayer: i, as a Health-lift, 70; 2, as a
Rhetorical Device, 70; 3, as a Vehicle for the
Display of Pathos or Eloquence, 72; Will
Prescribed Prayers Guard Against These
Dangers? 73; the One Dominating Law of the
Prayer-meeting, 73.

CHAPTER X. SINGING IN THE YOUNG PEOPLE'S

MEETING 74-77

Various Uses of Music, 74; Singing in Wor-
ship, Serious Business, 75; What is "Good
Singing?" 76; Studying Hymns, No Help to
Worship, 76, 77.

CHAPTER XI. SERVICE 77-87

Two Cautions, Against Selfishness and
Priggishness, 77; Christianoid Charity, 78; the
Outward Look, 78; Theoretical Danger of



X CONTENTS.

PAGE

Priggishness, 79; Practical Avoidance of it in
Young People's Meetings, 80; Shall Women
Speak in Meeting? 80; Some Impossible
Exegesis of I Cor. xiv, 34, 81-83; the Spirit of
Paul's Instruction, 83, 84; No Moral Coercion,
the Privilege of Keeping Silence, 86; Advant-
ages and Disadvantages of Society Composed
of Separate Sexes, 86.

CHAPTER XII. THE CONSTITUTING OF A YOUNG

PEOPLE'S SOCIETY 87-91

Begin With Few, 87; Dr. Clark's Sugges-
tions, 88; Do Not Hurry, 89; Quotations
From Handbook of St. Andrew, 90; the Purg-
ing of Gideon's Army, 91.

CHAPTER XIII. THE FORM OF CONSTITUTION... 91-99

Organization Below the Minimum, 91, 92;
Shall the Organization be Without or Within
Church Lines? Arguments pro and con, 93,
94; Without Church Lines, if for Service in
Charitable Work With Widest Diversity of
Operation, there are Lend-a-Hand Clubs, 94;
if for Spiritual Edification and Service there
is the Order of King's Daughters and Sons,
95; Both of these Orders Open to Church
Circles, 96; Within Church Lines, there are
Several Forms, the Greatest of All is Christian
Endeavor, 96; Its Interdenominational Spirit,
96; Five Choices Open, 97, 98.

CHAPTER XIV. THE CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR CON-
STITUTION 99-1 16

"The Beginning of a Society of Christian .

Endeavor," 99; Hints About Starting, 101,
102; Draft of Constitution and By-Laws, 103-
116.

CHAPTER XV. THE EPWORTH LEAGUE CONSTI-
TUTION 116-131

Forms, for Local Chapters, 118-122; Sug-
gestions to Officers, 123-126; Like Suggestions
in C. E. Work, 127, 128; Variation in Epworth
Type in Epworth League, South, 129-131;
Further Modifications, 129.

CHAPTER XVI. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE BAP-
TIST YOUNG PEOPLE'S UNION 132-138



CONTENTS. xi

PAGE

^ Emphasis on Education, 132; Influence of
C. E. and Ep worth League Ideas, 133; Con-
stitution for Local Union, 134-138.

, CHAPTER XVII. THE LUTHER LEAGUE CONSTI-
TUTION ; . . . .138, 139

Object, Method and Results, 138, 139.

CHAPTER XVIII. THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE

CHRISTIAN UNIONS 139-141

1. Young People's Christian Union of the
United Brethren in Christ, 139, 140; Close
Resemblance to Y. P. S. C. E.

2. Young People's Christian Union of the
Universalist Church, 140; Christian Endeavor
Inspiration; Suggestive Topics for Devotional
Meetings, 141.

^CHAPTER XIX. THE WORKING OF A YOUNG

PEOPLE'S SOCIETY. I. ITS MEETINGS 141-167

i. Meetings for Worship and Inspiration,
142-147; Hints on Prayer-meetings, 142-144;
^- the Prayer-meeting Pledge in the Various
Orders, 144, 145; the Consecration Meeting,
146; the Prayer-meeting Means Effective, In-
telligent and Humble Service, 146, 147.

2. Meetings for Instruction, 148-167: (i) The
Bible, 148-151; Place and Power of Bible
Study, 148, 149; Bible Study Among the
King's Daughters, 148; Among the Endeavor-
ers, 149; in the B. Y. P. U., 150; in the Ep-
worth League, 150, 151; Among the United
Brethren, 151. (2) Missionary Study, 151-157;
Missionary Revival Parallel With the Young
People's Movement, 151; Missionary Work
in C. E. Societies, 152; in Epworth League,
153; in B. Y. P. U., 153; Scheme of Conquest
Missionary Course, 154-156; the Giving Part
of Missionary Work, 156. (3) Temperance
Study, 157, 158; Wide Range of Material In-
volving Need of Care in Reaching Conclu-
sions. (4) General Culture, 158-165; the Ep-
worth Reading Course, 159; the Baptist C. C.
C. Courses, 160; Advanced Courses, 160, 161;
Prescribed Courses of Reading for Epworth
Leagues, 161, 162; Books Studied by the Y. P.
C. U. of the United Brethren, 162, 163; Rev.
H. E. Wise's Method of Conducting His



xii CONTENTS.

PAGE

Christian Culture Courses, 163-165; What the
Lutheran Young People are Reading, 165.
(5) Christian Citizenship, 165-167; Empha-
sized by Endeavorers and the Universalist
Young People; Value of the Periodicals Pub-
lished by the Several jOrders, 167.

CHAPTER XX. THE WORKING OF A YOUNG PEO-
PLE'S SOCIETY. II. ITS ACTIVITIES 167-178

Transition From Meetings to Activities
Made Through Social Committee Work, 168;
What a Young People's Social Should Be,
168-170; Breadth of Activities, 170, 171; a
Leaf From New Jersey, 171, 172; Significance
of the Mottoes, 173; Some C. E. Christian
Citizenship W T ork for tjie Year 1804. 174-176;
Business Meetings, 176, 177; Flexibility in
Working, 178; Ritual, 178.

CHAPTER XXI. JUNIOR SOCIETIES 178-181

The Juniors Organized in All Orders, 179;
the Junior Society and the Sunday-school, 179,
180; Forms of Junior Pledges, 180, 181;
Objects, Equipment and Relations of Junior
Work, 181.

CHAPTER XXII. YOUNGER PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES. 181-188

The Many Forms and Names, 182, 183; Dr.
Forbush's "Manual of Boys' Clubs," 183; the
Boys' Brigade, 184-187; the Church Temper-
ance Legion, 187, 188.

CHAPTER XXIII. CONVENTIONS 188-196

The Local Unions, 189; State and Interna-
tional Conventions, 190; the Endeavor Con-
ventions, 190. 191; Epworth League and B. Y.
P. U. Conventions, 191, 192; the Fellowship
of these Three, 193; Wider Fellowship, 193;
Conventions of Brotherhood of St. Andrew,
J 93, 194; and of Andrew and Philip, 194, 195;
of the Young People's Christian Union of the
Universalist Church, 195; the Conventions,
Great Summer Schools, 196.

CHAPTER XXIV. FEDERATION 196-204

The Early Co-operation, 197; the Threat-
ened Competition, 198: the Wider Co-opera-
tion, 198, 109: Why Not Still Wider? 200;
Closer Relations Attempted Between C. E.



CONTENTS. Xlll

PAGE

and Epworth League, 201; "Shall the Young
People's Societies be Federated?" Sym-
posium in "The Independent," 202-204.

CHAPTER XXV. RESULTS 205-221

1. Results Aimed At, 205-206; Training for
Christian Character and Service.

2. Results Achieved, 206-216; in the Mem-
bership, Consecration and Inspiration for
Service, 206; in the Churches, More System-
atic and Vigorous Work, 207; Results Secured
Through Senior Societies, 208; Churches Or-
ganized on C. E. Plan, 209; Increased Mem-
bership in the Churches, and More Gifts for
Missions, 209; Temperance and Good Citi-
zenship Revivals, 210. Are the Societies
Doing All that is Expected of Them? 210, Is
too Much Expected? 211; Some Satisfactory
Results in Attendance and Participation, 212;
The Societies Not to be Held to Any One
Thing, 212, 213; the Time Element Over-
looked, Dangers, 213; Criticism of Epworth
Leagues, 214; English Strictures on C. vE.
Work, 214; Twelve Manner of Fruit, 215.

3. Results Expected, 216-221 ; in the Line of
Covenant, the Most Satisfactory Pledge, 216;
the effects on the Churches, 217; in the Line
of Culture, Increased Interest in Church and
General History, and Scripture Study, 218;
in the Line of Civics, Better Citizenship,
Especially Along Temperance Lines, 219, 220;
in the Line of Missions, Work at First Hand,
Relief of Boards and Treasuries, 221; Provis-
ion for Indefinite Continuance of Results, 221.



YOUNG PEOPLES SOCIETIES.




CHAPTER I.

LEND-A-HAND CLUBS.

One conspicuous distinction of the Christianity
of the nineteenth century, especially in America, is
its tendency to large organization. It belongs, in-
deed, to the essential nature of the Christian faith,
that wherever it prevails it organizes itself. Love
toward Christ's brethren is an invariable sign of
spiritual life in Christ ; so that wherever Christians
are, there must needs be the church ; and wherever
churches are, there is manifested, in spite of all
hindrances and perversions, the movement toward
that general fellowship of holy souls which is de-
fined in the Apostles' Creed as "the holy catholic
church."

But that large organization of which we have
spoken as distinguishing the American Christianity
of the nineteenth century has its own characteristic
forms. A wonderful quickening of religious faith
all over the inhabited continent, in the early years
of the century, resulted in the institution of national
charitable and missionary societies, first without re-
gard to sectarian division, afterwards within the
lines of the several sects.

About the same time sprang up the system of
17



i8 YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES.

Sunday-schools, attaching themselves to individual
congregations as part of the parish equipment, and
by and by entering into mutual leagues and cre-
ating for themselves a vast literature.

In the middle of the century, the Young Men's
Christian Association was imported from London,
and so fitted itself to a rapidly growing need of
American cities, as to become established in great
vigor and wealth in all parts of the country, and by
a system of mutual correspondence and confedera-
tion to grow into a national institution.

The wonderful expansion and cheapening of
transportation, travel and postal communication
came to have the effect of rapidly nationalizing any
successful local method of organization. Illustra-
tions of this are to be found in the history of many
"orders/' "granges," "unions," and other like com-
binations, for social, business or mutual insurance
purposes. One of the most striking and admirable
instances of the sort is found in the great and swift
expansion of the Chautauqua movement. Begin-
ning with a fortnight's picnic of a few Sunday-
school teachers in a grove beside Chautauqua Lake,
in New York State, in 1874, it has grown like a
banyan tree, striking root from its branches, until
after two decades, it has covered the continent with
what is, in some respects, almost tantamount to a
national university, numbering its students by scores
of thousands.

It was into the midst of a people thus predisposed
to organization on the grand scale that the Rev.
Dr. Edward Everett Hale, in the year 1870, sent



YOUNG PEOPLE S SOCIETIES. 19

forth his extraordinary little book, entitled "Ten
Times One Is Ten/' In form, it was a Utopian
fancy wrought out with that lively realistic detail
in which its author excels all other English writers
since De Foe. In effect and impression, it was a
translation of the Acts of the Apostles into the dia-
lect of nineteenth-century America. It reminds one
of the New Testament scenes depicted in modern
costumes and surroundings by von Uhde or L/Her-
mitte. It tells how ten very unlike persons, inspired
to a life of good service by the surviving influence
of one noble character, were scattered in alf direc-
tions bearing in their hearts the inspiring mottoes :

Look up and not down;
Look forward and not back;
Look out and not in; and
Lend a hand.

The original ten was multiplied by ten every three
years, until at the end of twenty-seven years the
whole world accepted faith, hope and love as the
rule of life. It was characteristic of this beginning
that it was without constitution or compact or other
form of organization, but only with a vital principle.
As in the story, so in the practical results of it.
Little knots of helpful persons began to form them-
selves without mutual correspondence and without
any effort of propagation. The first club was
formed in 1870, the year of the publication of Dr.
Kale's story. At the end of twenty-five years, the
Secretary of "The Ten Times One Corporation,"
which had been formed and chartered as an agency
for the common business of the clubs of various



20 YOUNG PEOPLE 5 SOCIETIES.

names that had adopted "The \Yadsworth mot-
toes," reported :

"It is simply impossible to know the number of people
who have chosen these mottoes for their own. It has
escaped, if ever it was held by the Central Office. Orders
are formed that have multiplied with vigor. Qubs are re-
ported, of whose existence the Central Office never knew.
New clubs are forming and old ones are disbanding.
Though they do disband, often single members, cherishing
the mottoes, wait until the time shall come, when, in far-
away towns or countries, they form a new Ten."

In accordance with the ideal of the man who gave
them a start, the common organization of the
"Lend-a-Hand Clubs" and "Ten-Times-One Clubs"
was of the simplest and slightest. In fact, they were
not organized together at all, to begin with ; they
simply grew and multiplied, and had more or less,
or none at all, of mutual correspondence. In i
"Look-up Legion" was formed at Chautauqua, and
gave occasion to Dr. Hale and his circle of friends
at Boston to publish successive circulars, which by
and by gave place to a monthly "Journal of Or-
ganized Beneficence," entitled "Lend a Hand."
What followed upon this may best be told in Dr.
Hale's own words :

"Quite without any conscious plan on the part of any
of us, so soon as the magazine "Lend a Hand" was es-
tablished, there flowed in upon its office a great variety
of appeals and suggestions for charities, which no one of
our clubs alone could attend to. In an informal way, the
editors and other persons interested in the work met these
appeals as best they could. From time to time, in one
way or another, we printed public reports of what we had
done with money entrusted to us, and sometimes we made



YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES. 21

appeals for such money to the public at large, in addition
to the circulars which we sent to the several clubs. At
last, the business thus transacted was so large that it
seemed to me desirable that, in the event of my death or
of the transfer of the magazine to other publishers, some
arrangement should be made for carrying forward this
sort of work, at least for preserving the property, in the
shape of stereotype plates or printed leaflets, which be-
longed to the Central Society. This wish of mine led to the
incorporation of the society on the 20th day of November,
1891. All contributions made to the various charities of
the Central Clubs are really made to this corporation, and
in the event of my death such charities would go on as
directly as if they were carried on by me."*

The motto to characterize the common order of
these affiliated clubs might be, "Go as you please
only go." The central office, which offers them
facilities for mutual correspondence and co-opera-
tion, has set forth the following statement :

Any club, or society, of whatever name, is a Ten-Times-
One or Lend-a-Hand Club, which accepts the Wadsworth
mottoes:

Look up and not down;
Look forward and not back;
Look out and not in;
And lend a hand.

It should have for one, at least, of its objects, the up-
lifting of some person, neighborhood, or institution out-
side of the Club itself.

A Club may organize as it will.

Each Club may choose its own name, make its own
constitution and select its own work.



* Annual Report of the President of the Ten Times One
Corporation, 1894.



22 YOUNG PEOPLE S SOCIETIES.

The badge is the Maltese cross; the watchword, In His
Name. But neither badge nor watchword is compulsory.

On no other basis than this of Faith, Hope and
Love, of which words the four mottoes were ac-
cepted as a paraphrase, a very large number, not
only of clubs and societies, but of affiliations or
orders of clubs, have grown up. Among them may
be named :

The Look-up Legion,

The Commercial Temperance League,

The Order of Send-me,

The Lend-a-Hand Clubs,

The I. H. N. Clubs.

A monthly magazine, "The Lend-a-Hand Rec-
ord," is "devoted to the interests of Lend-a-Hand
Clubs and humanity." It is published at No. I
Beacon street, Boston.

The President of the Corporation is Rev. Edward
Everett Hale, D.D.; the Secretary is Mrs. Bernard
Whitman.



CHAPTER II.

THE INTERNATIONAL ORDER OF THE KING'S DAUGH-
TERS AND SONS.

One of the earliest organizations springing from
the inspiration of Dr. Hale's story of "Ten Times
One Is Ten" was a circle in New York, that took
the name of "The King's Daughters." The birth
of it, as told in a letter afterwards written to Dr.
Hale by Mrs. Davis, the Secretary, was on this
wise: "In October, 1885, I went to Mrs. Bottome,



YOUNG PEOPLE S SOCIETIES. 23

who received the outline of the 'Sisterhood' which
you sent, with enthusiasm. I read 'Ten Times One'
before her class in her husband's church to-night.
.... She is carried away with it." The "leaven
which a woman took" wrought effectively. January
13, 1886, ten women met at Mrs. Bottome's house
and organized themselves into a "Ten," adopting
the four mottoes, the watchword, "In His Name,"
and the badge, a silver Maltese cross, that were
common to the societies of various names that had
sprung from the same fruitful stock.

The position of this Circle, and some special gifts
and aptitudes among its members, constituted it a
natural centre for counsel and co-operation among
the many like Circles that at once began to multiply
about it. But, following the example of the proto-
type at Boston, it scrupulously avoided the error of
"governing too much," "disclaiming any purpose
to control any Circle in its choice of a field of
labor."

A curious incident, not difficult to explain on ob-
vious principles of human nature, marked the early
history of this sisterhood. It issued among its
"leaflets," a "declaration of independence" in the
following terms :

In answer to the repeated question that comes to us,
"Do you belong in any way to the other 'Tens/ 'Lend-a-
Hand Clubs,' 'Look-up Legions/ etc.?" we desire to clear-
ly state that we have no connection with any other orders
whatsoever.

The Daughters of the King recognize that they are in-
debted to these friends for admirable suggestions, which
they have thankfully adopted. Ours is distinctly a spiritual



24 YOUNG PEOPLE'S SOCIETIES.

organization, based on strictly evangelical principles. Our
foundation is Jesus Christ, our Lord, in whose atonement
alone' we rely for salvation, and by whose power, and in
whose name and to whose glory all our work is done.

Our Order has assumed unexpectedly large proportions,
and we feel God has chosen His daughters as instruments
of great blessing to multitudes. Let us not ''limit the
Holy One of Israel." God has promised to pour out His
spirft on His handmaidens in these latter days. Let us
be emptied vessels, that He may fill us, and use us to the
pulling down of Satan's strongholds and the bringing in
of the kingdom of our Lord, "whose we are and whom
we serve." Let us see to it that our basis be distinctly
understood that we may have the confidence and co-
operation with all with whom we are one in a common
faith in the ever-blessed Trinity God the Father, God the
Son, and God the Holy Ghost.

Indorsed by the Central Council of the Order of the
King's Daughters.

This somewhat ostentatious display of dogmatic
orthodoxy looked like a bold act of excommunica-
tion fulminated against the first founders of the so-
cieties from which The King's Daughters had
sprung. It seemed as if the Order was instituting
a censorship of religious opinions, and preparing
to found a religious sect. But the sequel showed
that practically it was only an expression of the
lively and demonstrative zeal of some of the leaders
of the young movement, and meant nothing more.
It w r as officially announced that the Order

demanded no uniformity in choice of labors. It declined
to make of its Central Council a Board of Examiners into
the theological views of its members. It had no right to


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