LESTER F. WARD
AUTHOR OF "DYNAMIC SOCIOLOGY "
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS
BY LESTER F. WARD.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
GINN & COMPANY, BOSTON, U.S.
The true place which mind fills in the scheme of nature is the most
important truth to be learned in the study of philosophy. . . . The true
order of development is from the non-psychic to the psychic, and from the
less psychic to the more psychic, and not, as is popularly supposed, from
the highest toward the lowest manifestations of this property. This great
psychic paradox lies at the base of philosophy, and has ever been its funda-
mental bane. Dynamic Sociology, II, 76.
Le veritable esprit general de la sociologie dynamique consiste a con-
cevoir chacun de ces etats sociaux conse'cutifs comme le resultat necessaire
du precedent et le moteur indispensable du suivant, selon le lumineux
axiome du grand Leibnitz : Le present est gros de favenir. AUGUSTE
COMTE : Philosophie Positive, IV, 263.
5 J f '? I 4
What is writ is writ
Would it were worthier !
J'ay seulement faict icy un amas de fleurs estrangieres, n'y
ayant fourny du mien que le filet a les Her. MONTAIGNE :
De la Physionomie, p. 47.
I have sought in this book to set forth two aspects of mind
its cause and its use. But these two are really but one,
since its use is its cause.
Since I put the finishing strokes, ten years ago, upon a
system of social science which I called Dynamic Sociology my
mind at least, if not my pen, has been at work along two lines
suggested by the recognized imperfection of that scheme. I
have been prompted, on the one hand, to build the super-
structure higher, and on the other, to lay the foundations
deeper. In the first of these directions I have not only been
impelled by my own inward sense, but I have been quite
strongly urged by others who thought it was my duty to make
a direct application of the principles of dynamic sociology to
the living issues of the times, and who believed it better that
this be done by one who had them in his grasp than left to
others who might never fully feel their true significance.
In the opposite direction, that of strengthening the founda-
tions, the pressure has been entirely from within, and yet it is
to this that I have yielded, partly because it was much
stronger, and partly because I realized that it properly belonged
to me to do, while the other more properly belongs to that
trained army of social economists, now so rapidly increasing,
who are studying and teaching by the inductive method.
The object of the present work is to determine the precise
role that mind plays in social phenomena. In the preface to
the former one I enumerated five of the comprehensive princi-
ples embodied in it to which attention had not previously been
specially directed. Three of these related to the domain of
mind. As I am still, so far as I am aware, alone in insisting
upon the reality and importance of these principles, I will re-
peat them here :
"2. The theory of the Social Forces, and the fundamental
antithesis which they imply between Feeling and Function.
3. The contrast between these true Social Forces and the
guiding influence of the Intellect, embodying the application
of the Indirect Method of Conation and the essential nature
of Invention, of Art, and of Dynamic Action.
4. The superiority of Artificial, or Teleological, Processes
over Natural, or Genetic, Processes."
I then recognized, and so stated in the same preface, that
there had been "adumbrations" of most or all of these prin-
ciples, but the reader of the present work will perceive that
all I said of them in the earlier one was itself only an adum-
bration of the full truth as I have here sought to present it.
I need not say, however, that I have undertaken considerably
more than merely to expand the various conceptions vaguely
hinted at or somewhat clearly set forth in 1883 ; I have
joined others with them and constructed out of all the data
that lay at my hand what may without exaggeration be re-
garded as a practically distinct system, albeit closely connected
with and directly affiliated upon the other.
Partly to show this affiliation and enable the reader to ap-
preciate, and if desired, to follow out the intimate relations
and connections that bind the two systems together, and
partly to indicate to what extent the leading tenets of the
new were foreshadowed in the old scheme, I have intro-
duced as preludes to all chapters and parts for which they
could be found, passages from Dynamic Sociology embodying,
if not the central thought, at least some collateral or subor-
dinate idea involved in the discussion to follow. In a few
cases I have borrowed such passages from some of the nu-
merous contributions of a more or less popular character
which I have made since the appearance of that work. Some
chapters, however, there are which have had such a modern
origin in my own mind that *io such earlier expressions could
In addition to passages of this class, designed to indicate
the growth within me of the general scheme, and thus by
historical associations to aid the reader in his endeavor to
travel with me along the same road, I have hoped not merely
to embellish the work but in a certain way to strengthen it
by putting at the heads of the chapters in the form of
mottos the thoughts of others that seem to embody or fore-
shadow the principles involved. These utterances of the
poets, prophets, and wise men of all ages show that there is
scarcely a thought or a truth that has not found expression
in some form, and that no scheme can hope to do more than
organize ideas already expressed, and focalize the scattered
light that pervades the intellectual world. At the same time
the rarity of such utterances the search required to find an
expression of truths so vitally important is more a matter of
surprise than their actual discovery, and abundantly proves
the need of systematic efforts to collect them together, ar-
range them in logical order, and bring their combined weight
to bear upon the thought and action of the age. I have thus
sought to make this work something more than the product
of a single brain ; I have sought to make it embody the wis-
dom of the world so far as it relates to this theme. Those
who prefer may regard it as a collection of exotic flowers of
thought for which I have only furnished the thread of logic
that ties them together.
L. F. W.
WASHINGTON, June 18, 1893.
Nature of the social forces and mode of controlling them. The present
work devoted to the expansion of these two principles. Both aspects of the
subject psychological. Mind popularly restricted to intellect and the feel-
ings ignored. Subjective and objective psychology. Illogical classifi-
cations. The causational factor ignored. Practical side of objective
psychology also ignored. An undiscovered faculty. A new psychology.
Theorems to be established.
TWO KINDS OF PHILOSOPHY.
Cosmology and psychology. Leading cosmologies. Metaphysical
speculation. Twofold revolution in philosophy. Modern psychology as
the basis of sociology.
THE DUAL NATURE OF MIND.
The most difficult problems the first to be attacked. Laws of thought
studied before the senses. Will and soul. Epistemology. Descartes,
Berkeley, Hume, Locke. Kant's division of mind into sense and intellect.
Reid and Stewart. Connection between the departments of mind.
THE PSYCHOLOGIC PROCESS.
Indifferent sensation. Perception. Subjective and objective psy-
chology. Specialization of the finger tips for perception. Sense of touch
more specialized objectively than other senses. Taste and smell subjec-
tively specialized. Prof. Clarke's theory of odors. Sense of hearing.
Sense of sight. Material mediums of the senses.
Deals with sensations and their combinations. Intensive sensations.
Pain and pleasure senses. Auditory and visual pleasure emotional. The
emotional sense. External and internal sensations. The sympathetic
system the seat of the emotions. Sensation and emotion distinguished.
Deals with perceptions and their elaboration. Registration of percep-
tions. Elaboration of perceptions. Conception. Judgment. The Pla-
tonic idea. Generalization. Reason. Memory and imagination. The
creative faculty. The primary intellectual process, intuition.
THE CONATIVE FACULTY.
The motor apparatus of the nervous system. Only responds to intensive
sensations. Reflex action. The sensori-motor apparatus. Of the sym-
pathetic system. The nervous system a compound individual. Supreme
and subordinate centers. How connected. The ideo-motor apparatus.
Rational actions. Why often unsafe. Will. Mental physics. The
ORIGIN AND FUNCTION OF PLEASURE AND PAIN.
The mission of science to dispel mystery. The origin of evil. Pleas-
ure a greater mystery than pain. Neither necessary. Death not neces-
sary. Immortal germs. Pleasure and pain the conditions to existence.
Primary sensations intensive. Sense of feeling a means of warning.
Pain protective. Purpose of pleasure. Pleasure and pain not oppo-
sites. Each has its specialized nervous apparatus. Both positive.
Nature has no concern for either. Pleasure means life; pain, death.
Fallacy of asceticism.
NATURE OF THE SOUL.
Reasons for retaining the word soul. Immortality. Always made
capable of pleasure and pain. Denned as the feelings taken collectively.
- The full definition. Why not critically studied by philosophers. Ten-
dency to degrade the feelings. The change in philosophy from the reason
to the soul. The birth of the soul. Its development in geologic time.
The soul the great transforming agent in society.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF DESIRE.
Restraints to motor action. Desire presupposes memory. Man a
theater of desires. The word used in a generic sense. The various
manifestations of desire. Want. Love. Higher cravings. Various
affections. Conation. Desire a form of pain. Love is pain. Desire
always seeks satisfaction. Satisfaction is termination. Corollaries.
Desires the mainsprings of all action. They are the mind forces.
Physics vs. psychics. The psychic force a form of the universal force.
How desire differs from other pains. Presentative and representative
pleasures. Pleasure consists in the satisfaction of desire. Desire com-
pared to itching. Consequences of satisfying desire. Claims of pessi-
mism. They must be met by argument.
THE WILL OF SCHOPENHAUER.
Schopenhauer's two philosophical heresies. Do not follow from his two
fundamental principles. His pessimism. His will. Equivalent to desire.
Its manifold forms. Superior to reason. Primary, intellect secondary.
Schopenhauer produced a revolution in psychology.
REFUTATION OF PESSIMISM.
Pessimism denies the existence of pleasure. Meaning of satisfaction.
The real question. The answer. The optimistic hallucination. Its
biologic meaning. Need of proof. Proof of presentative pleasure.
Proof of representative pleasure. Are the sensations continuous
or repeated? Illustrations. Pleasure an objective reality. Optimism
exposed. The pessimistic standpoint. Pessimism the product of a hos-
tile social state. Its antidote not optimism, but meliorism.
Happiness and pleasure fundamentally the same. Definition. Health.
Why different diseases have different effects. Connection of the lower
ganglionic centers with the supreme consciousness. Contentment distin-
guished from happiness. Freedom from pain. Unsatisfied desires.
Satisfaction of desire. The higher spiritual needs. Problem of greatest
FEELING, FUNCTION, AND ACTION.
Feeling. Function. Biological utility. Perfection as an end.
Evolution as an end. Production of organic matter as an end. Feeling
and function distinct. Their true relation. The psychological aspect
distinguished from the physiological. Function the object of nature, feel-
ing that of the creature. The struggle between nature and life. The
theater of action. The object of man is happiness. Action. Society
the sole beneficiary. The threefold truth.
THE TRANSFORMING AGENCY.
Organic development. Its one neglected phase. Normal and extra-
normal agencies in evolution. Characteristics of the latter. Date of
their appearance. Determined by nerve-structure. Creatures in which
active. Identical with soul. Subjective evolution. Influence of insects
upon plants. Origin of showy flowers. Of attractive and nutritious
fruits. Sexual transformations. Female supremacy. Male supremacy
an anomaly. Taste in the lower creatures. Same as in man. The
developed brain a secondary sexual character. Intellect a comparatively
modern product. A twofold accident. Transformations wrought by
THE DYNAMICS OF MIND.
A dynamic agent in every true science. Metaphysics not a science
because without such. The heart of nature. The head of nature.
Feeling the mind-force. Dignity of feeling. The worth of woman.
Desire a true natural force. Obeys the Newtonian laws of motion.
Compared to physical forces. Love and the magnet. Electricity. The
proof direct and not found in such analogies.
What should constitute history. Social action. Psychologic basis of
sociology. Physical inferiority of man. Great transformations wrought
by man. These unintended by nature. They constitute material civiliza-
tion. Not necessarily progressive. Society not yet conscious of its end.
Individualism. Grounds of social reformers. Arguments of individu-
alists. Social inadaptation. Absurdities of individualism. Social re-
form a constant necessity.
The restricted field of ethics. Conduct distinguished from action. No
progress in moral precepts. No scientific basis of ethics. Ethical
system of Herbert Spencer. The moral sense dulled by iteration of
precepts. Ethics better taught historically. Moral character cannot be
improved by teaching. Demoralizes the teacher. Egotism engendered.
- The moral state a product of social evolution. The moral code self-
enforcing. Immorality to self. Supererogatory conduct. Charity.
The scientific objection to charity. Tips and fees. Alms-giving.
Superficial treatment of ethics. The ethical and sociological standpoints
opposite. The ethical stage transitional. Removal of the necessity for
moral acts. The real moral progress. Its cause. Positive moral
progress. Ethical science suicidal. Liberation of social energy.
Relativity of evil. No essentially evil propensities. Desires, like other
forces, need only to be controlled to be rendered useful.
THE SOCIAL FORCES.
One of the two primary doctrines of Dynamic Sociology. All important
truths very simple. Foundations of the doctrine require strengthening.
The philosophy of desire. Underlying principles. Science of mind.
Sociology rests on psychology, not directly on biology. Force of the term
" dynamic." Its use in the other sciences. It is in subjective psychology
that the dynamic principle inheres. Social dynamics. Adumbrations of
the principle. Its popular recognition. Slow progress of great truths.
The twofold nature of mind. Classification of sensations. Percep-
tion. Conception. Judgment. Other faculties. Subjective psychol-
ogy. The emotional sense. Pleasure and pain. Desire. The trans-
forming agency, or soul. Chief results attained. The three objects or
ends. Mental physics or psychics. Social transformations. The three
objects applied to man. Social physics.
THE OMITTED FACTOR.
Intuition. The human attribute. Effects of the omission. Man not
wholly under the influence of biologic law. Cosmic epochs. The mind
epoch. Test of a human being. The progressive faculty. The recog-
nized faculties not advantageous.
A new application of an old term. Principle of advantage. The direct
method of conation. Inadequacy of this method. Practical devices
of nature. Psychic development secular. Initial steps. Obstacles to
the satisfaction of desire. Advantage of persistent activity. Directive
brain centers. The stage of exploration. Experiments with the frog.
Incipient intuition. Stage of full intuition. Psychic, not parallel with
biologic development. In various animals. The practical quality of the
intellect. The ultimate analysis. Psychic attraction. A perception of
relations. Anschauung. Origin in the emotional sense. The new
intuition is the incipient intellect.
Intellect developed as an aid to the will. Cunning as its fundamental
form. Its practical character. It is a perception of relations. Ex-
amples among animals. How called out in the reproductive process.
Brain as a secondary sexual character. Its exercise in females. Influ-
ence of the maternal instinct. Feigning. Animal sagacity. Examples^
Synonyms of cunning. Indirection the central idea. Manifestation
Shrewdness and tact. Influence of foresight. Genesis of property.
The human struggle for existence. Influence of institutions. Acquisi-
tiveness. Business. Multiplication of the objects of desire. General
ignorance of human nature. The arts of speech and silence. Distinct
from intelligence. Ambition, how realized. Political intrigue and dem-
agogy. Diplomacy. Strategy. Unity of all these types. A form of
PRINCIPLE OF DECEPTION.
The key to success. Proofs from etymology. Deception in animals..
In man. Aided by optimism, Dread of poverty. Concealment of
desire. Of emotion. Disposition to neglect the weak and help the
strong. Wealth a test of worth. Social life favors concealment.
Character brought out by out-of-door life, hardship, etc. Forms of de-
ception. Social parasitism. They are products of the biologic law.
Survival of the fittest.
How differing from other forms of intuition. Perception of truth.
Not a form of reasoning. Mistakes of the logicians. Whately. Car-
penter. Psychological unity of intuitional judgments. Primarily employed
in self-preservation. Relates to the future. Common sense. Popular
Its subhuman origin. Its practical uses. Developed through natural
selection. A protective attribute. Constitutional caution. Based on
experience. Constitutes conservatism. Women as reformers. This
involves no inconsistency. Kind of reforms that women advocate.
Positive -or active vs. negative or passive intuition. The latter involves no
deception. Other contrasts. Twofold intellectual trunk. Courage vs.
prudence. Homologies in biology and sociology. Equal importance of
male and female intuition.
THE INVENTIVE FACULTY.
The intuitive faculty, as expended upon sentient beings. Upon human
beings. Not restricted to these. Primarily directed toward physical
objects. Why the earliest animals were aquatic. Higher requirements
of land animals. Development of the directive faculty. New applica-
tions of it by man. Ingenuity. Artificial devices. Origin of the invent-
ive faculty. Animal ingenuity. Contrivances of plants. Aids in the
chase. In agriculture. The pastoral stage. Clothing and shelter.
War. Analogy in the development of human and animal means of offense
and defense." Higher applications of the principle. Great modern dis-
coveries. The real civilizing agent. Civilization defined.
PSYCHOLOGY OF INVENTION.
The inventive faculty compared with other forms of intuition. Subjec-
tive and objective intuition. The former egoistic, the latter disinterested.
- The two resultant classes of character contrasted. Comparison with
intuitive judgment. Religious conservatism. Conservatism and invent-
iveness inversely proportional. Essential nature of an inventive act.
Close analogy of ingenuity with cunning. Control of qualities and forces.
Disinterested action connoted by the word genius. Objective tendencies
of the inventive faculty. Pleasure in discovery. All labor involves skill.
- Origin of art. All products artificial. Civilization artificial. The
intellect as a transforming agent. Its modus operandi. Repeals the
biologic law. Material civilization progressive. Compensation for the
hardship of labor. Scientific discovery a result of inventive genius.
Distinction between invention and discovery. The latter always useful.
Value of truth for its own sake. Cultivation of inventive genius.
Objections. Reasons for. The main argument. It is the public that
needs educating. Popular ignorance of mechanical principles. These at
least should be taught. Manual training. Education in the perception
Retrospective view. Domain of the current philosophy. Derivative
faculties. The creative faculty. How different from imagination.
Derived from the inventive faculty. The esthetic sentiment. Definition
of the practical. The fine arts. Architecture. How creation diverged
from invention. Absorption in the ideal. The brain an emotional center.
Faculties included. Genesis. Non-advantageous relations. Incon-
trollable phenomena. Causation. Practical basis of speculation. An-
thropomorphism. Mythology. Theological and rational cosmology.
Speculation upon mind. Modern psychology. Recognition of subjective
psychology. Logic and mathematics. Abstract reasoning. Its biologic
inutility. The growth of the speculative faculties as a proof of the trans-
missibility of acquired characters. Speculative genius as a factor of
Phylogenesis of mind. The restless search for causes. Comparisons
with biology. Intellect a psychosis. No mystery involved. Mind a
property of matter. The ontological obstacle to psychology. Intellect
vs. consciousness. Supreme and subordinate consciousness. Does feel-
ing accompany ideation? Intellect vs. knowledge. Subjective and
objective knowledge. Experience. Acquisition of knowledge. The
two intellectual stimuli. Intelligence. Intellect not a force. The
prevalent error. In what sense a cause. Its modus operandi. Nature
easily managed. Thought inheres in all work. Desires are blind.
Instinct as a substitute for intellect. Psychology of intellectual direction.
Conversion of means into ends. The mechanical " purchase." Classi-
fication of intellectual activities. Bodily actions. Speech. Written
communication. Man as a rational being.
SOCIAL SYNTHESIS OF THE FACTORS.
THE ECONOMY OF NATURE AND THE ECONOMY OF MIND.
Definitions. The fundamental distinction. The animal economists. -
Comte. Spencer. Uniformity of natural phenomena. Political econ-
omy based upon this fact. The fundamental economic error. The
omitted psychic factor. Two kinds of economics. Animal economics.
Supposed economy of nature. False idea of perfect adaptation. Cause
of adaptation. Means to adaptation not economical. Prodigality of
nature. Huxley. Darwin. Examples. Views of Prof. Youmans.
Of Herbert Spencer. Of Asa Gray. Progress achieved through nature's
method. Not a rational method. The law of biologic economics.
Importance of certainty. The twofold formula. Nature both practical
and prodigal. Nature's failures and successes. Parallels in the physical
world. Exaggeration of irregularities. Extinct and waning types.
Character of genetic progress. The rational method imitated by nature.
The two methods contrasted. The weapons of animals all organic.
The rational the only economical method. Further contrasts. The
environment transforms the animal; man transforms the environment.
Superior economy of latter process. Economy of time. - Of energy.
Dependence of man upon art. Meaning of labor and production.
Civilization. The psychologic the reverse of the biologic law. The
biologic law. The organic environment. Competition. Does not secure
the survival of the fittest. This proved by domestication. This truth