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The Latin epigram of the Middle English period, with special reference to ms. reg. 17C XVII, fol. 17b-18 .. online

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lilt 27 i91«



University of Pennsylvania



rhe Latin Epigram of the Middle English

Period with Special Reference to

Ms. Reg. 17Cxvii,fol. 17 b -18



AN ABSTRACT OF A THESIS

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OP THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL

FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



\ BY

LEWIS BURTON HESSLER



flUje Collegiate J>reso

George Banta Publishing Company

Menasha, Wisconsin

1916



University of Pennsylvania



The Latin Epigram of the Middle English

Period with Special Reference to

Ms. Reg. 17Cxvii,fol. 17 b -18



AN ABSTRACT OF A THESIS

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN PARTIAL

FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE

OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



BY

LEWIS BURTON HESSLER



tWje <HoUcgiBte Pmbb

George Banta Publishing Company

Menasha, Wisconsin

1916



THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17C xvii, FOL

17 b -18

Scattered through the works of the Middle English period, for the
most part in those of an historical nature, is a large body of Latin
verse, consisting chiefly of epigrams, apothegms, occasional poems and
other brief metrical compositions. These are generally grouped under
the head of epigrams and, except in Thomas Wright's Anglo-Latin
Satirical Poets and Epigrammatists of the Twelfth Century, no
attempt has been made to make a complete collection of such' verse
written during the Middle English period, Wright's valuable collection
covering only one century.

^ Much of the material grouped under the head of Anglo-Latin
literature, that has been heretofore published, has been given to the
world mainly because of its historical interest. The volumes in the
Rolls Series are a case in point. These valuable works, lying as they
do at the foundation of the best work of nineteenth century English
historians, have given an impetus to historical research that would not
otherwise have been possible. This situation is not true in the realm
of pure literature, where the investigator of literary problems acts on
the assumption that he should, presumably, occupy himself only with
those things that have been written in the English language. True,
in the main; but by so doing he neglects much that is worthy of
attention and belongs quite properly in the broad stream of our
literature. Furthermore, he overlooks the fact that for a writer of
the twelfth, thirteenth or fourteenth century, and even later, to use
the Latin language in preference to the vernacular, was a mere cir-
cumstance, for the writers of learned and religious works at that time
used Latin as freely as we to-day use English, and probably spoke it
as easily, also. And as verse was the natural medium of expression
then, we have a great many metrical compositions surviving in the
prose that has come down to us, some, likewise, that were written for
their own sake, such as the epigrams of Godfrey of Winchester and
Henry of Huntingdon.

English writers all through our history have been fond of experi-
menting with the epigram, that most distinctive of Latin literary
forms, but it flourished principally in medieval times when Latin

338268



4 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

writing of all kinds was at its height. The medieval Latin epigram
has, therefore, more interest for us than modern examples, because
it was more natural, whatever may be said of its quality.

There is much Latin epigrammatic verse, however, that does not
exist in published form, and in this category belongs Ms. Reg. 17 C
xvii, fol. 17 b -18, noticed by Horstman in his edition of Richard Rolle.
This manuscript, written by one John the Priest, belongs most likely
to the fourteenth century. The dating must be approximate, because
it depends altogether on internal evidence. The handwriting, which
is cramped and marked by many contractions and cursive letters,
belongs to the later period of the English book-hands. It may also
be presumed that the manuscript comes within the span of Rolle's
lifetime, between the years 1290 and 1349, several of the epigrams
being duplicates or close imitations of some in Horstman's edition.

The writer has in his possession other productions of a similar
character in manuscript form, which he intends to bring together in
a complete collection of the Latin epigrams of the Middle English
period. To look at medieval thought and custom from the angle of
even a single literary type will be profitable, if a sufficient number of
examples of such type be collected. The following transcription and
translation of Ms. Reg. 17 C xvii, fol. 17 b -18 is, therefore, offered as an
earnest of what the writer hopes to make a much larger and, as far as
possible, a complete census of Latin epigrams of the Middle English
period.



TEXT

ISTE LlBELLUS EST NECESSARIUS VALDE SACERDOTIBUS

Prefatory Note

The text has been transcribed exactly, as far as its difficulties admit,
even where to do so makes poor sense ; and no attempt has been made
to tinker with passages that are evidently corrupt. The quotation
marks at the beginning of many of the lines indicate the separate
epigrams, although there are cases where this does not hold true, as in
line 9, for example. Not all of the divisions, however, are shown in
this way; in such cases the editor was obliged to use his judgment.
In many of the lines, especially at the beginning of the manuscript
the cesura is indicated by a mark somewhat resembling the colon.
The lines are without other punctuation.

"Vos qui servitis Christo, servire studete
Ut memores sitis hos versus sepe videre.
Psallite devote, distincte metra tenete,
Vocibus estote Concordes, vana cavete.
5 Nunquam posterior versus prius incipiatur
Quam suus anterior perfecte fine fruatur;
Qui resecat psalmos, vel laudis verba rescindit,
Non magis inde feret quam si sua lingua taceret.
"Non aliter poterit melius caro viva domari.

10 Mors tua qualis erit quam semper praemeditari.
Hie brevis est vita, tu presbyter, atque lenita;
Que mala sunt vita, ne mors tibi sit sine vita.
Vilior est humana caro quam pellis ovina.
Si moriatur ovis, aliquid valet ilia ruina;

15 Extrahitur pellis et scribitur intus et extra.

Si moriatur homo, moritur caro, pellis et ossa.

"ffastus, avericia, torpedo, livor et ira,
Et gula, luxoria: septem sunt ista cavenda.

" Sole credederim non jures vana per quantum,
20 Sabbata sanctifices, habeas in honore parentes,



) THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

Non sis occisor, fur, mecus, testes iniquus,
Nullius uxorem cupias, non res alienas.

"Visito, poto, cibo, redimo, tego, colligo, condo;
Consule, castiga, solare, remitte, fer, ora.

25 " Gustus et olfactus, auditus, visio, tactus.

"Duodecim articuli fidei sic praesunt retineri.
Hii sunt articuli: quod sit trinus deus unus,
Christus homo factus, natus, passusque sepultus,
Descendat, surgat qui scandit, iudicet atque
30 Praemia det, surgant omnis qui sacra sacris dent.

" Confessor dulcis, affabilis atque suavis,

Sit pius et prudens, discretus, sitque benignus.

"Sit simplex, humilis confessio, pura, fidelis
Atque frequens, nuda, discreta, libens, verecunda,
35 Integra, secreta, lacrimabilis, accelerata,
ffortis et acusans, et sit parere parata.

"Aggravat ordo locus mos causa scientia tempus
Lucta pusilla modus culpe genus status altus
Conditio minima aetas et in scandala sexus.

40 " Jussio consilium consensus palpo recursus

Participans mutus non obstans non manifestans.

"Quinque modis peccat uxore maritus abutens:
Tempore, mente, loco, condicione, modo.
Ex istis quinque penis plectetur adulter.
45 Aut hie fit pauper, aut hie subito morietur;
Aut erit insanus merito, vel carcere tentus;
Aut aliquod membrum casu vel vulnere perdet.

"Obsunt doctrine mere trices atque taberne;
Discursus sperne ne sint tibi causa ruine.

50 Discere non pudeat, vultum doctoris honora.

Non male tempus eat, vigilans accende, labora.

"Leges praetendunt defectus presbyterorum,
Quod nimis ascendunt indigni culmine honorum;
Et male dispendunt, praebent exempla malorum;



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17c XVIII, FOL. I7 b -18 7

55 Ludis intendunt, lucris, mensis dominorum.

" Religiosorum sunt hec species viciorum:
ffastus et accidia, murmur et invidia,
Et commune bonum veluti proprium retinere,
Vesci non Ileitis, praelatis nolle parere.

60 Uxor adulterius rea confessore perito

Sic luat admissa, ne sit suspecta marito.
" Sepe rem moveat confessor ne residivet,
Et si labatur, confestim confiteatur
Et vitet causas ad lapsus allicientes.

65 "Qui facit incestum deflorans, aut sodomita,

Sacrilegus, patrum percussor, aut homicida

Transgressor voti, periurus, sacrilegusque

Et mentita fides, faciens incendia prolis,

Oppressor, blasphemus, hereticus, omnis adulter:
70 Pontificum super hijs semper detentus ad ilium.

Abluo, firmo, cibo, piget, ungit et ornat.

Uxor quorum numerus et sumciencia simplicat
Sensusque ipsa conferuntur ad septem virtutes,
Principales quarum tres sunt theologice et quattuor cardinales.
75 Ad actum namque fidei, iuvet baptismus; ad actum spei,
Unctio extrema; ad actum caritatis, eucharistia;
Ad actum prudencie, ordo; ad actum fortitudinis,
Connrmacio; ad actum iusticie, poenitentia; ad actum
Temperantie, juvat matrimonium.

80 "Baptizat sanguis, contricio, limpha fidesque.

"Imprimit, adnichillat, aperit, confertque religat,
Baptismus signum, culpam, celum, bona, planctum.

"ffictus adest dicens nil sacramenta valere,
Vel quia discredens vel non peccata relinquens.

85 Ungitur, induitur, intinctus, lux datur illi,

Ut sint mens pura, caro casta, refulget et actus
"Roborat, augmentat, hoc sacris delet et unit.

Die 'adeo,' 'tan turn' dicas; 'adeo' quoque 'certe,'



8 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

Affirmatione quoque dicas et quantitatis.

90 "Panis mutatur, specie remanente priore,
Et non est talis qualis sentitur in ore.
Re occultatus quare? quia si videatur,
fforsitan horreres et manducare timeres.

Candida, de tritico, tenuis, non magna, rotunda,
95 Expers frumenti, non mixta, sit hostia Christi.

"Per Dominum dicas Patrem cum, presbiter, oras;
Cum Natum memoras, per eundem dicere debes;
Cum Christo loqueris, qui vivis cum Patre, dicas;
Cum memores Flamen, eiusdem die prope finem;
100 Die cum quo vivis cum mencio fit Trinitatis;
Expellens Sathanam dicas in fine per ignem.

"Atque sumenda non est ablucio vini,
Hac turn luce si celebrare velis.

Tres sunt ecclesie partes: pars prima laborat
105 In terris; partem iam fovet alta quies;

Partemque restat clemencior excoquit ignis,
Excocteque patent transitus ad requiem.

"ffrangitur in partes tres hostia fracta beatos
Planum sicca nota vivos servata sepulto.

110 "Non est ungendus furiosus, iniquus, parvus.
Est turn ungendus, si peti(t) ipse furens.

"Natus adulterio, no thus, naucus meretrice;
De concubina spuria esse solet.

"Si ducas viduam vel quam corruperat alter,
115 Post aliam binasve simul tercia coniux
Cognita si fuerit, bigamie lege teneris,
Et si pollutam violasti virginitatem.

"Sive bis ordo datur, seu baptisma reperiatur,
Aut ut sitatur status ordo petatur,
120 Vel si praestetur ut utrumque Symon ap(p)aretur,
Ut dispense tur spes irrita prorsus habe(a)tur.



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17c XVIII, FOL. 17 b -18 9

"Effuge dum poteris, concessisse puteris.

"Effusus sanguis, paries si cor(r)uat ipse.
Hec sunt quae faciunt iterato templa sacrari.

125 "Praegnans, vexati, peregrinus, puer, inveterati,
Pauper, languentes non peccant bis comedentes.
Mendicans, praegnans, puer, egrotans, peregrinans,
Valde senex, operans non jeiunare tene(n)tur.

"Astinet aeger, egens, cupidus, gula, Symea vitis.

130 "Exemplum, mens, lingua, manus, subtractio, victus.

"Ebrietas mentem, loculum vini, lumina, mortem,
Corrumpit, vacuat et subtrahit, orbitat, alit.

Colloquium, visus, contractus et oscula, risus
Sunt fomes veneris; haec fugis et tutus eris.

135 "Hec sunt principue senioribus insinuanda:

Bis sex articuli fidei, septemque petenda,

Dona et virtutes praesertim; crimina septem;

Septem sacra tuo Domino mandata; decemque

Legis, iustorum merces peneque malorum,
140 In quibus erratur quid vitandum, quid agendum.

"Lumine solari nescit vitrum violari,
Nee vitrum sole nee virgo puerpera prole.

"Christus Adam, botrio, lux, mix, scintilla lapisque, .
fflos, fructus, Moyses, sponsus, sol, manna et ventus,
145 Gramen, uvus, apis, fons, margaritaque panis,
Lignum, rubus, odor, radius bernata vel arbor.

"Adveniat Christus iudex distinctus in ira,
Omnis discutiens, commissi lucra requirens,
ffortiter adiungens, tollens in turbine, salvans.

150 "Ignis, vox et ventilabrum, fera, visio, signum

Judicis et planctus, probra, lans sanctissima nxa:
Ista novem memores Christo veniente futura.
*Unguor in extremis ut sit mea gratia maior,



10 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

Et morbus levior, et mea pena minor.

155 "Dum merces reicisque Iesu dominosque coherces,
Ordo clavigeri sacer exit in ordine cleri.

Carnis amicta toga, doceas legis in synagoga.

Ac datur ostendi facto sacer ordo legendi.

Dominium triste dum tollit vox tua, Christe,
160 Est exorciste sacer ordo traditus istic.

Se docet expresse Christus mundi jubar esse.
Huic datur ut cereis gestandis ordo lucernis.

Vas fert Christus aquae la vacr unique manu dat utraque.
Vasi custodem sacrat ordinem praesul eodem.

165 Laus praeter morem Christus cum carne sonorem.

Deus monet illicitas debere cavere levitas.

Curat monstrare Christus se dans crucis are,
Qualis primatus sit in ordine presbiteratus.

"Dat crux lucia cineris, dat chrismata dies.

170 Romanus, Tecla, Bartholomeus cum Petronilla,
Hii cum Nocturno dant sua festa loci.

"Felix, Marcellus, Blasius, Valent simul Alban,
Kenelmus, Stephanus, Osibaldus atque Donatus,
Romanus, Baptister, Firmin, Leodegarus, Quintin,
175 Edmundus, Gresogonus: sunt omnes decapitati.

Responsus praecepturis canitur dum festa coluntur.

"Marci, Marcelli, Gervasii Prothasiique
Ac Septem Fratrum, dormitancium quoque fratrum,
ffestum sanctorum fratrum Cosme Damiani,
180 Nee non sanctorum Crispini Crispiniani.

Hec est vera fraternitas canitur dum festa coluntur.

"Post sacra Samsonis in principio resitata;
Post Augustinum cantetur Sibina semper;
Prothi Iacinthi festo(s) peto iungere debes;



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17c XVIII, FOL. 17 b -18 11

185 Ac post vigiliam Mathei die Adonai;

Post finem Cosme semper legitur Machabeus;
Symon et Jude fo . . . iam iungcto(s) vidi;
Adventus Domini sequitur solempnia Lini.

Nunc scripsi Allyisque Johannes.



12 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD



TRANSLATION

This Little Book is Especially Necessary for Priests

Ye who serve Christ, strive to serve Him so that ye may be mindful
to see these verses often. Sing devoutly, mark the time distinctly,
preserve harmony and avoid affectation. Never begin the following
verse until the previous one has come completely to a close; he who
cuts the Psalms or omits words of praise, gets no more by so doing
than if his tongue were silent. In no other way could the living flesh
better be subdued.

Thy death will be such as to give thee continual food for thought.
Here life is short, thou priest, and gentle; what is bad, avoid, lest
death come to thee without life (i. e., without having truly lived).

More worthless is human flesh than the skin of a sheep. If a sheep
die, his death is worth something, for his skin is drawn out and written
on inside and out. If a man die, he perishes, flesh, skin and bones.

Pride, greed, sloth, envy and anger, gluttony and lechery: these
are the seven (sins) to be avoided.

Believe in one God, take not His name in vain, keep holy the Sab-
bath, honor thy parents, be not a murderer, a robber, an adulterer,
a false witness, covet not the wife of another nor his goods.

I visit, I give drink and food, I redeem, I shelter, I collect, I bury.
Counsel, reprove, console, forgive, be patient, pray.

Taste and smell, hearing, sight, touch.

Twelve articles of faith are thus above all to be observed. These
are the articles: that the threefold God is one, that Christ was made
man, was born, suffered and was buried, that He descends (into Hell),
rises and will ascend, judge and give rewards, and that all shall rise
who give holy gifts to the holy.

The confessor shall be pleasant, affable, and agreeable, devout,
judicious, discreet and kind.



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17c XVHI, FOL. 17 b -18 13

The confession shall be humble, pure, faithful and frequent, naked,
discreet, willingly made, truthful, complete, secret, tearful, rapid, and
marked by the spirit of obedience.

Lines 37-41. The general sense of these lines is that all things
become grievous (aggravat), office, place, custom, etc., down to the
temptations of sex. The connection, however, of 'causa,' 'lucta,'
'modus culpe' in this sense is obscure, there being no verb to give the
proper coherence.

The husband who abuses his wife sins in five ways: in time, in mind,
in place, in condition, in manner.

From these five punishments the adulterer suffers: he either becomes
poor or will die suddenly; he will either go insane, and rightly, or be
bound in prison; or some member will die of an accident or a wound.

Prostitutes obstruct the teaching of the church and the home;
spurn their talk, lest they be the cause of thy ruin.

Do not be ashamed to learn, honor the countenance of the teacher.
Put not thy time to ill use, but rouse thyself, watch and labor.

The laws reveal the shortcomings of the priests, for, unworthy
of the highest honors, they rise too high. They are extravagant, too,
and set bad examples; they are absorbed in sports, in gain, and in the
feasts of their masters.

Ecclesiastics are liable to these kinds of vices: pride, sloth, jealousy
and envy; (and are prone) to hold common property as their own, to
eat forbidden food and to disobey the prelates.

A wife guilty of adultery shall so atone for her misdeeds to a skilled
confessor, that she may not be suspected by her husband. Let the
confessor so manage matters that she shall not become a backslider;
and if she does fall, let her hasten to confess and avoid the causes that
lure to sin.

He who commits incest with a young girl, or (is guilty of) sodomy?
sacrilege, patricide or homicide, the breaker of vows, the perjurer,
the profaner of holy things, the liar, the burner of his children, the
tyrant, the blasphemer, the heretic, every adulterer: over these the
bishop must keep watch.



14 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

I baptize, confirm, take communion, do penance; he gives unction
and grants ordination.

Lines 72-74. The text is corrupt here, but the sense of the last
two lines seems to be that the senses may be compared to the seven
virtues (one wonders how this is possible), three of which are theo-
logical and four, cardinal.

For the action of faith baptism is helpful ; for hope, extreme unction ;
for charity, the Eucharist; for prudence, ordination; for steadfastness,
confirmation; for justice, penance; for temperance, matrimony.

Baptism is by blood, water and faith.

Baptism imprints a sign, annihilates sin, reveals heaven, bestows
good things and assuages grief.

A lie is abroad saying that the sacraments are of no avail, either
because the liar does not believe or does not abandon his sins.

He is annointed, clothed and baptized, light is given to Him; that
the mind may be pure and the flesh chaste, He shines in glory and His
act strengthens and fortifies this (body) and destroys and unites it in
the sacraments.

Say 'adeo' and you are saying 'tantum'; 'adeo' also means 'certe'
and you may use it with an implication of quantity.

The bread (of communion) is changed, though its appearance
remains as before; neither is it as it seems to the eye. Why is its
reality concealed? Because, if it should appear (as it is), you would
perchance shrink from it and fear to eat it.

The (bread of the) Eucharist must be white, wheaten, thin, not
large, and round, (the wine) unfermented and pure.

When thou prayest, priest, address the Father through the Lord:
when thou callest on the Son, thou shouldst send thy petition through
the same Person; when thou speakest with Christ, Thou who livest
with the Father, speak (through the Father) ; when thou callest on the
Holy Spirit, speak that same name toward the end; say with whom
thou livest when thou dost mention the Trinity; and at the end say
(thou art) thrusting out Satan through the fire.



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 1?C XVIII, FOL. 17 b -18 15

And the wine must not be diluted if thou wish to celebrate the com-
munion on this day.

There are three divisions of the church: the first labors on earth;
the second is now nourished by the peace of Heaven; the third is
purified in a gentle fire (in Purgatory), whence lead the paths to peace.

The Host is broken into three parts— (the rest in unintelligible).

The angry, the wicked and the very young shall not receive unction,
but the angry man shall, if he asks for it himself.

(A child) born in adultery, illegitimate, is nothing to a prostitute;
if born of a concubine, a bastard is the regular thing.

If thou dost marry a widow or a woman another has betrayed, or
if having had two wives, a third is known (to exist) thou art liable
under the law of bigamy, especially if thou hast defiled her and violated
her virginity.

Whether ordination is twice bestowed or baptism be discovered-
Lines 119-121 make no sense. Line 121 may be translated thus:
That hope may be realized, let it straightway be held vain.

Escape while you may, lest you be thought to have yielded.

If the wall itself fall and blood be shed, these are the reasons that
sanctuaries are re-consecrated.

The pregnant, the crazed, foreigners, boys, old men, the poor and
the weary do not commit sin when they eat a double meal.

Beggars, pregnant women, boys, the sick, travellers, the very old
and laborers are not bound to fast.

The sick and the needy abstain, and those guilty of greed, gluttony
and simony.

In mind, in word, in deed, in retiring (from life), in mode of living,
(the priest should be) an example.

Drunkenness debauches the mind, depletes the wine-cellar, dims
the eyes and fosters death.



16 THE LATIN EPIGRAM OF THE MIDDLE ENGLISH PERIOD

Speech, glances, embraces, kisses and smiles are the kindling of
love; avoid them and you will be safe.

The following are chiefly to be recommended to the older (priests) :
twelve articles of faith, seven (of which) are to be observed, especially
those pertaining to gifts and virtues; the seven vices; the seven holy
commands of our Lord; and the Ten Commandments, the reward of
the just and punishment of the wicked, in which is bound up what to
avoid and what to do.

Glass cannot be harmed by the light; nor can a virgin, brought to
bed of a child.

Christ (is known as) Adam, the vine, the light, the vase, the flame
and the stone, the flower, the fruit, Moses, the bride-groom, Solomon,
the wind, the grass, the grape, the bee, the fountain, the pearl and the
bread, the tree (or perhaps 'the Cross), the bush, the odor, the bloom-
ing rod or the tree.

Let Christ the judge come, distinguished in wrath, scattering all
before Him and requiring his own with usury, strongly binding (men)
to Him and bearing them aloft to salvation.

The Fire, the Voice, the Fan (winnowing-fork), the Beast, the Sign
of the Judge, the Lamentations, the Reproaches, and the most holy
Balance set up: bear in mind these nine signs of the future coming
of Christ.

I receive extreme unction that my gratitude may be greater and
my sickness less grievous and my punishment lighter.

When thou dost reject the things of Jesus and punish thy masters
(i. e., by thy sins), the holy office of key-bearer passes out in the office
of priest.

Enveloped in the cloak of the flesh, teach the law in the temple.

And the holy order of lector is permitted to be shown in fact (or
as it is).

While thy voice, O Christ, removes the evil influence (of the demon),
the holy order of exorcist passes into other hands.



WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MS. REG. 17c XVIII FOL. I7 b -18 17

Christ teaches explicitly that He is the light of the world; He is
like those who carry tapers and lamps.

Christ bears a vessel of water and laves (His servants) with both
hands. He consecrates a guardian of the vase and, as his protector,
constitutes it an office.

Line 165. The line is bad grammatically, but the sense may be,


1

Online LibraryLewis Burtron HesslerThe Latin epigram of the Middle English period, with special reference to ms. reg. 17C XVII, fol. 17b-18 .. → online text (page 1 of 2)