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decomposed by hydrate of lime at 100, yielding 25'4 p. c. of dulcitan,
with an admixture of dulcite (calc. 23-6 p. c. C 12 H 12 O 10 ).



Quadristearate of Dulcityl.

_ C 12 H 8 6 ,4C 38 H 3S S .



BERTHELOT. Compt. rend. 41, 454 ; Chim. organ. 2, 211 ; Repp's J (thresher.
1858, 677.

Dulcite distearique. See xvi, 386.

Obtained as a neutral mass by heating dulcite to 200 with a large
excess of stearic acid. It is purified in the same manner as palmitin
(xvi, 353), which it resembles.



Stearate of Cetyl,

= C 32 H 33 0,C 36 n 35 3 .

BERTHELOT. N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 56, 70.
Ethal stearique.

A mixture of 1 part of ethal with 4 or 5 parts of stearic acid is
heated to 200 in a sealed tube, for 8 or 10 hours. The product is
mixed first with a little ether and then with hydrate of lime, which
takes up the uncombined stearic acid, and the whole is heated to 100
for some minutes, and afterwards boiled with ether, when the ethal and
stearate of cetyl are dissolved, and remain behind on evaporating the
solution. From the mixture thus obtained, the free ethal is removed
by boiling five or six times with 6 to 10 parts of alcohol, and the uudis-
solved cetyl-compound is then allowed to crystallise from ether.

Broad shining laminae, resembling spermaceti, melting at 55 to 60,
and cooling to a crystalline solid. Volatilises with formation of a little
free acid. Neutral.

Berthelot.
68 C ............................ 408 ........ 80-31 ........ 80-0

68 H ............................ 68 ........ 13-38 ........ 13-6

4O ............................ 32 ........ 6-31 ........ 6-4

.... 508 ........ 100-00 ........ 100-0



STEARONE. 129

Stearate of cetyl burns on platinum foil with a white flame. It is
decomposed by hydrate of lime, at 100, only after 8 or 10 days.

Nearly insoluble in boiling alcohol. Dissolves slightly in cold, and
freely in boiling ether.



Stearone.
C'H 70 = CH M 9 ,C M EP.

BUSSY. Ann. Chim. Phys. 53, 410 ; J. Pharm. 19, 642 ; Ann. Pliarm.

9, 2G9 ; J. pr. Chem. 1, 179.
REDTENBACIIER. Ann. Pharm. 35, 57.
VARRENTRAPP. Ann. Pharm. 35, 80.
ROWNEY. Chem. Soc. Qu. J. 6, 97 ; abstr. Ann. Pharm. 88, 285 ; J.

pr. Chem. 59, 493 ; N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 39, 490.
HEINTZ. Pogg. 94, 272 ; 96, 65.

Margarone. Stearene. Discovered by Bussy.

Bussy distinguished stearone and margarone, the former from stearie acid, the
latter from margaric acid, melting at 56, obtained' by the distillation of hog's lard.
His margarone may, therefore, be regarded as a mixture of stearone and palmitone
(xvi, 382). Redtenbacher, supposing that stearie acid is converted by distillation
into margaric acid, described as margarone, stearone obtained from distilled, from
commercial, and from pure stearie acid, and considered the existence of stearone as
impossible. Yarrentrapp's margarone was obtained from a mixture of fatty acids
melting at 5556 (Yarrentrapp's margaric acid, xvi, 351), and is doubtless, like
Bussy's, to be regarded as a mixture of palmitone and stearone.

Formation. By the dry distillation of stearie acid in the free state,
or more abundantly, in combination with lime or oxide of lead.

Preparation. 1. Stearate of lime, or a mixture of melted stearie
acid and hydrate of lime, is subjected to dry distillation, and the solid
distillate is boiled for some time with water. The residue is finely
powdered, heated with ether to boiling, and after cooling, collected on
a filter and again treated with ether, when pure stearone remains undis-
solved (Heintz). Bussy purifies it by re-crystallisation from hot alcohol.
2. Stearate of lead is distilled in a current of super-heated steam, and
the nearly colourless distillate is purified as in the first method (II. L.
Buff).

Properties. Delicate, pearly, microscopic laminoe, very strongly
electric. Melting-point 87'8 (Heintz), 86 (Bussy), 82 from pure,
77 from commercial or distilled stearie acid (Redtenbacher), 76
(Varrentrapp ; Rowney). Solidifies at 72 (Rowney). Bussy's mar-
garone distils partially undecomposed,'














Bussy.








a.


5.


700


420


83-00 .


83-22


.. . 81-81


70 H


70


13-84 .,


13-77


13-50


2 O


16


3-16 .


3-01


4-69













606 100-00 lOO'OO 100-00

VOL. XVII. K



130 CONJUGATED COMPOUNDS OF THE PRIMARY NUCLEUS



Ileintz.



Redteubacher. V
C . . S2-KQ ....


arrentrapp.
81-18 ....
13-79 ....


Rowney.
82-12 ....


a.
82-98 ...


b.

82-91


H


13-81 .


13-74 ....


13-91 ....


13-92


o


3'60


5-03 .


4-14 .


3'11 ....


3-17
















100-00 .


100-00 .


100-00 .


100-00 .


100-00



a is Bussy's stearone, b his margarone. Heintz analysed stearone from stearic
acid (a), and from stearate of lime (b). The formulse proposed for stearone hare
varied with that of stearic acid. Eowney gave the formula C^H^O ; Heintz, the
one above given.



Decompositions. 1. Margarone burns with a bright smokeless
flame (Bussy). 2. Melted stearone is converted by bromine into bromo-
stearone, with evolution of hydiobromic acid (Heintz). In other ex-
periments, Heintz obtained, by the action of a great excess of bromine
at high temperatures, only a little bromostearone, but a large quantity
of an easily fusible product, readily soluble in ether. Rowney
obtained, by the action of bromine on his stearene (melting at 72),
tufts of feathery crystals, melting at 43 45, and containing, on the
average, 59'86 p. c. C., 9'76 H., and 27*93 Br., corresponding to the
formula C^BrH^O. Iodine is without action on stearone (Rowney).
3. Chlorine forms with margarone, at a gentle heat, a colourless,
transparent, viscid liquid (Bussy). 4. Stearone becomes coloured
with oil of vitriol, and carbonises, with evolution of sulphurous acid
(Bussy. Rowney). 5. Stearone is not acted upon by hot nitric acid,
but is decomposed by nitro-sulphuric acid, with formation of an acid
volatile oil (Rowney). 6. Potassium acts upon margarone, evolving a
little combustible gas (Bussy). 7. Margarone, distilled with quick
lime, yields carbonate of lime and a distillate melting at 60 (Bussy).
8. Margarone is not decomposed by a boiling strong solution of caustic
potash (Bussy).

Stearone dissolves very slightly in boiling alcohol, and is deposited
almost entirely on cooling (Heintz). Bussy's margarone, melting at
77, dissolves in 50 parts of boiling alcohol of 36. Stearone is nearly
insoluble in cold, and very difficultly soluble in boiling ether (Heintz).
Margarone dissolves in 5 parts of boiling ether, acetate of ethyl, or oil of
turpentine (Bussy).



Bromostearone.



= C M H 8S 8 ,C 3 *BrH M *



HEINTZ. Pogg. 96, 75.

"When an excess of bromine is added to melted stearone, a red oil
separates, which solidifies when shaken with water. This is to be
washed, first with water containing ammonia, and afterwards with cold
alcohol and re-crystallised from ether till the melting-point rises to 72.
It dissolves with moderate facility in cold ether.



R1CINOLEIC ACID. 131



70 C


Lamlnee.
420 ..


63-26 ....


Heintz.
63-03


2 Br .,


160 ..


24-09 ....


24-38


68 H


68


10-24 ....


10-35


2 O


16 .


. .. 2'41 . .


2-24










<yBr*W


8 O 2 . . 664 .


100-00 .


100-00



Stearic Anhydride.

= C 36 H 3fl 3 ,C 36 H 35 3 .



CHIOZZA. Ann. Pharm. 91, 104; J. pr. Chem. 64, 33; Pharm. Centr.
1854, 794.

Anhydrous siearic acid. Wasserfreie Stearinsdure.

Obtained in the same manner as benzoic anhydride, but difficult to
free from adhering stearic acid.

Chiozza.
432 , 78-54



70 H .


70


12'72


12-5


6O


48


8-74


9-8










C72H70Q6 ....


.... 550


100-00


100-0



Chiozza calls tins body stearic anhydride, but assigns to it the formula of
margaric anhydride,



Oxygen-nucleus C 38 H 34 2 .

Ricinoleic Acid.

C 36 H 34()G _ C 36 H M 2 ,0 4 .

BUSST & LECANU. J. Pharm. 13, 70; Mag. Pharm. 18, 47; Berz.

Jahrl. 29, 1, 256.

SAALMULLER. Ann. Pharm. 64, 108.
SVANBERG & KOLMODIN. /. pr. Chem. 45, 431.
Boms. See xiii, 183. Complete : N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 44, 103, and

48, 99.
PETERSEN. Ann. Pharm. 118, 69.

Sources. In castor oil (see below). In the oil of Jatroplia Curcas
(Bouis).

Preparation. Castor oil is saponified with potash or soda-ley, and
the soap is salted out and decomposed by hydrochloric acid. The oily
mixture of ricinoleic acid with a small quantity of solid fatty acids is
then cooled to 10 or 12 with -irdits volume of alcohol, when the
solid acids crystallise out, and are removed. After driving off the alcohol,
the ricinoleic acid is digested with excess of oxide of lead, and the lead-
salt formed is dissolved in ether, and decomposed with hydrochloric

K 2



132 PRIMARY NUCLEUS C 3G H 3fi ; OXYGEN-NUCLEUS

acid and water. The ricinoleic acid, which is left on evaporating- the
ethereal layer, is purified by dissolving it in aqueous ammonia, precipi-
tating with chloride of barium, and crystallising the baryta-salt from
alcohol, as with oleic acid (p. 64). From the baryta-salt the acid is
obtained by decomposition with aqueous hydrochloric acid (Saalmiiller,
Svanberg, and Kolmodin). In the decomposition of the baryta-salt the
presence of alcohol is to be avoided, as its subsequent removal is
attended with difficulty (Saalmuller).

Properties. Pale wine-yellow oil, colourless in thin layers, of the
consistence of syrup. Sp. gr. 0-94 at 15. Solidifies completely at
6 to 10, to a granular mass. Inodorous. Has a very dis-
greeable, persistent, harsh taste. An alcoholic solution reddens litmus
(Saalmuller).

In vacua over Saalmiiller. Bouis.

oil of vitriol. mean.

36 C ............ 216 ........ 72-48 ........ 73'23 ........ 71'99

34 H ............ 34 ........ 11-41 ........ 11-59 ........ 11-51

6 ............ 48 ........ 16-11 ........ 15-18 ........ 16-50

C 36 H 34 O 6 .... 98 ........ 100-00 ........ 100-00 ........ lOO'OO

Bouis' acid was prepared from the amide. Saalmuller gives the formula
6 , which agrees with his analyses better than the above formula of Svanberg
and Kolmodin. Later analyses, however, as well as the decomposition-products of
the substance appear to support the formula with 36 at. C., which is now generally
adopted.

Decompositions. 1. Ricinoleic acid, subjected to distillation, yields
at first a limpid, and afterwards a thick and repulsive-smelling distillate,
free from sebacic acid (Saalmuller). 2. It does not absorb oxygen
from the air, nor even on long exposure to the gas, and does not form
Carbonic acid (Saalmuller). The acid appears to undergo alteration in the air
(Svanberg & Kolmodin). 3. It absorbs a little sulphurous acid gas, with-
out becoming solid or otherwise altered (Saalmuller). See also the decom-
positions of castor oil.

4. By the dry distillation of ricinoleates of the alkalis, various
products are obtained, according as the neutral salt is distilled alone,
or with an excess of alkali. (See xiii, 183, 187, 189, and xiv, 49i.)

a. By cautiously distilling the neutral soda-salt, until the residue
begins to froth up, a distillate of cenanthol (xii, 446) is obtained, the
residue containing the soda-salt of the same acid that is formed by
the dry distillation of castor-oil (see below). The soda-salt and the
glyceride of ricinoleic acid are, therefore, decomposed in the same
manner by distillation (Stadeler). According to Bouis, the neutral
ricinoleates of the alkalis yield, by dry distillation, caprylic aldehyde
(xiii, 187), and a peculiar acid :



C36H34Q6 = C 1G H 16 O2 + C*>H 1S 4 (Bouis).

The residue froths up only when more strongly heated, and yields a
brown fetid distillate, containing only a little cenanthol, and no other
aldehyde (Stadeler).

b. A mixture of ricinoleate of potash or soda, with excess of hydrate
of >t(ish or soda, froths up when heated, evolves an odour of mush-
rooms, and thickens ; at about 250 it ceases frothing, and gives off a



RICINOLEIC ACID. 133

large quantity of hydrogen (no carbonic acid), and a volatile oil,
leaving a light spongy residue, which is inflammable while hot. By
further heating, this residue is also decomposed, with formation of
white vapours having a repulsive odour (Bouis). A mixture of castor-
oil and excess of hydrate of soda behaves in the same manner when
heated.

From the residues, acids separate a white mass which gives up
sebacic acid (xiv, 493) to hot water. The remainder consists of a
dark, viscid oil (amounting to half the volume of the oil when castor-
oil instead of riciuoleic acid is employed), which is saponifiable to a
white, hard soap, deposits crystals of palmitic acid in the cold, and
solidifies only partially with nitrous acid (Bouis). According to Bouis,
sebacic acid is produced more especially by very rapid, and to a less
extent by slow heating.

The volatile oil contains two constituents, one only of which com-
bines with bisulphites of the alkalis in the manner of an aldehyde
(Limpricht). According to Limpricht's earlier views, which were
adopted by Bouis, this aldehyde-like body is to be regarded as caprylic
aldehyde (xiii, 187) ; but according to the statements of Stadeler, which
were confirmed by Dachauer & Petersen, and are now accepted by
Limpricht, it must be regarded as methyl-oenanthol (xiv, 189). The
second body, which does not combine with bisulphites of the alkalis, is,
according to Bouis, Moschniu, Squire, Cahours, Limpricht, Malaguti,
and Dachauer (Ann. Pharm. 106, 269), caprylic alcohol (xiii, 183); but,
according to Railton, Wills, Stadeler, and Petersen, it is oenanthylic
alcohol ; according to E. T. Chapman (N. Chem. Soc. </., 3, 290), some-
times the one, sometimes the other alcohol is produced.

The alcohol is produced more especially, together with a salt of
sebacic acid, by heating rapidly, so that the alkali fuses ; the aldehyde,
by heating slowly to 225 or 230, in which case less sebacic acid is
formed (Bouis). Those statements are not in accordance with the
results obtained by Malaguti and Limpricht (xiv, 494). The de-
composition may be represented by the following equations : . when
methyl-oenanthol or capryl-aldehyde is formed :



4HO = C 16 II 16 O 2 + C 20 H 18 O 8 + 4H.

b. When caprylic alcohol is produced :

C^H^O 6 + 4HO = C 16 H 1S O 2 + C*H: 18 S + 2H.

c. When oenanthylic alcohol is formed :

4HO - C 14 H 16 O 2 + C Z H 18 O 8 + C 2 II 4 .



In this last reaction marsh-gas (or a secondary product) must be
formed, unless the oenanthylic alcohol results from the further decom-
position of the sebate (Stadeler).

Bicinoleates. The alcoholic solution of the acid expels carbonic

acid from alkaline carbonates. The salts are all soluble in alcohol,

and some also in ether. They do not become oxidised on keeping
(Saalmiiller).

Pdcinoleate of Baryta. Preparation (p. 132). On treating with
warm alcohol, a portion generally remains uudissolved in the form of a
tough yellow mass (Saalmiiller), White laminse, very soft to the



134 PRIMARY NUCLEUS C 36 !! 36 ; OXYGEN-NUCLEUS

touch, or crystalline crusts (Saalmuller). Melts at 100, without loss of
weight, to a tenacious mass, which may be drawn out in threads like
boracic acid, and becomes translucent and brittle on cooling (Bouis).
Dissolves slightly in cold water, in 300 parts of cold alcohol of 95 p. c.,
and easily in hot alcohol, crystallising on cooling (Svanberg &
Kolmodin).



In vacuo, over oil of vitriol.
360 216


5910


Saalmtiller
mean.
59-81


Svanberg &
Kolmodm.
58-69


33 H


33


9'03


9-38 ....


8'96


5 O


, 40


10-94 .. ..


10-54 . ..


11-57


BaO


76-5


20-93 .. ..


20-27 ....


20-78













C36 H 33 BaO 6 365-5 100-00 100-00 lOO'OO

Bouis found 20'45, Petersen 20'99 p. c. baryta.

Strontia-salt. Precipitated from the ammonia-salt by chloride of
strontium. Crystallises from alcohol in small white granules (Saal-
miiller).

SaalmuUer.

C 3G H 33 O 5 289 84-75

SrO 52 15-25 .... 14-6

C^H^SrO 6 341 lOO'OO

Lime-salt. Obtained from the ammonia-salt by precipitation with
chloride of calcium. Crystallises from alcohol in small white scales,
which lose water when melted, even after long drying in a vacuum
over oil of vitriol. Melts at 80 to a pale-yellow transparent mass,
which is brittle and friable when cold (Saalmuller).







S;


aalmiiller.




^100




mean.


36 C


216


68-14


66-38


33 H


33


10-41


10-59


5 O


40


12-61


1457


CaO


28


8-84


8-46











C 36 H 33Ca0 6 ........ 317 ........ 100-00 ........ lOO'OO

Saalmuller supposes the salt to contain 1 at. of water, the presence of which has
not, however, been demonstrated.

Magnesia-salt. Very fine needles, insoluble in water but easily
soluble in alcohol. Contains, after drying over oil of vitriol, 5-69 p. c.
MgO. (Saalmuller).

Petersen.
36 C .................... 216 ........ 69-90 ........ 70'08

33 H ............... 33 ........ 10-68 ........ 10'53

5 ................... 40 ........ 12-95 ........ 13-34

MgO .................... 20 ........ 6-47 ........ 6-05

C^H^MgO 6 .... 309 ........ 100-00 ........ lOO'OO

Zinc-salt. Crystallises from alcohol in small white granules
(Saalmuller).



289 ........ 87-79

ZnO ............ 40-2 ........ 12-21 ........ 11'85

. . 329-2 . lOO'OO



RICINELA1DIC ACID. 135

Lead-salt. The acid, when heated with excess of lead-oxide, loses
2-9 to 3-6 p. c. of water (1 at. = 3'02 p. c.), and forms a solid compound,
the ethereal solution of which, on evaporation over oil of vitriol, leaves
the lead-salt as a transparent crystalline mass. Melts at 100 to a
light brown viscid liquid, and solidifies to an easily pulverisable mass.
Dissolves very easily in ether (Saalmiiller). Dissolves in cold, and not
much more freely in hot alcohol (Svanberg & Kolmodiu). By precipitat-
ing ammoniacal ricinoleic acid with neutral acetate of lead, a curdy precipitate of
variable composition is obtained (Saalmuller) .

Saalmiiller.
At 100, over oil of vitriol. mean.

36 C 216 53-87 54'58

33 H 33 8-23 8'61

5 40 9-97 9-69

PbO 112 27-93 27-12

C 36 H 33p b 06 .... 401 100-00 100-00

Silver-salt. Nitrate of silver throws down from the ammonia-salt
a curdy precipitate, which, when treated with alcohol or ether, partially
dissolves, but for the most part blackens and remains undissolved
(Saalmuller). It softens at 100, melts at higher temperatures to a
black mass, and burns with evolution of disagreeably smelling vapours.
Dissolves easily in hot alcohol, and slightly in cold alcohol and ether
(Bouis).



Over oil of vitriol
36 216 ...


Saalmuller.
mean.
. 53-33 54-03
8-14 8-27
.... 11-85 14-18
.... 26-68 23-52


Bouia.
. 26-6


33 H 33 ....


GO 48 ....


Ae .. 108 .




C^H^AgO 6 405 ....


.... 100-00


100-00





Saalmuller precipitates the salt from a strongly ammoniacal solution.

Ricinoleic acid dissolves in all proportions in alcohol and ether
(Saalmuller).



Eicinelaidic Acid.

= C 36 H 34 2 ,0*.



F. BOUDET. /. Chim. me'd. 8, 646 ; J. Pharm. 18, 497 ; Ann. Cliim.

Phys. 50, 414 ; Ann. Pharm. 4, 16.
L. PLAYFAIB. Phil. Mag. 29, 475; Mem. Chem. Soc. 3, 222; Ann.

Pharm. 60, 322 ; J. pr. Chem. 40, 173.
Bouis. N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 44, 82.-



Palminsdure.



Formation. Ricinoleic acid (the mixture of fatty acids obtained by
saponifying castor oil with caustic soda and decomposing the soap) is
mixed with nitric acid, and nitrous acid is passed into the mixture,
whereupon the oil solidifies. Purification is effected by washing with
hot water, crystallising repeatedly from alcohol, and pressing, till the



136 PRIMARY NUCLEUS C M H 36 j OXYGEN-NUCLEUS C 36 H 31 O 2 .

melting point becomes constant (Playfair). 2. Kicinela'idin is saponi-
fied with caustic potash, and the soap is salted out, decomposed by
hydrochloric acid, and purified according to the first method (Boudet.
Playfair).

Properties. Tufts of white silky needles, melting 1 at 50 (Boudet.
Bouis). When prepared according to the first method, it melts at 45 4G 3 ;
according to the second, at 44-2 (Playfair). Solidifies at 48'5 (Bouis)
to a crystalline mass (Playfair). Keddens litmus strongly (Boudet).



Playfair.


Bouis.


mean.


36 C


.. . 216 .


72-48


73-75 .,


71-53 .


72-59


34 II


34 .,


11-41


11-85 ..


11-50 .,


11-50


6 O


48 .


16-11


14-40 ,


16-97 .


15-91















C36J134Q6 98 100-00 100-00 lOO'OO 100-00

a was prepared according to 1 ; b by saponifying a and decomposing the soap.
Playfair gave for a the formula C 3I H 32 O 5 ; for b, C^H^O 6 . Isomeric with
ricinoleic acid (Gerhardt. Bouis).

RicinelaYdic acid, subjected to rapid distillation, yields a buttery
distillate, containing a large quantity of undecomposed acid and the
same volatile oil which is produced by the dry distillation of castor oil :
towards the end of the distillation, a yellow empyreumatic oil passes
over, whilst a little charcoal remains behind (Boudet). When heated
with hydrate of soda, it yields the same products as ricinoleic acid
(Koch, Ann. Pharm. 119, 173 ; Kopp's Jahrcsber. 1861, 359).

Ricinclaidic acid decomposes alkaline carbonates. The ammonia-salt
is not crystallisable (Boudet).

Potash-salt. Obtained by boiling the acid with a concentrated
aqueous solution of carbonate of potash, dissolving the soap which
separates on cooling, in alcohol, filtering from carbonate of potash,
and evaporating (Playfair).

Soda-salt. Formed by neutralising the acid with carbonate of
soda. The alcoholic solution forms a jelly on cooling, A dilute
aqueous solution deposits a bi-acid salt, which crystallises from alcohol
in needles, and reddens litmus (Boudet).

Baryta-salt. Obtained by precipitating the potash-salt with
chloride of barium, and washing the precipitate with water and
alcohol. White powder, unctuous to the touch (Playfair).



360
33 H


216
33


59-10
9-03


Playfair.
.. 58-04
9-09


5O


40


10-94


11-42


BaO


76-5


20-93


21-45











365-5 100-00 100-00

The lime-salt is soluble in boiling alcohol. The magnesia-salt,
obtained by dissolving magnesia in (alcoholic?) ricinelai'dic acid, has an
alkaline reaction, and crystallises from the easily formed solution in
warm aJQohel in small lamina?, which melt below 100 (Boudet).



CASTOR OIL. 137

Lead-salt. Oxide of lead forms with the acid a salt which is
soluble in boiling alcohol, and separates from a concentrated solution in
the form of a jelly, and from a dilute solution in needles (Boudet).
Neutral acetate of lead precipitates from the soda-salt a basic salt of
varying composition (Playfair).

Copper-salt. Obtained by double decomposition as a fine green
precipitate. It is less soluble in alcohol than the lime-salt, and separates
from the solution in flocks on cooling. The salt is decomposed by pro-
longed boiling with alcohol, with separation of oxide of copper
(Boudct).

Silver-salt. Light, white powder, soluble in ammonia but insoluble
in water, alcohol and ether (Playfair. Boudet).



36 C


216 . ..


53-33 ....


Playfair.
.... 51-64 to 52-66 ....


Bouis.
.... 52-66


33 H


33 . .


8-14 .. .


8-12 8'52 ....


7-86


6 O


48


11-85 ....




12-48


As .


.... 108


26-68 .


27-36 27'69 .


27-00













405 100-00 100-00

The acid dissolves easily in alcohol and in ether.

Appendix to Ricinoleic and Eicinelaidic Acids.

1. Castor Oil.

Ricinusdl. Dunnes Palnwl. From the seeds of Picinus communis (^Hand-
buck viii, P/iytochem. 24). Concerning its preparation, see Planche (Bull. Pharm.

Transparent, colourless or greenish-yellow, viscid oil. Sp. gr. at
19 = 0-96, constant in different samples (Bouis) ; 0-954 (Brandis);
0-9612 (Brisson); 0-9748 (Brandos & Eeiche); 0-9699 at 12, 0-9575 at
25, 0-9081 at 94, the sp. gr. of water at 15 being 1 (Saussure).
Sp. gr. after separation of the stearin, 0*9369 at 21 (Scharling). Has
a faint smell, and a mild, afterwards somewhat sharp taste. Acts as
a purgative. Without action on polarised light (Bouis & Silber-
mann). Does not solidify at 15 (Bouis). Solidifies at - 18 to a
transparent yellow mass (Brandis). The oil obtained by expression,
but not that obtained by boiling, deposits stearin in the cold (Boutron-
Charlard, J. Pharm. 8, 392). See below. Dissolves in all proportions
in absolute alcohol (V. Rose, Bouis) ; in 1-f parts of alcohol of 36 (Bouis).
Mixes with ether (Brando) and with chloride of ethyl (Pfaff).



Saussure.
C .... 74-18


'Ure.
74-00 .. .,


Lefoi't.
mean.
74-46


H .... 11-03


10-29


11-41


O .... 14-79


15-71 .


14-13









.... 100-00 100-00 100-00

The formula, C^H^O 3 , proposed by Lefort, expresses the percentage composition



Online LibraryLeopold GmelinHand-book of chemistry (Volume 11) → online text (page 18 of 75)