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(February, 1512) 329



CONTENTS xxxv

PAGE

1. JULIUS II IN LEAGUE WITH SPAIN continued

Gaston de Foix relieves Bologna ..... 329'

Capture and Sack of Brescia ...... 330

Council of Pisa removed to Milan 331

Battle of Ravenna (April II, 1512) . .... 332

Receipt of the News in Rome 337

2. FORMATION OF A NEW LEAGUE COALITION OF ENGLAND

The Situation in England . . . . . ' . 338

Death of Henry VII and Accession of Henry VIII (1509) . 339

Foreign Policy of Henry VIII . . . . 340

Alliance between Ferdinand and Maximilian . . . 341

Henry joins the League against France .... 342

Illness of the Pope (August, 1511) 342

Maximilian joins the League . . . . 343

3. THE CONQUEST OF MILAN

The Swiss again invade Italy (May, 1512) . . . 344

Julius opens the Lateran Council ..... 345

Swiss Troops abandon French Army .... 347

Retreat of the French ....... 347

Milan in the Hands of the Swiss ..... 348

Bologna, Parma, and Piacenza submit to the Pope . . 348

Alfonso of Ferrara comes to Rome . . . . . 348

4. THE CONQUEST OF NAVARRE

The Marquis of Dorset in Guipuscoa .... 349

The Sovereigns of Navarre allied with France (July, 1512) 350

The Duke of Alva advances on Pamplona . . 35 1

Flight of Jean d'Albret .351

Surrender of Pamplona ....... 352

Discontent of the English 352

Ferdinand gains Navarre ...... 352

5. REVOLUTION IN FLORENCE. OTHER SUCCESSES IN ITALY

Conquest of Pisa by Florence (June, 1509) . . . 354

Account of Cardinal de' Medici ..... 355

Campaign of Cardona in Tuscany ..... 357

Return of the Medici to Florence (September 14, 1512) . 357

Alfonso of Ferrara escapes from Rome .... 360

The Pope makes an Alliance with Maximilian . . 360

Death of Julius II (February, 1513) .... 361

Election of Leo X 361



xxxvi CONTENTS

PACK

6. STRUGGLE OF THE FRENCH AND Swiss FOR MILAN

Conquests of the Swiss ....... 362

Massimiliano Sforza installed as Duke of Milan

(December 30, 1512) 363

Alliance between Louis XI I and Venice (March 13, 1513) 364

The French invade the Milanese ..... 365

Battle of Novara (June 6, 1513) 366

7. GENERAL WAR MOVEMENT

Strength of the Combination against France . . . 369

Henry VIII at the Siege of Terouanne .... 370

He is joined by Maximilian . . . . . . 371

Battle of the Spurs (August 17, 1513) .... 372

The Swiss invade Burgundy . . . . . -373

Queen Anne of France asks Help of James IV of Scotland. 374

James crosses the Tweed ...... 375

Battle of Flodden (September 9, 1513) 376

La Tremouille arranges Terms of Peace with the Swiss . 377

Henry VIII at Tournay 378

Cardona drives back the Venetians .... 379

Defeat of Alviano at Creazzo (October 7, 1513) . . 379

Triumph of the League 380

8. FURTHER SCHEMES FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE

AUSTRO-SPANISH HOUSE
Alliance between Louis and Ferdinand . . . .381

General Truce ........ 382

Treaties of Marriage ....... 383

Swiss Hostility to France ...... 383

Position of Maximilian in the Empire .... 384

Subjection of Friesland ...... 385

Conclusion . . . . . . . . 386

INDEX , . . 389




INTRODUCTION

OUTLINES OF AN ESSAY ON THE UNITY OF THE

LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS, AND

THEIR COMMON DEVELOPMENT

AT the beginning of his success, not long after the
migration of nations had commenced, Athaulf, King of the
Visigoths, conceived the idea of gothicising the Roman
world, and making himself the Caesar of all; he would
maintain the Roman laws. 1 If we understand him aright,
he first intended to combine the Romans of the West (who,
though sprung of many and diverse tribes, had, after a union
that had lasted for centuries, at length become one realm
and one people) in a new unity with the Teutonic races.
He afterwards despaired of being able to effect this ; but the
collective Teutonic nations at last brought it about, and
in a still wider sense than he had dreamed of. It was
not long before Lugdunensian Gaul became not, it is true,
a Gothland, but a Lugdunensian Germania. 2 Eventually the
purple of a Caesar passed to the Teutonic races in the
person of Charlemagne. At length these likewise adopted
the Roman law. In this combination six great nations were
formed three in which the Latin element predominated,

1 Orosius, vii. 34. Cf. Mascow, Geschichte der Deutschen bis zur
frankischen Monarchic, p. 369.

2 Sidonius Apollinaris in Mascow, 480.



2 LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS

viz. the French, the Spanish, and the Italian ; and three in
which the Teutonic element was conspicuous, viz. the
German, the English, and the Scandinavian.

Each of these six nationalities was again broken up into
separate parts ; they never formed one nation, and they
were almost always at war among themselves. Wherein,
then, is their unity displayed ? Wherein is it to be perceived ?
They are all sprung from the same or a closely allied stock ;
are alike in manners, and similar in many of their institu-
tions : their internal histories precisely coincide, and certain
great enterprises are common to all. The following work,
which is based upon this conception, would be unintelligible,
were not the latter explained by a short survey of those ex-
ternal enterprises which, arising as they do from the same
spirit, form a progressive development of the Latin and
Teutonic life from the first beginning until now.

These are the migration of nations, the Crusades, and the
colonization of foreign countries.



The migration of nations founded the unity of which we
speak. The actual event, the movement itself, proceeded
from the Germans ; but the Latin countries were not merely
passive. In exchange for the arms and the new public life
which they received, they communicated to the victors their
religion and their language. Reccared had, indeed, to
become a Catholic before mutual intermarriage between the
Visigoths and the Latin peoples could be legally permitted
in Spain. 1 But, after this, the races and their languages
became completely blended. In Italy the communities of
Lombard and Roman extraction, in spite of their original
separation, became so closely intertwined that it is almost
impossible to distinguish the component elements of each.
It is clear what great influence the bishops exercised upon
the founding of France ; and yet they were at first purely of

1 Lex Flavii Reccaredi Regis, ut tarn Romano, etc., in Leges Visi-
gothorum, iii. I, I. Hispan. Illustr. Hi. 88. Also in Moscow and
Montesquieu, de 1'Esprit des Lois, xxviii. 27.



INTRODUCTION 3

Latin origin. It is not until the year 556 A.D. that we
meet with a Prankish bishop in Paris. 1

Now, although in these nations we find that both
elements in a short time became welded and blended
together, the case was very different with the Anglo-Saxons,
the implacable foes of the Britons, from whom they adopted
neither religion nor language, as well as with the other Teutons
in their German and Scandinavian homes. Yet even these
were not finally able to resist Latin Christianity and a great
part of Latin culture. Between both divisions of this
conglomeration of peoples there was formed a close com-
munity of kindred blood, kindred religion, institutions,
manners, and modes of thought. They successfully resisted
the influence of foreign races. Among those nations which
besides them had taken part in the migration of peoples, it
was chiefly the Arabs, Hungarians, and Slavs who threatened
to disturb, if not to destroy them. But the Arabs were
averted by the complete incompatibility of their religion ;
the Hungarians were beaten back within their own borders ;
and the neighbouring Slavs were at last annihilated or
subjected.

What can knit together individuals or nations into closer
relationship than a participation in the same destiny, and
a common history ? Among the internal and external
occurrences of these earlier times, the unity of one particular
event can almost be perceived. The Germanic nations,
possessors from time immemorial of a great country, take
the field, conquer the Roman empire of the West, and, more
than this, keep what they have got. About the year
530 we find them in possession of all the countries ex-
tending from the cataracts of the Danube to the mouth of
the Rhine and across to the Tweed, and all the land
from Hallin Halogaland to that Baetica, 2 from which the
Vandals take their name, and across the sea to where the
Atlas range sinks down into the desert. As long as they
were united, no one was able to wrest these territories from
them ; but their isolation, and the opposition between Arian
and Catholic doctrines, led first to the destruction of the

1 Plank, Gesellschaftsverfassung der christlichen Kirche, ii. 96.
[Vandalitia (Andalusia). Trs.]



4 LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS

Vandals. The loss that was caused by the fall of the
Ostrogothic empire was to a certain extent retrieved by
the Lombards when they occupied Italy not entirely, for
never at any time were they complete masters of Italy, to
say nothing of Sicily or Illyria, 1 as the Goths were; but
it was owing to these Lombards, who first destroyed the
Heruli and Gepidse, but thereupon left their hereditary and
their conquered settlements to a Sarmatian people, 2 that the
Danube was lost almost up to its sources. A fresh loss was
the destruction of the Thuringian kingdom. The irruption
of the Slavs far into the country lying to the west of the
Elbe is probably not unconnected with this. But the
greatest danger was threatened by the Arabs. They took
Spain at a dash ; invaded France and Italy ; and, had they
won a single battle more, the Latin portion at least of our
nations might have been doomed. What could be expected
when Franks and Lombards, Franks and Saxons, Angles
and Danes lived in deadly enmity ? Let us not forget that
the founding of the Papacy and the Empire warded off this
danger.

If I may be allowed to state my own convictions, the
real power of the Papacy that which has really endured
was not established before the seventh century. It was not
until then that the Anglo-Saxons recognized in the Pope,
from whom their conversion immediately proceeded, their
true patriarch, took to them a primate of his appointment,
and paid him tribute. 3 It was from England, that Boniface,
the apostle of the Germans, went forth. Not only on being
made Archbishop of Mainz, did he swear allegiance, sincere
devotion, and assistance to St. Peter and his successors, but
the other bishops also swore to remain until death subject
to the Roman Church, and to keep the ordinances of Peter's
successors. He did yet more. For a hundred years before
his day not a single letter can be found from the Pope of
Rome, addressed to the Prankish clergy, so independent
were the latter. Boniface, on Pipin's incentive, brought them
also into subjection ; and the metropolitan bishops whom

1 Manso, Geschichte der Ostgothen in Italicn, App. v. 321.

* Paulus Diaconus, de rebus gestis Longobardorum, ii. c. 7.

* Schrockh, Kirchengeschichte, xix. 135.



INTRODUCTION 5

he instituted received the pallium from Rome. 1 These were
the three nations of which, with the Lombards, Christendom
consisted in the West after the Spanish disaster. Charle-
magne also freed the Pope from the enmity of the
Lombards ; he made him the Frankish Patrician, so that
he ceased dating his bulls by the years of the reigns
of the Greek emperors, and drew him completely into the
sphere of the newly founded world. Thus did the Pope
become the ecclesiastical head of the Latin and Teutonic
nations. He became so at the very time when the Arabs
became powerful and gained ground ; his new dignity
assuaged the enmity of the hostile races, and effected a
material reconciliation between them. But they were only
able to cope with the enemy, when relying on the power of
the Pipins and the empire of Charlemagne.

Merit is due to Charlemagne for having united all the
Latino-Germanic nations of the Continent, in so far as they
were Christians, or were becoming so. Egbert, moreover,
who made the heptarchy of the Angles a monarchy, was
his disciple for having given them a constitution suited
alike for war and peace, and for having taught them to
advance again against their enemies along the Danube, to
the east of the Saale and Elbe, and across the Pyrenees.
But all had not yet been done. There appeared on one
side, on every frontier, the Hungarians, in irresistible
numbers, on horseback, and armed with bows and arrows ;
and simultaneously on the other, on every coast, the
Normans, both Vikings and Askemans, alike daring by
sea and land. But at this very time the empire of Charle-
magne perished through the mistakes made by his suc-
cessors, whose nicknames almost invariably record their
follies, so that the danger was renewed. It may be said
that the migration of nations did not cease before these
movements had been repressed. The Hungarians were
driven back, and became Christians ; and at the same time
the contiguous Slavonic nations became Christian also.
All of them long vacillated between the Roman and the
Greek form of worship before and this was doubtless due
to the influence of the Teutonic emperors they decided
1 Plank, vol. ii. 680 seq.



6 LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS

for the former. It cannot be said that these peoples
belong also to the unity of our nations ; their manners
and their constitution have ever severed them from it. At
that time they never exercised any independent influence,
they only appear either subservient or antagonistic ; they
receive, so to speak, only the ebb of the tide of the general
movements. But the Normans, of Germanic origin, were
drawn into the circle of the other nations, and established
themselves in France and England. They retaliated by
carrying Germanic life in the eleventh century to Naples
and Sicily. Their kindred at home had also meantime
become Christians, and, except for an insignificant remnant,
completely entered into the circle to which they naturally
belonged.

Here, then, in the middle of the eleventh century, the
movements of the migration of nations ended. The future
development of the European languages, an intellectual
fruit of these stormy centuries, had now been started in all
its unity and diversity. If we glance at the French form
of oath prescribed at Strassburg, we seem to find therein
traces of the Italian, French, and Spanish dialects all at
once. As this points to the unity of the Latin dialects,
so does the fact that they have been recently combined in
a single grammar bear still greater testimony to the unity
of the Germanic dialects. The foundations of all modern
kingdoms and their constitutions had been laid. Empire
and Papacy were held in universal regard ; the former
represented the Teutonic, the latter the Latin principle of
the great union of nations ; the one supported the other.



After this, the original migratory impulse took a different
turn, owing to the fact that it coincided with a complete
devotion to Christianity. The Crusades may almost be
regarded as a continuation of the migration of nations.
The same people who had concluded the latter, viz. the
Normans, took, in the same century, the most vigorous
part in the first Crusade. Not only were they led by three
eminent princes, namely, Robert of Normandy, whom the



INTRODUCTION 7

old chroniclers place above the supreme commander in
point of nobility, wealth, and even intellectual excellence, 1
Bohemond of Tarentum, whose participation contempo-
raries rightly connected with his operations against the
Greeks, and Tancred; but so many individual Normans
took part in them, 2 that a war which was then in progress
had to be brought to a close, owing to the dearth of
warriors. It may perhaps have been a Norwegian, St.
Olaf, who was the first to adopt the cross in war, both for
himself and his army. 3

The great armed pilgrimages to Jerusalem in the
eleventh century appear to have originated with the Nor-
mans; the successful issue of them is at all events
ascribed to them before all others by Roger de Hoveden. 4
All the Latin and Teutonic nations shared in this new
enthusiasm. In the first expedition we find Spaniards, the
counts of Cerdan and Canet. 5 Lope de Vega has left us
a grand poem, immortalizing the meritorious services of
the Castilians in the Holy Land. As early as the year
1 1 2 1, Sigurd of Norway earned the name of Jorsalafar
(pilgrim to Jerusalem) ; of the other nations it is known
that they also took part in it. Never did a foreign nation,
and only on one occasion did a foreign prince, Andrew of
Hungary, participate therein, and he only did so as the
leader of an Upper German expedition, and he was,
moreover, the son of a French mother. The Crusades
were in the main the unaided undertakings of the whole
body of the Latin and Teutonic nations.

Now let us observe how the Crusades caused these
nations to extend on all sides and in all directions. Their
goal was, it is true, the Holy Land, yet they went to the
coast of the Mediterranean besides, and not to that land
alone. The Latin Empire at Constantinople would, had
it longer existed, have turned the whole Greek Empire into

1 Passage from Radulfus Cadomensis in Wilken, Kreuzziige, i. 80.
* Gaufredus Monachus de acquisitione Siciliae, iv. 24.

3 Gebhardi, Geschichte von Norwegen und Danemark, i. 380.

4 In Hugo Grotius, Prolegomena ad Histor. Gothorum, p. 60.

6 Mariana, Hist. Hisp. x. c. 3. Capmany, Antigua marina de
Cataluna, i. 124.



8 LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS

a Latino-German one. Had it not been for St. Louis' ill-
luck, Egypt would have become a colony of France ; and
there appeared at this time a sensible, and certainly most
instructive book upon the relations between the East and
the West, written with the express intention of inciting to
renewed operations against Egypt. 1 In the year 1150
King Roger of Sicily known as Jarl Roger the Rich
among his old countrymen had possession of the coast of
Africa from Tunis to Tripoli, and occupied Mahadia. 2

But the most important and permanent achievements
in the southern world were, without doubt, due to the
Spaniards. Their Campeador, the Cid, lived to see the
Crusades. In the same period they first succeeded in
holding Toledo and the valley of the Tagus, which Alfonso
the Emperor had just conquered, against the violent attack
of the Almoravides, and then advanced under Alonso
Ramon and took the valley of the Guadiana j (Alonso
died under an oak-tree on Mount Muradal, at the ex-
treme limit of his actual conquests, for all the rest were
again lost). In the same period also they gained under
Alonso the Noble the great battle of Navas de Tolosa, and
set foot on the Guadalquivir. 8 And finally, at that very
time, shortly before the first Crusade of St. Louis, St.
Ferdinand subdued Jaen, Cordova, and Seville, and as
Granada paid him tribute, the whole of Andalusia also,
whilst, shortly before the second Crusade, Alonso the Sage
subjected Murcia. In these days Portugal was founded
and established as a kingdom. The union of Aragon and
Catalonia, the conquest of Valencia, and the exploits of
the Conquistador Jayme fall also into this period.

All this is closely connected with the expeditions to the
Holy Land. The Archbishop Richard of Toledo, who
came to Rome with a host of Crusaders, was sent back
again by the Pope, because he and they were more needed
at home; and instead of leading them against Jerusalem
he now led them against Alcald. 4 We know that it was

1 Marini Sanuti liber Secretorum fidelium Crucis, in Bongars.

* Raumer, Geschichte der Hohenstaufen, i. 557.

* All taken from Rodericus Toletanus, de rebus Hispaniae.

* Rodericus, vi. 26.



INTRODUCTION 9

chiefly Low Germans, English, and Flemish, who, pro-
ceeding on a Crusade, conquered his capital for the prince,
who first called himself King of Portugal ; l and that seventy
years later Alfonso II's most brilliant conquest was only
effected by the same assistance. 2 In short, the conquest of
the peninsula was only achieved by the co-operation of
kindred races. Out of the plunder of Almeria, Alonso
Ramon gave a splendid jewel to the Genoese as a thank-
offering for their services. In the battle of Navas de
Tolosa many thousands from beyond the Pyrenees 3 fought
in the army of Alonso the Noble.

Concurrently with these operations and progressive ad-
vances of our nations on the coasts of the Mediterranean
and in the South generally, there were others being carried
on in the North which were prompted by the same spirit.
Sigurd Jorsalafar, whom we have referred to, made it his
first business, after his return, to land at Calmar and to
coerce the Smalandic heathen, man by man, to embrace
Christianity. With the same object in view St. Eric led
the Swedes against the Finns. He shed tears on seeing
the battle, but did not stay his hand until he had baptized
the Finns in the spring of Lupisala. On the occasion
of the second Crusade, on the receipt of a bull from Pope
Eugenius III, the Danes, Saxons, and Westphalians
leagued together to make a common expedition against the
neighbouring Slavs, resolved either to convert them to
Christianity, or else to exterminate them. 4 Not long after
this, Bishop Meinhard came with traders and artisans from
Wisby to Esthonia to preach there. These three under-
takings led, if not immediately, at all events by degrees, to
a brilliant success. On the west of the Oder the Slavs
were, by the times of the Crusades, practically exterminated.
German nobility, German citizens and peasants were the
real stock of the new inhabitants of Mecklenburg,
Pomerania, Brandenburg and Silesia. Since that time the

1 Dodechini Appendix ad Marianum Scotum. Pistor. i. 676.

2 Gotefridi Monachi Annales, 284.

* Epistola Alfonsi VIII ad Pontificem de bello, etc. in Continual,
belli sancti, Basel, 1549, p. 246.

4 Anselmi Gemblacensis Abbatis Chronicon. Pistor. i. 965,



io LATIN AND TEUTONIC NATIONS

Eastern Pomeranians have always called the Western by
the name of Saxons. 1

In the year 1248, after long struggles, Finland at length
became entirely Christian and Swedish.* Since that date
Swedes have dwelt along the whole coast, and in the strong-
holds there. Proceeding from the unpretentious colony of
Yxkull (Oesel), German rule extended over all Esthonia,
Livonia, and Courland; nay, when the Knights of the
Sword, who had been established there, despaired of being
able to defend a certain fortress against the Prussians, 3 in
spite of a great display of bravery, they were instrumental
in bringing to their assistance the Teutonic Knights, who
then made the land of the Letts a German country. A
short time longer, and the joint possessions of both orders
extended from Danzig to Narva. Here they met the
Pomeranians, who were now either entirely germanized or
partially so, owing to their subjection to the Emperor and
Empire. Here, on the Gulf of Finland, they became neigh-
bours of the Swedes. The German name embraced the
whole of the Baltic.

To the same circle of events belong the operations of
Henry Plantagenet in Ireland. He brought it to pass
that thenceforth two nations have lived together in
Ireland the native Irish, the subjected, and the Anglo-
Germanic, the dominant. The English, if not first brought
over, were certainly established there by him.* At that
time Venice taught the Dalmatians to speak Italian. This
event must also be comprehended in our survey, for it is a
new extension of our nations; and the Pope likewise
instigated the attack upon Ireland, because that land would
never obey him. Yet, in order not to depart from the
principle we have laid down, those two undertakings,
in the North and the South, must principally be kept in
view, which sprang from the same tendency, and were
carried out by the same arms, under the same symbols,
and often with the assistance of the same men. They

1 Kanzow, Pomerania, i. 2 1 6.

* Schoning in Schlozer's Allgem. Nord. Geschichte, 474.

1 Dusburg in Script, rer. Pruss. i. 35 (note to Second Edition).

* Hume's Hist, of England, i. c. ix. p. 281.



INTRODUCTION n

show the unity of our nations in idea, in action, and in
development.

But this principle is most clearly visible in the Crusades
of the South and the North. This stirring energy, the
result of an intellectual impulse, expanding in all direc-
tions, found a fitting expression in noble institutions and
creations which belong to it, and belong to it ex-
clusively. We will dwell on two alone. War may arouse
every brutal passion in our nature, but it is the province of
chivalry to save the true man, to soften force by manners



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