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state by other means, but splits up on evaporation into red rusiochine,
soluble in alcohol, and dark-brown melanochine, insoluble in water and
alcohol.

a. Dalleiochine. Green granular powder, bitter and inodorous.
Contains 58-76 p. c. C., 9'26 N., 6'72 H., 25-26 0., and no chlorine
[CWE^O 12 = 59-2 p.c. C., 10-3 N., 6-6 H. (Kr.)] When heated it
behaves like quinine. It is insoluble in cold, and nearly so in boiling
water, but easily soluble, with dark red-brown colour, in dilute acids,
from which it is precipitated unchanged, of a green colour, by am-
monia or carbonate of potash. It dissolves in alcohol, but not in
ether.

ft. Rusiochine. When the green solution filtered from dalleiochine
is evaporated in the air, there remains a dark-brown residue, from
which water takes up sal-ammoniac and rusiochine, while melanochine
remains undissolved. The solution is evaporated ; the sal-ammoniac
is removed by repeated solution in alcohol ; and the rusiochine is ob-
tained on evaporation in the form of a fine dark-red hygroscopic
bitter mass. It contains 43'51 p.c. C., 6-38 N., 9-49 H., and 40'62 0.
It dissolves in water and alcohol, and is precipitated from its aqueous
solution by ammoniacal lime- and baryta-salts, and by basic acetate of
lead and chloride of tin.

<y. Melanochine. Black -brown, inodorous and tasteless powder,
containing 53*71 p. c. C., 7-45 N., 5'87 H., and 32-97 0. Burns, when
heated, without melting, evolving ammoniacal vapours. Dissolves in
potash and ammonia, but not in water, alcohol, or ether (Brandes &
Leber, N. Br. Arch. 13, 65; 15, 259). On quinine-green, see also
Andre (Ann. Chim. Phys. 71, 198), Kochlin (Dingl. 159, 66 ; Chem.
Centr. 1861, 224).

When aqueous sulphate of quinine is mixed with chlorine axidferrocy-
anide of potassium in succession, there results a dark-red coloration, pass-
ing in a few hours to green, especially on exposure to light (A. Vogel, jun.,
Ann. Pharm. 73, 221). When water is poured upon sulphate of quinine,
in such quantity that a large quantity of the salt remains undis-
solved, a few drops of the solution mixed with an equal quantity of
strong chlorine-water free from hydrochloric acid, and finely-powdered
ferrocyanide of potassium added a pale, rose-red coloration, passing to
very dark-red, is quickly produced : if a dilute solution of ferrocyanide
be used, the colour appears on addition of a drop of ammonia-water
(Vogel, Ann. Pharm. 86, 122 ; N. Repert. 2, 289). Instead of ferro-
cyanide of potassium, the ferricyanide may be employed, and instead of
ammonia, lime- or baryta- water, caustic alkalis, or their carbonates,
borates, or phosphates (Livonius ; Vogel). Kletzinsky (N. Repert. 6,
66) mixes a hot saturated solution of ferricyanide of potassium with five
times its volume of saturated chlorine -water, adds ammonia to strongly
alkaline reaction, and mixes the filtrate with a solution of quinine to
which chlorine-water has been previously added, whereby a red or
violet colour is produced. Instead of pulverised ferrocyanide of potas-
sium, a cold saturated aqueous solution of that salt, mixed with an
equal quantity of water and T Vth its volume of a strong aqueous solu-
tion of carbonate of ammonia, may be used (A. Vogel, N. Repert. 6, 65).



QUININE. 273

The red colour changes to green in. the light : it is destroyed by mineral
acids, and less easily by vegetable acids, but is restored by ammonia
(Livonius, N. Br. Arch. 77, 6; 82, 287). In this way y^^th of
quinine may be detected (Fluckiger, Anal. Zeitschr. 1, 373).

15. Quinine boiled with a very strong solution of caustic potash,
gives off hydrogen and yields a distillate of chinoline (Gerhardt, Rev.
sclent. 10, 186). When distilled with caustic potash, it behaves like
cinchonine (Gerhardt). The decomposition takes place at 170 or 180 ;
at a lower temperature formate of potash is also produced (Wertheim,
Wien. Acad. Ber. 1849, 1, 263). Quinine heated with caustic soda
does not form cyanide of sodium (Rochleder). 16. With iodide of
methyl, quinine forms- hydriodate of methyl-quinine, which crystallises
easily on cooling from solution in boiling water (Stahlschmidt, Ann.
Pharm. 90, 218). 17. With chloride of acetyl and chloride of benzoyl,
acetyl- quinine and benzoyl-quinine are obtained, the former substance
resembling in every respect the corresponding compound of cinchonine
(Schutzenberger).

Combinations. With Water. A. Hydrate of Quinine. Quinine,
dehydrated by fusion in a vacuum, takes up 3 to 4 per cent, of water,
when immersed therein becoming white and friable.

a. With 2 at. water. When freshly precipitated and washed
quinine is spread out and exposed to the air, and frequently moistened,
the amorphous precipitate is slowly transformed into crystals, which
dissolve in warm alcohol, crystallise again on cooling, and give up their
water of crystallisation at 130 (van Heijningen, Scheik. Onderz. 5, 319 ;
Lieb, Kopp's Jahresber. 1849, 374).

van Heijningen.
C^NSH^O 4 .................... 324 ........ 9474

2 HO ............................ 18 ........ 5-26 ........ 5-07

C^JSPH^O 4 + 2 aq ..... 342 ........ lOO'OO

This hydrate forms van Heijningen's Gamma-quinine. It dissolves
less easily than quinine in alcohol, and forms a mono-sulphate which
differs from the ordinary salt, and loses 4*47 p. c. of water at 130 (2 at.
= 4-61 p. c. HO). De Vrij (N. Jahrb. Pharm. 14, 268) did not succeed
in preparing it.

b. With 6 at. water. Ordinary hydrate of quinine. Obtained by
precipitating aqueous quinine-salts with pure alkalis, washing the
precipitate, and drying it in the air. Loose, white, easily pulvcrisable
mass, melting to a colourless oil at 120 (Duflos), and losing its water at
120 130, after which it solidifies to a translucent resin on cooling, or
when carefully melted in a vacuum, to a crystalline mass.

Regnault. van Heijningen
Air-dried. at 130. Fused, at 110130.



6 HO


324 ...
54 ...


. 85-72
14-28 ..


.. 13-46 .


. 14-19


14-27















C 40 N 2 H 24 O 4 + 6 aq. 378 .... lOO'OO

According to Kiessling (Pharm. Viertelj. 8, 339) precipitated and air-dried
quinine loses 3'92 p. c. of water at 100 ; it then contains 7'16 p. c. of nitrogen, and
VOL. XVII. T



274 PRIMARY NUCLEUS CH^ OXYAZO-NUCLEUS CN 2 H0 4 .



150 is, therefore, the hydrate with 6 at. water ( calc. 7'41 p.c. N.). At 100 to
it further loses T92 p. c. iu weight, probably partly volatilised quinine, and melts
at about 196. According to Hanainann (Pharm. Viertelj. 12, 526) , when a perfectly
cold solution of sulphate of quinine in water containing sulphuric acid is precipitated
by ammonia, and the precipitate is washed and dried in the air, a very light powder
is obtained, melting to a glassy colourless mass, and losing 20 p. c. of water at 120.
If the solution be precipitated hot, the precipitate runs together and becomes glassy,
and on drying forms a horny mass, losing 8'75 p. c. of water at 120. See also
Wittstein (Pharm. Viertelj. 12, 258). According to Magouty (J. Chim. med. 16,
244) quinine becomes anhydrous at 60. According to Duflos, the hydrate thrown
down by alkalis loses 4^ p. c. of water on melting at 120.

Crystallised Hydrate of Quinine separates from a solution in alcohol
of 40 to 42 B. on evaporation in dry cold air, in tufts of silky
needles, whereas on evaporating a solution in alcohol of 38 B., or on
mixing 1 the alcoholic solution with water, an amorphous hydrate is ob-
tained, drying up to a transparent resin, which melts at 90 (Pelletier
Caventou ; Dumas). From absolute alcohol, van Heijningen obtained
a resin with few crystals. A hot aqueous solution containing a little
ammonia, yields fine needles on prolonged standing (Liebig ; van
Heijningen). Duflos and Magouty also obtained crystals, the former
from alcohol, the latter from water. See also the behaviour of the salts
towards carbonate of ammonia.

Quinine dissolves in 364 parts of cold water (Duflos) ; in 480 parts
of water at 18-75 (Abl); in 200 parts (Pelletier & Caventou), 267
parts (Duflos), of boiling water. It dissolves easily in water con-
taining sal-ammoniac (Calloud).

Quinine does not combine with sulphur (Pelletier). A solution in
30 to 35 parts of bisulphide of carbon solidifies in a day or two to a
transparent, very firm jelly (Lepage, N* Br. Arch. 97, 240).

Quinine is not insoluble in aqueous alkalis and iu ammonia, espe-
cially when freshly precipitated. According to Duflos, however,
aqueous quinine is precipitated by pure alkalis and by their carbonates
and bicarbonates, so that the presence of acids probably influences
its solubility. It dissolves in 2,146 parts of lime-water (Calvert).

With Acids. Quinine neutralises acids completely, forming mono-
and bi-acid salts. The salts are, for the most part, more easily crys-
tallisable and less soluble in water than the salts of ciuchonine. They
have a strong bitter taste, and frequently exhibit a pearly or silky
lustre. They are precipitated by alkalis and their carbonates, by the
hydrates of lime and magnesia, and by ammonia and carbonate of
ammonia, hydrate of quinine being thrown down in white flocks.
The precipitate produced by potash, ammonia, or carbonate of potash
is pulverulent, and not crystalline nor soluble, to any great extent,
even in excess of the precipitant; the sulphate alone yields a pre-
cipitate easily soluble in excess of ammonia (v. Planta). The hydrate
precipitated from a cold aqueous solution of the sulphate dissolves
in ammonia far more easily than the other cinchona bases ; the
hydrate thrown down in clotty masses from strong solutions of the
salts is difficultly soluble (Kerner, Anal. Zeitschr. 1, 162). Carbonate
of ammonia added to sulphate of quinine throws down crystalline
needles after some hours ; from the hydrochlorate and acetate it pre-
cipitates a heavy powder, which dissolves in excess of the precipitant,
and is deposited again in needles on standing for an hour (v. Planta).
Quinine expels ammonia from its salts when boiled therewith (Ma-






QUININE. 275

gouty). Bicarbonate of soda immediately throws down from strong
solutions of quinine-salts a white pulverulent precipitate (v. Planta),
and from dilute solutions, after some time, tufts of needles (Riegel) ;
but solutions of the salts in 300 parts or more of water are not pre-
cipitated by it, or are precipitated only after several hours, after the addi-
tion of tartaric acid (Oppermann ; Riegel). Pentasulphide of potassium
throws down from boiling solutions of quinine-salts a red turpen-
tine-like mass (Palm). Cyanide of potassium colours the salts carmine-
red (Schwabe). Lime-water added in excess to quinine-salts dis-
solves the precipitate formed at first (Riegel ; Calvert). Solutions of
quinine-salts containing excess of acid are highly fluorescent.

Carbonate of Quinine. The precipitate thrown down by alkaline
carbonates from quinine-salts retains a little of the precipitant, but
is free from carbonate of quinine, since it does not evolve carbonic
acid when heated (Langlois, Ann, Pharm. 32, 126). When the quinine
precipitated from 10 grammes of the sulphate by ammonia is suspended
in water, and carbonic acid is passed into the solution for an hour,
the quinine dissolves completely to an. alkaline liquid, from which
crystals of carbonate of quinine are deposited on exposure to the air
for twenty-four hours. By spontaneous evaporation of the mother-
liquor, quinine is obtained free from carbonic acid. Translucent
needles, having an alkaline reaction, efflorescing rapidly in the air, and
decomposing at 110, with liberation of carbonic acid; they are soluble
in alcohol, but insoluble in ether (Langlois, N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 41,
89 ; Ann. Pharm. 88, 320).



C 40 N2H2 4 4


Crystals.


80-19 ...


Langlois.
80-45


2 CO 2 ..


44 ...


10-89 ...


10-58


4 HO


36 ...,


8-92 ...


8-97











C 4 JS'2H 24 O 4 ,2HO,2CO 2 + 2 aq ..... 404 ........ lOO'OO ........ lOO'OO

Borate of Quinine. A solution of quinine in hot aqueous boracic
acid yields crystalline granules on cooling ; by spontaneous evapora-
tion with an excess of boracic acid, a varnish is obtained (Serullas,
Ann. Chim. Phys. 45, 282).

Hypophosphite of Quinine. 100 parts of sulphate of quinine are
heated to 94 with 6,000 parts of water and 38-7 parts of hypophos-
phorous acid ; a quantity of hypophosphite of baiyta barely sufficient
for the complete decomposition of the sulphate is then added, arid the
liquid is filtered and left to crystallise. The mother-liquor and wash-
water yield colourless crystals only when cautiously evaporated.
Light, very loose mass, having a pure bitter taste. Melts and turns
brown at 150, with loss of water. Dissolves in 60 parts of water at
15-5, and more easily in boiling water (L. Smith, Amer. J. Pharm.
31, 285 and 32, 410 ; Zeitschr. Ch. Pharm. 5, 159 ; J. pr. Chem. 83, 127).



C^H^O 4 ....


324


83-09


L. Smith.
83'00


PO


39 .. .


10-00


'10'09


3 HO


27


6-91


fa. 2-30








\b. 4-60


CN 2 H 24 O 4 ,PH 3 O 4 ....


390


100-00


99-99
T 2



276 PRIMARY NUCLEUS C 40 H 23 ; OXYAZO-NUCLliUS

S nith gives the formula C 40 N 2 II- 4 O 4 ,PH0 2 + 2 aq., and distinguishes a as
hydrate-water, 6 as water of crystallisation. The formula of the salt, therefore,
remains doubtful (Kr.).

Pyrophosphate of Quinine. Obtained by precipitating 1 hyclrochlorate
of quinine with ignited phosphate of soda (Winckler, Repert. 41, 418).

Phosphate of Quinine. Phosphate of soda throws down from cold
aqueous solutions of hydrochlorate or acetate (but not from sulphate)
of quinine, a dense precipitate, which soon turns crystalline (v. Planta).
A hot solution of sulphate or hydrochlorate of quinine, mixed with a
slight excess of phosphate of soda, deposits on cooling a white crys-
talline mass, very slightly soluble in water. After drying in the air it
forms a loose mass, made up of microscopic four-sided prisms. Con-
tains 12-38 p. c. of phosphoric acid, and 4-56 p. c. of water, which is
expelled at 100 (Winckler, Repert. 34, 260 ; 41, 418 ; 99, 20). Dis-
solves very easily in hydrochloric acid (v. Planta).

The quickly formed solution of quinine in warm aqueous phosphoric
acid solidifies on cooling to a mass of needles. Dilute solutions yield
radiated groups of delicate, silky needles, which unite into a mass on
drying. Neutral. Loses 7'57 to 7*87 p. c. of water at 127 ; other
crystals, of similar properties in other respects, lost 15 -3 p. c. of water-
on warming (10 at. = 7'1 ; 24 at. = 15'6 p. c. HO) (Anderson, Ann.
Pharm. 66, 59).

at 100. Anderson.



120 C


720




61-65 .. . .


61-85


6N


84




7-19




78 H


78




6-69


6-81


18 O


144




12-32




2PO 5 ..


142




12-15





3C 4 JS T2 H 24 O 4 ,2P0 5 } 6HO.... 1168



100-00



Anderson supposes the salt to contain 12 at. water of crystallisation, correspond-
ing to 8"4 p. c. The correctness of his formula is doubtful. See Kopp's Jdhresber.
1847 and 1848, 616 ; Gerhardt (N. J. Pharm. 14, 52).

Hyposulphite of Quinine. Formed in a mixture of quinine, alcohol,
and hydrosulphate of ammonia, on standing in the air (How). Hypo-
sulphite of soda immediately throws down from a moderately concen-
trated aqueous solution of hydrochlorate of quinine, a dazzling white
precipitate, nearly insoluble in cold water, dull and crystalline after
drying (Winckler, Jahrl.pr. Pharm. 15, 286). A solution of the washed
precipitate in hot alcohol yields, on cooling, fine semi-transparent
needles, breaking up at 100, from loss of water of crystallisation [4-57
to 4-67 p. c. = 2 at. (How)], into a powder, which is very electric
when warm (Wetherill, Ann. Pharm. 66, 150), Dissolves in 300 parts
of cold, and easily in hot water (H. How, N, Edin. Phil. J. new ser.
1, 47; Pharm. Centr. 1855, 93).



40 C


at 100.
240 ...


62-99




Wetherill.
61-35 .


H. How.

62-82


2 N


28 ..


. .. 7-36




8-30




25 H


25 ..


6-56




6-72 ....


... 6-76


7O


56 ..


14-69




15-14




2S....


32 .


8-40




8-49 .


8-30



.... 381 100-00 100-00



QUININE. 277

Sulphite of Quinine. Dry quinine absorbs sulphurous acid gas,
with considerable evolution of heat, and forms an anhydrous salt
(Liebig & Pelouze, Ann. Pharm. 19, 256).

Hyposulphate of Quinine. When a hot saturated solution of sulphate
of quinine is precipitated by hyposulphate of baryta, the filtered liquid
deposits crystals on cooling (Herren, Pogg. 7, 193).

Sulphate of Quinine. A. Mono-acid. Basic sulphate (Preparation
p. 264). Delicate, silky, slightly flexible needles, or longish lamina?
(Pelletier & Caventou). Diclinic. Rectangular prisms, obliquely trun-
cated (similar to fig. 92), distinctly cleavable parallel to i and t,
less distinctly parallel to m. Angle m : t = 90 ; i : t = 96 30' ; i :
m = 95 50'. Frequently also hemitropic, or rather quadruple crystals
(Brooke, Phil. Ann. 6, 375). Light and loose, like magnesia. Tastes
very bitter. Exerts a left-handed action on polarised light ; [a]j for
anhydrous sulphate 255-6 ; for sulphate with 15'72 p. c. water
= 210-87 (Do Vrij & Alluard, Compt. rend. 59, 201). See also
Bouchardat (N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 9, 213).

At a temperature of 160, it becomes luminous when rubbed
(Calloud), exhibiting a pale-green light, brighter than that of the cin-
chonine-salt (Stratingh), and becomes positively electric (Pelletier &
Dumas). A few ounces of the salt warmed in a silver basin are highly
phosphorescent on cooling (Landerer, JV. Repert. 7, 275). Neutral
towards vegetable colours (Pelletier & Caventou ; Baup) ; slightly alka-
line according to Robiquet, and Delondre & Henry. Turns brown
in sunshine, both in the dry and in the moist state (Leverkohn, Kastn.
Arch. 17, 128) ; when exposed to the sun for 7 weeks, it assumes a
cinchona-brown colour (Br. Arch. 28, 235).

The sulphate dried in the air at 8 to 15, or over oil of vitriol
diluted with 3'2 to 3'5 its volume of water, has the composition
2C 40 N 2 H 24 4 ,2(HO,S0 3 ) + 15 aq . . the moist salt loses its excess of
water when placed over acid of this strength, whilst the air-dried salt
does not alter in weight. When heated to 110 to 120, it loses the
whole of its water of crystallisation, but rapidly absorbs 4-87 to 5-1
p. c. again on exposure to moist air (4 at. = 4-82 p. c.) (Jobst & Hesse) ;
the same quantity of water is retained by the salt dried over oil of
vitriol [or in dry air (Baup)]. A solution of 1 part of the air-dried
salt in 40 parts or more of alcohol of sp. gr. 0'852, deposits on evapo-
ration white needles containing 4 at. of water (Jobst & Hesse).

Millon & Comaille (N. J. Pharm. 42, 377 ; Kopp's Jahresber. 1862,
368), also found the sulphate dried over oil of vitriol at 15, to contain
4-6 to 4-8 p. c. of water, whilst the air-dried salt did not lose weight
over oil of vitriol with 18 at. of water at 15. The sulphate dried
over oil of vitriol at 30 retains 0-93 p. c. ; that dried over oil of vitriol
with 4 at. of water at 15, 6 p. c. of water. The salt rendered anhy-
drous by drying at 120 takes up 39 p. c. of water on exposure to very
moist air for 5 to 8 days, at a temperature of 15 to 18.



40 C


Dried.
240


64-36 .,


Begnault.
64-06


fe crecker.


2N


28


7-51






25 H


25 . .


6'70


6'98




5 O


40 . . .


10-71






SO 3


40 .


10'72




10-75













CJN 2 H 24 O 4 ,HO,S0 3 .... 373 100-00



278 PRIMARY NUCLEUS C 40 !! 28 ; OXYAZO-NUCLEUS C 40 N 2 H 22 4 .

Jobst &

Baup. Streaker. Hesse.
Over oil of vitriol. Effloresced. Air-dried, a. b.

2 C 4 N 2 H 24 4 648 .... 82-86

2 SO 3 80 .... 10-23 .... 9-57

2 HO 18 .... 2-31

4aq 36 .... 4'60 .... 4'31 .... 4'6 .... 4'64 .... 4-66

2C*]V 2 H 24 O 4 ) 2(HO,SO S ) + 4 aq 782 .... lOO'OO

a was dried over oil of vitriol, b crystallised from alcohol.

Delondre Jobst

Crystallised. Baup. & Henry. & Hesse

mean.

2 CN 2 H 24 0< 648 .... 73'55

2 SO 3 80 .... 9-08 .... 8-47 .... 9"3 9'11

2 HO 18.... 2-04

4aq 36 .... 4'09

11 aq 99 .... 11-24 .... 11'75 .... 15'2 15 37

2C 4r 'N 2 H 24 O 4 ,2(HO,S0 3 ) + 15 aq 881 .... 100-00

JRegnault's salt lost 13'99 p. c. of water in a current of air at 120, and no more
at 140.

Commercial sulphate of quinine contains quantities of water vary-
ing between 5'1 and 13 - 3 p. c. (Millon & Comaille). It usually appears
half-effloresced, but still contains 15'6 p. c. of water (Guibourt). Ch.
Link (Proc. Amer. Assoc. 1849, 275 ; Kopp^s Jahresber. 1850, 419) found
in the commercial sulphate 9'8 p. c. SO 3 , and 8*4 p. c. of water, which
was expelled at 130.

Sulphate of quinine does not decompose at 155 (Millon & Comaille).
It melts more easily than sulphate of cinchonine to a waxy liquid,
which assumes a fine red colour when more strongly heated (Pelletier
& Caventou), and evolves purple-red vapours, which condense in the
cool part of the tube. This red substance dissolves in water with fine
red colour, and is not precipitated by acetate of lead or baryta, but is
decolorised by potash or ammonia (Kastner, Kastn. Archiv. 20, 418). See
also Jonas (N. Br. Arch. 17, 287), Wigand (N. Br. Arch. 115, 230).
Burns at last with an empyreumatic odour, leaving at first a shining,
and afterwards also a combustible charcoal.

The anhydrous salt dissolves in 793 parts of water at 6, and in
788 parts at 9*5 (Jobst & Hesse). One part of the salt (crystallised
or dry ?) dissolves in 265 parts of cold, and in 24 parts of boiling water
(Bussy & Guibourt) ; in 335 parts cold, and 33'5 parts boiling (Howard) ;
in 720 parts at 18-75 (Abl) ; in 740 parts at 13, and in 30 parts at
100 (Baup): in 740 parts at 10 (van Heijningen; Cap & Garot).
The commercial salt dissolves in 738 to 770 parts of water at 12 to
15, in not quite constant proportions (Kerner). Dissolves very
sparing 1 y in a cold saturated solution of Glauber's salt, and scarcely
at all in Eochelle salt, so that the solution is scarcely clouded by
ammojiia, or coloured by chlorine- water and ammonia (Mann). The
solubility of sulphate of quinine in water is reduced by sulphate of
soda and sulphate of magnesia, but increased by sal-ammoniac, salt-
petre, and chlorate of potash (Calloud, Pharm. Journ., June 1860, 609 ;
N. Vogel Notiz. 13, 276).



QUININE. 279

One part of anhydrous sulphate of quinine dissolves in 100 to 115
parts of alcohol of sp. gr. 0-852 ; the strength of the alcohol, how-
ever, is altered by the salt dissolved in it (Jobst & Hesse, Ann. Pharm.
119, 361 ; abstr. J. pr. Chem. 85, 309; N. Ann. Chim. Phys. 64, 364).
One part of the salt (crystallised or dry ?) dissolves in 60 parts of cold
alcohol of sp. gr. 0'85 (Baup); in 60 parts of cold alcohol of 21
(Delondre & Henry) ; in 40 parts of alcohol (Cap & Garot) ; in 7'5
parts of boiling alcohol of 90 p. c. (Bussy & Guibourt), from which it
is deposited almost entirely on cooling. Sulphate of quinine dissolves
in 40 parts of glycerin, but not in fatty oils (Cap & Garot ; Attfield).
It dissolves abundantly in creosote at 20, and slowly in cold picamar
(Reichenbach). It is insoluble in chloroform (Schlimpert).

Impurities and Adulterations of Sulphate of Quinine. Sulphate of
quinine may be intentionally adulterated, either with inorganic sub-
stances (such as sulphate or carbonate of lime or magnesia), the presence
of which is detected on heating, or with organic substances. Of the
latter class of bodies, starch-powder and stearin are recognised by their
insolubility in acidulated water, and gum by its insolubility in alcohol ;
salicin, phloriziu, and cane-sugar assume a red or brown colour with oil
of vitriol; the other varieties of sugar, as well as other substances
soluble in water, remain in solution on boiling the sulphate with baryta-
water, passing carbonic acid into the liquid, and filtering, and may be
recognised on evaporating the solution. The pure sulphate thus treated
leaves only a slight residue, corresponding to the solubility of quinine
in water.

Oil the adulteration of sulphate of quinine, see Winckler (Repert. 97, 403 ; Jahrb.
pr. Pharm. 15, 165), Stresemann (N. JJr. Arch. 52, 151), Sckeyde (N. Sr. Arch. 56,
171), Legrip (J. Chim. med. 27, 49) ; with salicin: Peltier (N. J. Pharm. 7, 135),
Bouxlier (N. Br. Arch. 106, 322) ; with mannite : J. Krai (Anal. Zeitschr. 2,
405).

Since cinchonine and quinidine (or cinchonidine) exist .together with
quinine in cinchona-barks, the sulphates of those bases may occur as
impurities in sulphate of quinine : they may be recognised by the fol-
lowing quinine-test of Liebig : 10 grains of the sulphate to be tested



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